British royal family
The British royal family comprises Queen Elizabeth II and her close relations. There is no strict legal or formal definition of, or is not a member of the British royal family; those who at the time are entitled to the style His or Her Royal Highness, any styled His or Her Majesty, are considered members, including those so styled before the beginning of the current monarch's reign. By this criterion, a list of the current royal family will include the monarch, the children and male-line grandchildren of the monarch and previous monarchs, the children of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales, all their current or widowed spouses; some members of the royal family have official residences named as the places from which announcements are made in the Court Circular about official engagements they have carried out. The state duties and staff of some members of the royal family are funded from a parliamentary annuity, the amount of, refunded by the Queen to the Treasury. Since 1917, when King George V changed the name of the royal house from Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, members of the royal family have belonged, either by birth or by marriage, to the House of Windsor.
Senior titled members of the royal family do not use a surname, although since 1960 Mountbatten-Windsor, incorporating Prince Philip's adopted surname of Mountbatten, has been prescribed as a surname for Elizabeth II's direct descendants who do not have royal styles and titles, it has sometimes been used when required for those who do have such titles. The royal family are regarded as British cultural icons, with young adults from abroad naming the family among a group of people that they most associated with UK culture. On 30 November 1917, King George V issued letters patent defining the styles and titles of members of the royal family; the KING has been pleased by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, bearing date the 30th ultimo, to define the styles and titles to be borne henceforth by members of the royal family. It is declared by the Letters Patent that the children of any Sovereign of the United Kingdom and the children of the sons of any such Sovereign and the eldest living son of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales shall have and at all times hold and enjoy the style, title or attribute of Royal Highness with their titular dignity of Prince or Princess prefixed to their respective Christian names or with their other titles of honour.
In 1996, Queen Elizabeth II modified these letters patent, this Notice appeared in the London Gazette: The QUEEN has been pleased by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the Realm dated 21st August 1996, to declare that a former wife of a son of a Sovereign of these Realms, of a son of a son of a Sovereign and of the eldest living son of the eldest son of The Prince of Wales shall not be entitled to hold and enjoy the style, title or attribute of Royal Highness. On 31 December 2012, letters patent were issued to extend a title and a style borne by members of the royal family to additional persons to be born, this Notice appeared in the London Gazette: The QUEEN has been pleased by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the Realm dated 31 December 2012 to declare that all the children of the eldest son of The Prince of Wales should have and enjoy the style and attribute of Royal Highness with the titular dignity of Prince or Princess prefixed to their Christian names or with such other titles of honour.
Members and relatives of the British royal family represented the monarch in various places throughout the British Empire, sometimes for extended periods as viceroys, or for specific ceremonies or events. Today, they perform ceremonial and social duties throughout the United Kingdom and abroad on behalf of the United Kingdom. Aside from the monarch, their only constitutional role in the affairs of government is to serve, if eligible and when appointed by letters patent, as a Counsellor of State, two or more of whom exercise the authority of the Crown if the monarch is indisposed or abroad. In the other countries of the Commonwealth royalty do not serve as Counsellors of State, although they may perform ceremonial and social duties on behalf of individual states or the organisation; the Queen, her consort, her children and grandchildren, as well as all former sovereigns' children and grandchildren, hold places in the first sections of the official orders of precedence in England and Wales and Northern Ireland.
Wives of the said enjoy their husbands' precedence, husbands of princesses are unofficially but habitually placed with their wives as well. However, the Queen changed the private order of precedence in the royal family in favour of Princesses Anne and Alexandra, who henceforth take private precedence over the Duchess of Cornwall, otherwise the realm's highest ranking woman after the Queen herself, she did not alter the relative precedence of other born-princesses, such as the daughters of her younger sons. As of 2019, members of the royal family are: The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh The Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge (the Queen's gra
Constitution of the United Kingdom
The United Kingdom does not have a codified constitution such as other countries tend to have. Instead of such a constitution, certain documents stand to serve as replacements in lieu of one; these texts and their provisions therein are considered to be constitutional, such that the "constitution of the United Kingdom" or "British constitution" may refer to a number of historical and momentous laws and principles like the Acts of Union 1707 and the Acts of Union 1800 which formulate the country's body politic. Thus the term "UK constitution" is sometimes said to refer to an "unwritten" or uncodified constitution; the British constitution draws from four sources: statute law, common law, parliamentary conventions, works of authority. Similar to a constitutional document, it concerns both the relationship between the individual and the state and the functioning of the legislature, the executive, the judiciary. Since the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the concept of parliamentary sovereignty has been the bedrock of the British legislative constitution.
The statutes passed by Parliament are the supreme and final source of law in the UK. It follows that Parliament can change the constitution by passing new statutes through Acts of Parliament. There has been some debate about whether parliamentary sovereignty remained intact in the light of the UK's membership in the European Union, an argument, used by proponents of leaving the EU in the 2016 referendum. Another core constitutional principle, the rule of law, is a phrase, popularized by legal scholar Albert Dicey in his 1885 work Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution, recognized by the British Parliament as a work of authority on the constitution. Acts of Parliament are bills which have received the approval of Parliament – that is, the Monarch, the House of Lords and the House of Commons. On rare occasions, the House of Commons uses the "Parliament Acts" to pass legislation without needing the approval of the House of Lords, it is unheard of in modern times for the Monarch to refuse to assent to a bill, though the possibility was contemplated by George V in relation to the fiercely controversial Government of Ireland Act 1914.
