Alexei Ivanovich Abrikosov
Alexei Ivanovich Abrikosov was a Russian/Soviet pathologist and a member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences and the Soviet Academy of Medical Sciences. Alexei Abrikosov was born into a wealthy family of factory owners, who were the official suppliers of chocolate confections to the Russian Imperial Court, his grandfather was the industrialist Aleksei Ivanovich Abrikosov, the founder of the company now known as Babayevsky. His father, Ivan Alekseievich Abrikosov, was expected to take over the family firm until his premature death from tuberculosis, his siblings included future Tsarist diplomat Dmitrii Abrikosov and future Catholic Sainthood Candidate Anna Abrikosova. Although the younger members of the family attended Divine Liturgy, the Abrikosovs regarded themselves as pillars of the Russian Orthodox Church. Abrokosov published works on the subject of the pathological morphology of tuberculosis and tumors, including the neuroectodermal tumor; this was described by Abrikosov as "myoblastomyoma."
Based upon his work, this type of tumor was named "Abrikosov's tumor". He was the author of a multi-volume handbook in special pathology. On the morning of January 23, 1924, Abrikosov was given the task of embalming Lenin’s body to keep it intact until his burial; the body is still on permanent display in the Lenin Mausoleum in Moscow. Alexei Abrikosov was the father of Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov, a theoretical physicist and a co-recipient of the 2003 Nobel Prize in Physics. Alexei Abrikosov is believed to be the inspiration for Professor Persikov, the protagonist of Mikhail Bulgakov's novel Fatal Eggs; the character's name is a pun, as, in Russian, abrikos means "apricot" and persik means "peach". Stalin Prize, first class - for scientific study "Private pathological anatomy. Part II: The heart and blood vessels", published in late 1940. Two Orders of Lenin Order of the Red Banner of Labour Hero of Socialist Labour Imperial Moscow University: 1755-1917: encyclopedic dictionary. Moscow: Russian political encyclopedia.
A. Andreev, D. Tsygankov. 2010. P. 11. ISBN 978-5-8243-1429-8
Sergey Petrovich Botkin was a famous Russian clinician and activist, one of the founders of modern Russian medical science and education. He introduced triage, pathological anatomy, post mortem diagnostics into Russian medical practice. Botkin was born on 5 September 1832, in Moscow to the family of famous Russian tea tradesmen. First steps towards education the boy made in the private school of Ennes. In 1850 Botkin was admitted to Moscow State University. In 1855 Sergey Botkin graduated from the university with honors and received a Doctor of Medicine degree. Shortly afterwards however he was mobilized as a conscript, designated to serve as military surgeon and sent straight to Sevastopol, where the Crimean War was in full swing. There Botkin worked under the guidance of Nikolay Pirogov recognized as a pioneer of field surgery. Pirogov is known for performing the first operation under anesthesia on the battlefield at the time. Upon the end of his military service, Botkin received a flattering review from his supervisor.
He subsequently went abroad, seeking to improve his skills and was able to gain valuable professional experience working at some of the most prestigious institutions on the continent. Upon his return to Russia, Botkin was invited to work with professor Shipulinsky in the Academy of Medicine and Surgery, the following year Botkin took Shipulinsky’s position at the age of 29. In 1860–1861, Sergey Botkin opened a clinical and research laboratory and in the course of his research organized systematic studies in clinical pharmacology and experimental therapy, both novelties in Russian research at the time, he was the first to suggest. In early 1860s, Botkin was assigned as an advising member of the medical board of the Imperial Ministry of Internal Affairs. In 1873 he was made Head Surgeon to the Emperor, having been among the court physicians for both Tsar Alexander II and Tsar Alexander III. Furthermore, the same year he was elected president of the Medical Association of St. Petersburg. In 1886, Botkin headed the National Public Health Commission, created to investigate the unusually high mortality rates prevalent in Russia, both in times of peace and war.
