Ferdinand VII of Spain
Ferdinand VII was twice King of Spain, in 1808 and again from 1813 to his death. He was known to his supporters as the Desired and to his detractors as the Felon King and he reestablished the absolutist monarchy and rejected the liberal constitution of 1812. He suppressed the liberal press 1814-33 and jailed many of its editors and writers, under his rule, Spain lost nearly all of its American possessions, and the country entered into civil war on his death. His reputation among historians is very low, historian Stanley Payne says, He proved in many ways the basest king in Spanish history. Cowardly, grasping and vengeful, seemed almost incapable of any perception of the commonwealth and he thought only in terms of his power and security and was unmoved by the enormous sacrifices of Spanish people to retain their independence and preserve his throne. Ferdinand was ostensibly the eldest surviving child of Charles IV of Spain, Ferdinand was born in the palace of El Escorial near Madrid. The Queens confessor Fray Juan Almaraz wrote in his last will that she admitted in articulo mortis that none, none of her sons and daughters, none was of the legitimate marriage.
In his youth Ferdinand occupied the position of an heir apparent who was excluded from all share in government by his parents and their advisor and Prime Minister. National discontent with the government produced a rebellion in 1805, in October 1807, Ferdinand was arrested for his complicity in the El Escorial Conspiracy in which the rebels aimed at securing foreign support from the French Emperor Napoleon. When the conspiracy was discovered, Ferdinand submitted to his parents, following a popular riot at Aranjuez Charles IV abdicated in March 1808. Ferdinand ascended the throne and turned to Napoleon for support and he abdicated on 6 May 1808. Napoleon kept Ferdinand under guard in France for six years at the Chateau of Valençay, while the upper echelons of the Spanish government accepted his abdication and Napoleons choice of his brother Joseph Bonaparte as king of Spain, the Spanish people did not. Uprisings broke out throughout the country, marking the beginning of the Peninsular War, provincial juntas were established to control regions in opposition to the new French king.
After the Battle of Bailén proved that the Spanish could resist the French, on 24 August, Ferdinand VII was proclaimed king of Spain again, and negotiations between the Council and the provincial juntas for the establishment of a Supreme Central Junta were completed. Subsequently, on 14 January 1809, the British government acknowledged Ferdinand VII as king of Spain, the Spanish people, blaming the policies of the Francophiles for causing the Napoleonic occupation and the Peninsular War by allying Spain too closely to France, at first welcomed Fernando. Ferdinand soon found that in the years a new world had been born of foreign invasion. In his name Spain fought for its independence and in his name as well juntas had governed Spanish America, Spain was no longer the absolute monarchy he had relinquished six years earlier. Instead he was now asked to rule under the liberal Constitution of 1812, before being allowed to enter Spanish soil, Ferdinand had to guarantee the liberals that he would govern on the basis of the Constitution, only gave lukewarm indications he would do so
Senate of the Republic (Mexico)
The Senate of the Republic, constitutionally Chamber of Senators of the Honorable Congress of the Union, is the upper house of Mexicos bicameral Congress. In a senatorial race, each party nominates two candidates who run and are elected together by direct vote, Senators serve six-year terms, running concurrently with the President of Mexico. Special elections are rare, as substitutes are chosen at every election, the Senate is completely renewed every six years, since senators are barred from immediate reelection. This will change at the 2018 election, in Spanish, it is conventional to refer to each Legislature of the Senate by the Roman numeral of its term. The current session is known as the LXII Legislatura, Senators are elected to serve during two legislatures of the Mexican Chamber of Deputies. Thus, current Senators will serve during the 62nd and 63rd Legislatures of the Chamber of Deputies, according to the Constitution, senators are the representatives of the nation. To be a senator, for any of the two principles of choice, you must meet the requirements, Being a Mexican citizen by birth.