Botkin Hospital is named after him. Family Botkin was married to A. A. Krylova, relative of Alexey Krylov, his brother Vasily was a prominent writer and his brother Mikhail was a painter and well-known art collector. His son, Dr. Eugene Botkin, was murdered with Nicholas II and the Tsar's family July 16/17, 1918 by the Bolsheviks. Sergey Petrovich Botkin died on 12 December 1889, in Menton, from liver disease, complicated by a heart ailment. Imperial Moscow University: 1755-1917: encyclopedic dictionary. Moscow: Russian political encyclopedia. A. Andreev, D. Tsygankov. 2010. Pp. 91–93. ISBN 978-5-8243-1429-8. Beliaeva, V S. "". Экспериментальная и клиническая гастроэнтерология, Experimental & Clinical Gastroenterology: 152–154. PMID 18389612. Bio Biography Biography Encyclopedia
Russian Academy of Sciences
The Russian Academy of Sciences consists of the national academy of Russia. Headquartered in Moscow, the Academy is considered a civil, self-governed, non-commercial organization chartered by the Government of Russia, it combines scientists employed by institutions. Near the central academy building there is a monument to Yuri Gagarin in the square bearing his name; as of November 2017, the Academy included other units. There are three types of membership in the RAS: full members, corresponding members, foreign members. Academicians and corresponding members must be citizens of the Russian Federation. However, some academicians and corresponding members were elected before the collapse of the USSR and are now citizens of other countries. Members of RAS are elected based on their scientific contributions – election to membership is considered prestigious. In the years 2005–2012, the academy had 500 full and 700 corresponding members, but in 2013, after the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences and the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences became incorporated into the RAS, a number of the RAS members accordingly increased.
The last elections to the renewed Russian Academy of Sciences were organized in October 2016. In the beginning of April 2019, the Academy had 460 foreign members. Since 2015, the Academy awards, on a competitive basis, the honorary scientific rank of a RAS Professor to the top-level researchers with Russian citizenship. Now there are 605 scientists with this rank. RAS professorship is not a membership type but its holders are considered as possible candidates for membership; the RAS consists of 13 specialized scientific divisions, three territorial branches and 15 regional scientific centers. The Academy has numerous councils and commissions, all organized for different purposes. Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences The Siberian Branch was established in 1957, with Mikhail Lavrentyev as founding chairman. Research centers are in Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk, Yakutsk, Ulan-Ude, Kemerovo and Omsk; as of end-2017, the Branch employed over 12,500 scientific researchers, 211 of whom were members of the Academy.
Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences The Ural Branch was established in 1932, with Aleksandr Fersman as its founding chairman. Research centers are in Yekaterinburg, Cheliabinsk, Orenburg and Syktyvkar; as of 2016, 112 Ural scientists were members of the Academy. Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences The Far East Branch includes the Primorsky Scientific Center in Vladivostok, the Amur Scientific Center in Blagoveschensk, the Khabarovsk Scientific Center, the Sakhalin Scientific Center in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, the Kamchatka Scientific Center in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, the North-Eastern Scientific Center in Magadan, the Far East Regional Agriculture Center in Ussuriysk and several Medical institutions; as of 2017, there were 64 Academy members in the Branch. Kazan Scientific Center Pushchino Scientific Center Samara Scientific Center Saratov Scientific Center Vladikavkaz Scientific Center of the RAS and the Government of the Republic Alania- Northern Ossetia Dagestan Scientific Center Kabardino-Balkarian Scientific Center Karelian Research Centre of RAS Kola Scientific Center Nizhny Novgorod Center Science Scientific of the RAS in Chernogolovka St. Petersburg Scientific Center Ufa Scientific Center Southern Scientific Center Troitsk Scientific Center The Russian Academy of Sciences comprises a large number of research institutions, including: Member institutions are linked via a dedicated Russian Space Science Internet.
Started with just three members, The RSSI now has 3,100 members, including 57 from the largest research institutions. Russian universities and technical institutes are not under the supervision of the RAS, but a number of leading universities, such as Moscow State University, St. Petersburg State University, Novosibirsk State University, the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, make use of the staff and facilities of many institutes of the RAS. From 1933 to 1992, the main scientific journal of the Soviet Academy of Sciences was the Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences; the Academy is increasing its presence in the educational area. In 1990 the Higher Chemical College of the Russian Academy of Sciences was founded, a specialized university intended to provide extensive opportunities for students to choose an academic path; the Academy gives out a number of different prizes and awards among which: The Emperor Peter the Great and advised by Gottfried Leibniz, founded the Academy in Saint Petersburg.