Not being active duty in the military or have control of police or rural gendarmerie at least ninety days before the election, not to be secretary or undersecretary of state unless it is definitively separated from office at least ninety days before the election. Not be Minister of the Supreme Court unless definitively separated from office three years before the election, no minister of some religious cult. Senators are elected for a period of six years, corresponding to two legislatures and can not be reelected for the period, although alternately. They are elected by popular suffrage and secret ballot in every state of the republic. They are 32 senators elected by proportional representation, the integration of the governing bodies in the LXII Legislature has been as follows, For the office of legislative affairs Senators integrate in Commissions that are dedicated to a particular issue. The most important committees are those of, Constitutional Issues, Finance, each Senator belongs to at least three different commissions, and each committee shall elect a Chairman and two Secretaries 5 to coordinate their work.
A senator holds office for a period of six years for which he was elected, divided into two legislatures of three years each, from 1 September 2015 is installed LXIII Legislature, which will end his term on 31 August 2018. The time between the regular sessions known as Recesses, there are two recesses that run from December 16 to January 31 and May 1 to August 31. The sessions of the Standing Committee are held in the Senate during the first recess and the House of Representatives in the second recess
Federal Republic of Central America
It existed from September 1821 to 1841, and was a republican democracy. It is incorrectly referred to in English as the United States of Central America. The republic consisted of the states of Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua. Maps and borders hardly existed at the time so locations are only approximate, from 1838 to 1840 the federation descended into civil war, with conservatives fighting against liberals and separatists fighting to secede. From the 16th century through 1821, Central America, apart from Panama and that date is still marked as independence day by most Central American nations. Independence proved short-lived, as local law-and-order broke down, driven by regional rivalries, many localities refused to accept the newly formed federal powers in Guatemala—San Salvador, Comayagua, León, and Cartago were in open revolt. The ensuing anarchy prompted the land-owning wealthy and conservative class to advocate union with Mexico, on 25 January 1822 the Junta consultiva in Guatemala City voted for annexation.
A few weeks General Vicente Filísola, the envoy of Emperor Agustín de Iturbide of the First Mexican Empire arrived in Guatemala as the new ruler. The annexation was controversial, with some seeing the Mexican constitution with its abolition of slavery, Central American liberals in San Salvador objected to this and refused to accept Filísolas authority. The army was ordered to quell dissent, after Iturbide abdicated, Mexico became a republic and offered to the previously annexed Central American provinces the right to determine their own destiny. Filísola turned over his power to the hastily formed National Constituent Assembly, on July 1,1823 the Congress of Central America declared absolute independence from Spain and any other foreign nation, and established a republican system of government. The liberal-dominated Assembly elected Manuel José Arce as president but he turned against his own faction. San Salvador rose in revolt against federal authority and Nicaragua joined the rebellion and Arce was deposed in 1829.
The victors led by the Honduran Francisco Morazán took power and Morazán was proclaimed president in 1830, to appease liberal supporters, the capital was relocated from Guatemala City to San Salvador in 1831 but Morazáns hold on power was waning as conservatives regained control in the provinces. The Assembly in 1838 adjourned with the declaration that the provinces were free to rule themselves as the Federal Republic dissolved, in 1839 Morazán was exiled as rebels from Guatemala and Nicaragua entered San Salvador, evicting the governing institutions that held the region together. In practice, the federation faced insurmountable problems, and the union slid into war between 1838 and 1840. Its disintegration began when Nicaragua separated from the federation on November 5,1838, followed by Honduras, in reality, this merely legally acknowledged the process of disintegration that had already begun. The union effectively ended in 1840, by which four of its five states had declared independence
Mexican War of Independence
The Mexican War of Independence was an armed conflict, and the culmination of a political and social process which ended the rule of Spain in 1821 in the territory of New Spain. September 16 is celebrated as Mexican Independence Day, the movement for independence was inspired by the Age of Enlightenment and the liberal revolutions of the last part of the 18th century. By that time the elite of New Spain had begun to reflect on the relations between Spain and its colonial kingdoms. Changes in the social and political structure occasioned by Bourbon Reforms, political events in Europe had a decisive effect on events in most of Spanish America. In 1808, King Charles IV and Ferdinand VII abdicated in favor of French leader Napoleon Bonaparte, the same year, the ayuntamiento of Mexico City, supported by viceroy José de Iturrigaray, claimed sovereignty in the absence of the legitimate king. That led to a coup against the viceroy, when it was suppressed, despite the defeat in Mexico City, small groups of conspirators met in other cities of New Spain to raise movements against colonial rule.