Called The Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences (Russian
Moscow State University
Moscow State University is a coeducational and public research university located in Moscow, Russia. It was founded on 23 January 1755 by Mikhail Lomonosov. MSU was renamed after Lomonosov in 1940 and was known as Lomonosov University, it houses the tallest educational building in the world. Its current rector is Viktor Sadovnichiy. According to the 2018 QS World University Rankings, it is the highest-ranking Russian educational institution and is considered the most prestigious university in the former Soviet Union. Ivan Shuvalov and Mikhail Lomonosov promoted the idea of a university in Moscow, Russian Empress Elizabeth decreed its establishment on 23 January 1755; the first lectures were given on 7 May. Russians still celebrate 25 January as Students' Day. Saint Petersburg State University and Moscow State University engage in friendly rivalry over the title of Russia's oldest university. Though Moscow State University was founded in 1755, its competitor in St. Petersburg has had a continuous existence as a "university" since 1819 and sees itself as the successor of an academy established on 24 January 1724, by a decree of Peter the Great.
The present Moscow State University occupied the Principal Medicine Store on Red Square from 1755 to 1787. Catherine the Great transferred the University to a Neoclassical building on the other side of Mokhovaya Street. In the 18th century, the University had three departments: philosophy and law. A preparatory college was affiliated with the University until its abolition in 1812. In 1779, Mikhail Kheraskov founded a boarding school for noblemen which in 1830 became a gymnasium for the Russian nobility; the university press, run by Nikolay Novikov in the 1780s, published the most popular newspaper in Imperial Russia: Moskovskie Vedomosti. In 1804, medical education split into clinical and obstetrics faculties. During 1884–1897, the Department of Medicine—supported by private donations, the municipal and imperial governments—built an extensive, 1.6-kilometer-long, state-of-the-art medical campus in Devichye Pole, between the Garden Ring and Novodevichy Convent. The campus, medical education in general, were separated from the Moscow University in 1930.
Devichye Pole was operated by the independent I. M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University and by various other state and private institutions; the roots of student unrest in the University reach deep into the nineteenth century. In 1905, a social-democratic organization emerged at the University and called for the overthrow of the Czarist government and the establishment of a republic in Russia; the imperial government threatened to close the University. In 1911, in a protest over the introduction of troops onto the campus and mistreatment of certain professors, 130 scientists and professors resigned en masse, including such prominent men as Nikolay Dimitrievich Zelinskiy, Pyotr Nikolaevich Lebedev, Sergei Alekseevich Chaplygin. After the October Revolution of 1917, the institution began to admit the children of the proletariat and peasantry. In 1919, the University abolished fees for tuition and established a preparatory facility to help working-class children prepare for entrance examinations.
During the implementation of Joseph Stalin's first five-year plan, prisoners from the Gulag were forced to construct parts of the newly expanded University. After 1991, nine new faculties were established; the following year, the University gained a unique status: it is funded directly from the state budget, thus providing the University a significant level of independence. On 6 September 1997, the French electronic musician Jean Michel Jarre, whom the mayor of Moscow had specially invited to perform, used the entire front facade of the University as the backdrop for a concert: the frontage served as a giant projection screen, with fireworks and searchlights all launched from various points around the building; the stage stood directly in front of the building, the concert, entitled "The Road To The 21st Century" in Russia but renamed "Oxygen In Moscow" for worldwide release in video/DVD, attracted a world-record crowd of 3.5 million people. On 19 March 2008, Russia's most powerful supercomputer to date, the SKIF MSU was launched at the University.