From 1810 the independence movement went through stages, as leaders were imprisoned or executed by forces loyal to Spain. Secular priest José María Morelos called the separatist provinces to form the Congress of Chilpancingo, after the defeat of Morelos, the movement survived as a guerrilla war under the leadership of Vicente Guerrero. By 1820, the few rebel groups survived most notably in the Sierra Madre del Sur, the reinstatement of the liberal Constitution of Cadiz in 1820 caused a change of mind among the elite groups who had supported Spanish rule. Monarchist Creoles affected by the constitution decided to support the independence of New Spain, agustín de Iturbide led the military arm of the conspirators and in early 1821 he met Vicente Guerrero. Both proclaimed the Plan of Iguala, which called for the union of all insurgent factions and was supported by both the aristocracy and clergy of New Spain and it called for monarchy in an independent Mexico. Finally, the independence of Mexico was achieved on September 27,1821, after that, the mainland of New Spain was organized as the Mexican Empire.
This ephemeral Catholic monarchy changed to a republic in 1823, due to internal conflicts. After some Spanish reconquest attempts, including the expedition of Isidro Barradas in 1829, after the suppression of that mid-16th-century conspiracy, elites raised no substantial challenge to royal rule until the Hidalgo revolt of 1810. Elites in Mexico City in the century did force the removal of a reformist viceroy. The crowd was reported to shout, Long live the King, the attack was against Gelves as a bad representative of the crown and not against the monarchy or colonial rule itself. There was a conspiracy in the mid-seventeenth century to unite creole elites, blacks. The man pushing this notion called himself Don Guillén Lampart y Guzmán, lamports conspiracy was discovered, and he was arrested by the Inquisition in 1642, and executed fifteen years for sedition
Flag of Mexico
The flag of Mexico is a vertical tricolor of green and red with the national coat of arms charged in the center of the white stripe. The form of the coat of arms was most recently revised in 1968, but the design has been used since 1821. Red and green are the colors of the liberation army in Mexico. The central emblem is the Mexican coat of arms, based on the Aztec symbol for Tenochtitlan and it recalls the legend of an eagle sitting on a cactus that signaled to the Aztecs where to found their city, Tenochtitlan. A ribbon in the colors is at the bottom of the coat of arms. Throughout history, the flag has changed several times, as the design of the coat of arms and the length-width ratios of the flag have been modified. The coat of arms is derived from an Aztec legend that their gods told them to build a city where they spot an eagle on a nopal eating a serpent, which is now Mexico City. The current law of symbols, Law on the National Arms and Anthem. The current national flag is used as the Mexican naval ensign by ships registered in Mexico.
Before the adoption of the first national flag, various flags were used during the War of Independence from Spain, the Standard became the initial symbol of the rebel army during the Mexican War of Independence. Various other Standards were used during the war, josé María Morelos used a flag with an image of the Virgin to which was added a blue and white insignia with a crowned eagle on a cactus over a three-arched bridge and the letters V. V. M. The Revolutionary Army used a flag featuring the white, blue. The first use of the modern colors—green and red—was in the flag of the unified Army of the Three Guarantees after independence from Spain was won. While similar to the flag that is used today, the eagle in these arms is not holding a serpent in his talons. Variants of this flag appeared in this period included a naval flag that had the tricolor pattern. The military used a square flag, but the eagle was larger than on the national flag. The national flag was officially decreed by Agustín de Iturbide in November 1821 and this flag was no longer used upon the abolishment of the empire.