Its peak performance of 60 TFLOPS makes it the fastest supercomputer in the Commonwealth of Independent States. Since 1953, most of the faculties have been situated on Sparrow Hills, in the southwest of Moscow, 5 km from the city centre; the main building was designed by architect Lev Vladimirovich Rudnev. In the post-war era, Joseph Stalin ordered seven huge tiered neoclassic towers to be built around the city, it was built using Gulag labour. Located on Moscow's outskirts at the time of its construction, the location of the main building is now about half-way between the center of Moscow a
Nikolai Vasilyevich Sklifosovsky was a Ukrainian surgeon and physiologist of Moldavian origin. He was born near the town of Dubasari, now in Transnistria. Sklifosovsky was a professor of medicine in Saint Kiev. Professor of the Department of Surgical Clinic, Medical Faculty of the Imperial Moscow University; the initiator and one of the founders of the «Clinical Town» at Devichye Pole. The Moscow Institute of Emergency First Aid abbreviated as Sklif, bears his name since 1923. In 2001, the Central Bank of Transnistria minted a silver coin honoring this native of today's Transnistria, as part of a series of memorable coins called The Outstanding People of Pridnestrovie
A rector is a senior official in an educational institution, can refer to an official in either a university or a secondary school. Outside the English-speaking world the rector is the most senior official in a university, whilst in the United States the most senior official is referred to as President and in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth of Nations the most senior official is the Chancellor, whose office is ceremonial and titular; the term and office of a rector can be referred to as a rectorate. The title is used in universities in Europe, and is common in Latin American countries. It is used in Brunei, Russia, the Philippines, Indonesia and the Middle East. In the ancient universities of Scotland the office is sometimes referred to as Lord Rector, is the third most senior official, is responsible for chairing the University Court; the head of a university in Germany is called a president, rector magnificus or rectrix magnifica, as in some Belgian universities. In Dutch universities, the rector magnificus is the most publicly prominent member of the board, responsible for the scientific agenda of the university.
In the Netherlands, the rector is, not the chair of the university board. The chair has, in the most influence over the management of the University. In some countries, including Germany, the position of head teacher in secondary schools is designated as rector. In the Netherlands, the terms "rector" and "conrector" are used for high school directors; this is the case in some Maltese secondary schools. In the Scandinavian countries, the head of a university or a gymnasium is called a rektor. In Sweden and Norway, this term is used for the heads of primary schools. In Finland, the head of a primary school or secondary schools is called a rector provided the school is of sufficient size in terms of faculty and students, otherwise the title is headmaster; the head of some Finnish universities is called chancellor. In the Iberian Peninsula, Portugal's and Spain's university heads or presidents have the title; those universities whose foundation has been approved by the Pope, as e.g. the rector of the University of Coimbra, the oldest Portuguese university, is referred to as Magnífico Reitor.
The others are referred to as Excelentíssimo Senhor Reitor. In Spain, all Rectors must be addressed as Señor Rector Magnífico according to the law, but the Rector of the University of Salamanca, the oldest on the Iberian Peninsula, is styled according to academic protocol as Excelentísimo y Ilustrísimo Señor Profesor Doctor Don, Rector Magnífico de la Universidad de Salamanca. In a few "Crown lands" of the Austrian Empire, one seat in the Landtag was reserved for the rector of the capital's university, notably: Graz in Steiermark, Innsbruck in Tirol, Wien in Nieder-Österreich. Today Austrian universities are headed by a Rectorate consisting of one Rector and 3-5 additional Vizerectors; the Rector is the CEO of the university. The heads of Czech universities are called the rektor; the rector acts in the name of the university and decides the university's affairs unless prohibited by law. The rector is nominated by the University Academic Senate and appointed by the President of the Czech Republic.
The nomination must be agreed by a simple majority of all senators, while a dismissal must be agreed by at least three fifths of all senators. The vote to elect or repeal a rector is secret; the term of office is four years and a person may hold it for at most two consecutive terms. The rector appoints vice-rectors. Rectors' salaries are determined directly by the Minister of Education. Among the most important rectors of Czech universities were reformer Jan Hus, physician Jan Jesenius and representative of Enlightenment Josef Vratislav Monse. Jiřina Popelová became the first female Rector in 1950; the rectors are addressed "Your Magnificence Rector". In Danish, rektor is the title used in referring to the heads of universities, schools of commerce and construction, etc. Rektor may be used for the head of any educational institution above the primary school level, where the head is referred to as a'skoleinspektør'. In universities, the second-ranked official of governance is known as prorektor. Most English universities are formally headed by "chancellors".