The first national flag was established in 1821, the first year of Mexican recognized sovereignty, the imperial government that was set up chose a tricolor flag of green and red and charged with the national coat of arms
Empire of Brazil
The Empire of Brazil was a 19th-century state that broadly comprised the territories which form modern Brazil and Uruguay. Its government was a parliamentary constitutional monarchy under the rule of Emperors Dom Pedro I. João VI returned to Portugal, leaving his eldest son and heir, Pedro, to rule the Kingdom of Brazil as regent. On 7 September 1822, Pedro declared the independence of Brazil and, after waging a war against his fathers kingdom, was acclaimed on 12 October as Pedro I. The new country was huge but sparsely populated and ethnically diverse, the empires bicameral parliament was elected under comparatively democratic methods for the era, as were the provincial and local legislatures. This led to an ideological conflict between Pedro I and a sizable parliamentary faction over the role of the monarch in the government. The unsuccessful Cisplatine War against the neighboring United Provinces of the Río de la Plata in 1828 led to the secession of the province of Cisplatina. In 1826, despite his role in Brazilian independence, he became the king of Portugal, two years later, she was usurped by Pedro Is younger brother Miguel.
Unable to deal with both Brazilian and Portuguese affairs, Pedro I abdicated his Brazilian throne on 7 April 1831, Pedro Is successor in Brazil was his five-year-old son, Pedro II. As the latter was still a minor, a regency was created. The power vacuum resulting from the absence of a monarch as the ultimate arbiter in political disputes led to regional civil wars between local factions. Brazil was victorious in three international conflicts under Pedro IIs rule, and the Empire prevailed in other international disputes. With prosperity and economic development came an influx of European immigration, including Protestants and Jews, which had initially been widespread, was restricted by successive legislation until its final abolition in 1888. Brazilian visual arts and theater developed during time of progress. Although heavily influenced by European styles that ranged from Neoclassicism to Romanticism, the next in line to the throne was his daughter Isabel, but neither Pedro II nor the ruling classes considered a female monarch acceptable.
Lacking any viable heir, the Empires political leaders saw no reason to defend the monarchy, the territory which would come to be known as Brazil was claimed by Portugal on 22 April 1500, when the navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral landed on its coast. Permanent settlement followed in 1532, and for the next 300 years the Portuguese slowly expanded westwards until they had reached all of the borders of modern Brazil. In 1808, the army of French Emperor Napoleon I invaded Portugal, forcing the Portuguese royal family—the House of Braganza and they re-established themselves in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro, which became the unofficial seat of the Portuguese Empire
First Mexican Republic
For the current entity named United Mexican States, see Mexico. The First Federal Republic was a period in Mexican history corresponding to the first time in both and federation were established as form of government in the Mexican nation. The republic was proclaimed on November 1,1823 by Constituent Congress, the federation was formally and legally established on October 4,1824 when the Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States came into force. That caused a severe political instability and violence, the republic was ruled by two triumvirates and nine presidents. Guadalupe Victoria, was the president who completed his full term in this period. On October 23,1835, after the repeal of the Constitution of 1824, the unitary regime was formally established on December 30,1836, with the enactment of the seven constitutional laws. In December 1822, Generals Antonio López de Santa Anna and Guadalupe Victoria wrote and this was an agreement between these two generals, amongst other Mexican generals and high-ranking governmental officials, to abolish the monarchy and replace it with a republic.
Several insurrections arose in the Mexican provinces beginning in December, but they were all put down by the Imperial Army and this was because Santa Anna had previously made a secret agreement with General Echávarri, the commander of the Imperial forces. By this agreement, the Plan of Casa Mata was to be proclaimed throughout Mexico on February 1,1823 and this plan did not recognize the First Mexican Empire and called for the convening of a new Constituent Congress. The insurrectionists sent their proposal to the delegations and requested their adherence to the plan. In the course of just six weeks, the Plan of Casa Mata travelled to remote places as Texas. On September 27,1821, after three centuries of Spanish rule and an 11-year war of independence, Mexico obtained its sovereignty, the Treaty of Córdoba recognized New Spain as an independent empire, which took the name of the Mexican Empire. A minority of the Constituent Congress in search of stability chose as monarch the general Agustín de Iturbide who had led the war effort against Spain and he was proclaimed Emperor of Mexico on May 18,1822.
Soon after, problems arose between the emperor and the Constituent Congress, Antonio López de Santa Anna proclaimed the Plan of Casa Mata, which was joined by Vicente Guerrero and Nicolás Bravo. Iturbide was forced to reinstate the Congress, and in a attempt to save the order and keep the situation favorable to his supporters. However, the restored Congress declared the appointment of Iturbide void ab initio, on 8 April, the Congress declared the Plan of Iguala and the Treaty of Córdoba void as well. With that the Empire was dissolved and the country declared its freedom to establish itself as it saw fit, several states openly rebelled against these changes. Northern Coahuila y Tejas, San Luis Potosí, Querétaro, Guanajuato, Michoacán, Yucatán, Nuevo León, and Zacatecas all disapproved
Congress of the Union
The Congress of the Union is the legislative branch of the Mexican government. The Congress is an assembly, consisting of two chambers, the Chamber of Deputies, and the Senate of the Republic. Its structure and responsibilities are defined in the Third Title, Second Chapter, the upper chamber is the Senate, Cámara de Senadores or Senado. It comprises 128 seats,96 members are elected by popular vote for six-year terms. The lower house is the Chamber of Deputies, Cámara de Diputados and it has 500 seats,300 members are elected by popular vote to three-year terms, the other 200 seats are allocated according to proportional representation. The Congress of the Union has two chambers, the 200 PR-seats are distributed generally without taking account the 300 plurality-seats, but since 1996 a party cannot get more seats overall than 8% above its result for the PR-seats. There are two exceptions to that rule, a party can lose only PR-seats by that rule. Also, a party cannot get more than 300 seats overall, the Chamber of Senators has 128 members, elected for a six-year term,96 of them in three-seat constituencies and 32 by proportional representation on a nationwide basis.
In the state constituencies, two seats are awarded to the plurality winner and one to the first runner-up and it is conventional to refer to each Legislature by the Roman numeral of its term. Thus, the current Congress is known as the LXIII Legislature, the previous Congress was the LXII Legislature, the I Legislature of Congress was the first Constitutional congress after the 1857 Constitution. Early in the 20th century, the revolutionary leader Francisco I, madero popularized the slogan, Sufragio Efectivo – no Reelección. In keeping with that long held principle, and until 2014, on February 10,2014, the Mexican Constitution was amended to allow reelection to the legislative bodies for the first time. Starting with the General Election of 2018, Deputies and Senators will be allowed to run for reelection, Chamber of Deputies Senate Politics of Mexico List of legislatures by country Chamber of Deputies Senate
Although Criollos were legally Spaniards, in practice, they ranked below the Iberian-born Peninsulares. Nevertheless, they had preeminence over all the populations, enslaved Africans. According to the Casta system, a criollo could have up to 1/8 Amerindian ancestry without losing social place, in the 18th and early 19th centuries, changes in the Spanish Empires policies towards its colonies led to tensions between Criollos and Peninsulares. Criollos were the supporters of the Spanish American wars of independence. The word criollo and its Portuguese cognate crioulo are believed to come from the Spanish/Portuguese verb criar, in Spanish colonies, an español criollo was an ethnic Spaniard who had been born in the colonies, as opposed to an español peninsular born in Spain. Whites in colonial Brazil, born in the Iberian Peninsula, were known as mazombos, limpieza de sangre or cleanness of blood was a legal concept in use since the Spanish Reconquista, and introduced to the Spanish colonies in the Americas.