In a few colleges, the equivalent person is called a "president", "provost", or "warden". At two Oxford colleges, Lincoln College and Exeter College, the head is called "rector". At Oxford and Cambridge, the university's overall head is called "chancellor", but this is chiefly a ceremonial position while the academic head of each university is the "vice-chancellor". At St Chad's College, one of the two so-called "recognised colleges" of the University of Durham, there is a "rector" as titular head while the academic head is the "principal"; the University of London has a chancellor (a
Devichye Pole is a historical medical campus, built between 1887 and 1897 in Khamovniki District of Moscow, Russia, to the master plan of Konstantin Bykovski. It is located between the Garden Novodevichy Convent; the medical department of Moscow State University, it is now split between Moscow Medical Academy, Russian State Medical University and various state and private clinics. The territory includes Russian State Archives and Devichye Pole park; this section is based on "Church of Archangel Michael, Devichye Pole" by Yelena Lebedeva Devichye Pole acquired its name from Novodevichy Convent. In the 17th century, it housed a court garden for medicinal herbs, the court of Eudoxia Lopukhina, estranged first wife of Peter I. Thus, the main street was called Tsarytsinskaya. In the late 18th century, Trubetskoy and other families set their country estates in Devichye Pole. One notable building was the wooden Pogodinskaya Cottage, owned by historian Mikhail Pogodin, once the center of Moscow literary elite.
Extant building is a side wing of a larger wooden estate. In 1882-1886, Tsaritsynskaya street acquired a two-story Archive Building, now the exhibition hall of Central Archive of Ancient Acts; this section is based on "History of the Clinical Town on Devichye Pole"Need for new hospitals for the public and training facilitied for Moscow State University was imminent since the 1870s. Proposals by professor Novatsky and Varvara Morozova were left unfulfilled, but in 1884 the initiative of professor Nikolay Sklifosovskiy was approved by the City Hall. City issued free land in Devichye Pole, national government set aside 2 million roubles, the rest came from private sponsors. University board picked Konstantin Bykovsky by internal vote, instead of a public contest, saving time and ensuring architect's dependence. Professors Alexander Makeyev, Fyodor Erismann, Vladimir Snegirev and Nikolay Sklifosovskiy and Bykovsky formed the project management board. In 1884-1885, Bykovsky and Snegirev travelled Europe, inspecting the best institutions of their time.
Master plan was ready by the end of 1885, but the national government released its share 2.15 million roubles only in July 1887. Thus, state-funded construction lagged behind private-funded clinics; the campus was lined along Bolshaya Tsaritsynsksya Street, with state-funded clinics on the right side and funded clinics on the left. This explains the difference in architecture - right side is uniformly Neoclassical, left side varies from pure Palladian architecture to Beaux Arts and Russian Revival fantasies. Construction of the first stage, launched in 1887, was completed by 1892 under general management of architect Konstantin Bykovsky. Bykovsky designed most of state-funded buildings. Additions were being built continuously after this date, most notably Roman Klein-designed Gynecology Institute and Pirogov monument by Vladimir Sherwood; the project was unique to Russia and praised overseas: for the first time in national history, a large medical institution was designed and built with no limitation in funds and land, so Bykovsky provided a generous margin for future expansion.
The first clinic to be opened was a psychiatric clinic funded by Varvara Morozova, now remembered by the Pyotr Gannushkin working there. This was followed by professor Snegirev's Gynecology clinic in 1889, funded by Morozov and Nosov families; this clinic was built out from two to four-story, Snegirev monument by Sergey Konenkov installed in 1967. Other owned clinics followed, some linked to personal tragedies in sponsors' family life. An orphanage, paid for by Nikolai Mazurin and designed by Illarion Ivanov-Schitz was completed in 1895; the last building of the first stage was the University Outpatient Clinic, funded by Varvara Alekseyeva, now housing the main building of Sechenov Moscow Medical Academy. The first hospital church was built in the 1880s, intended to care more after the dead than alive; the main church, dedicated to Archangel Michael, was built with personal funds of professor Alexander Makeyev, head of obstetrics department, late E. V. Solovyova an obstetrician. Makeyev commissioned architect M.
I. Nikiforov who earlier built the same department building. Konstantin Bukovsky, chief architect of the campus, approved Nikiforov's design and is sometimes credited with it, erroneously; the church, opened in 1897, became Moscow State University second temple, after Saint Tatiana's. The "road of life" between Archangel Michael, by the obstetrics clinic, St. Dmitry by the morgue, was an unexpected addition to Bykovsky's plan; the church was looted in 1922 and closed in 1931. In 1977, the city started demolition, destroyed the northern chapel; this section is based on official "History of Moscow Herzen Oncology Institute"In 1898, oncologist Lev Levshin called the Board of University to set up an institution caring for the incurable patients. First installment of 150.000 roubles, was paid by Morozov family. The result, Moscow Oncology Institute, was built in 1903 in Pogodin