The English word creole was a loan from French créole, which in turn is believed to come from Spanish criollo or Portuguese crioulo, such cases might include the offspring of a Castizo parent and one Peninsular or Criollo parent. This one-eighth rule, in theory, did not apply to African admixture, in reality, officials assigned various racial categories to mix-raced people depending on their social status, what they were told or due to testimony from friends and neighbors. To preserve the Spanish Crowns power in the colonies, the Spanish colonial society was based on a caste system. The highest-ranking castes were the españoles, Spaniards by birth or descent, people of mixed ancestry were classified in other castes — such as castizos, cholos, indios and enslaved Africans, called blacks. Poole argues that the Virgin Mary, especially as Our Lady of Guadalupe and they used the story to legitimize their own social position and infuse it with an almost messianic sense of mission and identity. Until 1760, the Spanish colonies were ruled under laws designed by the Spanish Habsburgs and that situation changed by the Bourbon Reforms during the reign of Charles III.
Spain needed to extract increasing wealth from its colonies to support the European, the Crown expanded the privileges of the Peninsulares, who took over many administrative offices which had been filled by Criollos. At the same time, reforms by the Catholic Church reduced the roles and privileges of the ranks of the clergy. By the 19th century, this policy of the Spanish Crown. With increasing support of the castes, they engaged Spain in a fight for independence. The former Spanish Empire in the Americas separated into a number of independent republics, the word criollo retains its original meaning in most Spanish-speaking countries in the Americas. In some countries, the word criollo has over time come to have additional meanings, for instance, comida criolla in Spanish-speaking countries refers to local cuisine, not cuisine of the criollos
Coat of arms of Mexico
The current coat of arms of Mexico has been an important symbol of Mexican politics and culture for centuries. The coat of arms depicts a Mexican golden eagle perched on a prickly pear cactus devouring a rattlesnake, to the people of Tenochtitlan this would have strong religious connotations, but to the Europeans, it would come to symbolize the triumph of good over evil. The Seal of the United Mexican States is the used by the government of Mexico in any official documents issued by the federal. Current and past Mexican peso coinage have had the engraved on the obverse of all denominations. The Mexican coat of arms is very important to the people of Mexico. The coat of arms recalls the founding of Mexico City, called Tenochtitlan, the legend of Tenochtitlan as shown in the original Mexica codices and post-Cortesian codices, does not include a snake. In the text by Chimalpahin Cuauhtlehuanitzin, the eagle is devouring something, still other versions show the eagle clutching the Aztec symbol of war, the Atl-Tlachinolli glyph, or burning water.
Moreover, the meanings of the symbols were different in numerous aspects. The eagle was a representation of the sun god Huitzilopochtli, who was very important, the cactus, full of its fruits, called nochtli in Nahuatl, represent the island of Tenochtitlan. To the Mexicas, the snake represented wisdom, and it had strong connotations with the god Quetzalcoatl, the story of the snake was derived from an incorrect translation of the Crónica mexicáyotl by Fernando Alvarado Tezozómoc. In the story, the Nahuatl text ihuan cohuatl izomocayan, the snake hisses, was mistranslated as the snake is torn. Based on this, Father Diego Durán reinterpreted the legend so that the eagle represents all that is good and right, while the snake represents evil, despite its inaccuracy, the new legend was adopted because it conformed with European heraldic tradition. To the Europeans it would represent the struggle between good and evil, in 1960, the Mexican ornithologist Rafael Martín del Campo identified the eagle in the pre-Hispanic codex as the northern caracara or quebrantahuesos, a species common in Mexico.
The golden eagle is considered the bird of Mexico. When Father Duran introduced the snake, it was originally an aquatic serpent, but in 1917, the serpent was portrayed as a rattlesnake, because it was more common than the aquatic varieties in pre-Hispanic illustrations. On another level, it one of the most important cosmological beliefs of the Aztec culture. The emblem shows an eagle devouring a serpent, which actually is in conflict with Mesoamerican belief, the eagle is a symbol of the sun and a representation of the victorious god Huitzilopochtli, in which form, according to legend, bowed to the arriving Aztecs. In some codices, the eagle holds the glyph for war to represent the victorious Huitzilopochtli and this glyph, the Atl tlachinolli, which means water and flame, has a certain resemblance with a snake, and may plausibly be the origin of this confusion. With the element, the element of the moon, it recalls the mythology of the god