Acts of Parliament are among the most important sources of the constitution. According to the traditional view, Parliament has the power to legislate however it wishes on any subject it wishes. For example, most of the iconic medieval statute known as Magna Carta has been repealed since 1828, despite being regarded as sacrosanct, it has traditionally been the case that the courts are barred from questioning any Act of Parliament, a principle that can be traced back to the medieval period. On the other hand, this principle has not been without its dissidents and critics over the centuries, attitudes among the judiciary in this area may be changing. One consequence of the principle of parliamentary sovereignty is that there is no hierarchy among Acts of Parliament: all parliamentary legislation is, in principle, of equal validity and effectiveness. However, the judgment of Lord Justice Laws in the Thoburn case in 2002 indicated that there may be a special class of "constitutional statutes" such as Magna Carta, the Human Rights Act 1998, the European Communities Act 1972, the Acts of Union and Bill of Rights which have a higher status than other legislation.
This part of his judgment was "obiter" – and, was controversial. It remains to be seen. Treaties do not, on ratification, automatically become incorporated into UK law. Important treaties have been incorporated into domestic law by means of Acts of Parliament; the European Convention on Human Rights, for example, was given "further effect" into domestic law through the preamble of the Human Rights Act 1998. The Treaty of Union of 1707 was important in creating the unitary state which exists today; the treaty was between the governments of England and Scotland and was put into effect by two Acts of Union which were passed by the Parliaments of both nations. The Treaty, along with the subsequent Acts, brought into existence the Kingdom of Great Britain, uniting the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland. Common law legal systems exist in Northern Ireland and in England and Wales, but not in Scotland which has a hybrid system which includes a great deal of Common Law. Court judgments commonly form a source of the constitution: speaking in English Law, judgments of the higher courts form precedents or case law that binds lower courts and judges.
However Scots Law does not accord the same status to precedent, judgments in one legal system do not have a direct effect in the other legal systems. Important court judgments include those in the Case of Proclamations, the Ship money case and Entick v Carrington, all of which imposed limits on the power of the executive. A constitutional precedent applicable to British colonies is Campbell v Hall, which extended those same constitutional limitations to any territory, granted a representative assembly. Many British constitutional conventions are ancient in origin, though others date from within living memory; such conventions, which include the duty of the Monarch to act on the advice of his or her ministers, are not formally enforceable in a court of law. Most are works written b
Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom
The royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, or the Royal Arms for short, is the official coat of arms of the British monarch Queen Elizabeth II. These arms are used by the Queen in her official capacity as monarch of the United Kingdom. Variants of the Royal Arms are used by other members of the British royal family. In Scotland, there exists a separate version of the Royal Arms, a variant of, used by the Scotland Office; the arms in banner form serve as basis for the monarch's official flag, known as the Royal Standard. In the standard variant used outside of Scotland, the shield is quartered, depicting in the first and fourth quarters the three passant guardant lions of England; the crest is a statant guardant lion wearing the St Edward's Crown, himself on another representation of that crown. The dexter supporter is a crowned English lion. According to legend a free unicorn was considered a dangerous beast. In the greenery below, a thistle, Tudor rose and shamrock are depicted, representing Scotland and Ireland respectively.
This armorial achievement comprises the motto, in French, of English monarchs, Dieu et mon Droit, which has descended to the present royal family as well as the Garter circlet which surrounds the shield, inscribed with the Order's motto, in French, Honi soit qui mal y pense. The official blazon of the Royal Arms is: Quarterly and fourth Gules three Lions passant gardant in pale Or armed and langued Azure, second quarter Or a Lion rampant within a double tressure flory-counter-flory Gules, third quarter Azure a Harp Or stringed Argent, the whole surrounded by the Garter. Motto "Dieu et mon Droit" in the compartment below the shield, with the Union Rose and Thistle engrafted on the same stem; the Royal Arms. They appear in courtrooms, since the monarch is deemed to be the fount of judicial authority in the United Kingdom and law courts comprise part of the ancient royal court. Judges are Crown representatives, demonstrated by the display of the Royal Arms behind the judge's bench in all UK courts.
In addition, the Royal Arms cannot be displayed in courtrooms or on court-house exteriors in Northern Ireland, except for the courtrooms of the Royal Courts of Justice in Belfast and the courts in Armagh, Downpatrick, Magherafelt, or Omagh, the exterior of court buildings that had them in place prior to the 2002 law. As the United Kingdom is governed in the monarch's name, the British Government uses the Royal Arms as a national symbol of the United Kingdom, and, in that capacity, the coat of arms can be seen on several government documents and forms, passports, in the entrance to embassies and consulates, etc. However, when used by the government and not by the monarch the coat of arms is represented without the helm; this is the case with the sovereign's Scottish arms, a version of, used by the Scotland Office. The Royal Arms have appeared on the coinage produced by the Royal Mint including, for example, from 1663, the Guinea and, from 1983, the British one pound coin. In 2008, a new series of designs for all seven coins of £1 and below was unveiled by the Royal Mint, every one of, drawn from the Royal Arms.
The full Royal Arms appear on the one pound coin, sections appear on each of the other six, such that they can be put together like a puzzle to make another complete representation of the Royal Arms. The monarch grants Royal Warrants to select businesses and tradespeople which supply the Royal Household with goods or services; this entitles those businesses to display the Royal Arms on their packaging and stationery by way of advertising. It is customary for churches throughout the United Kingdom whether in the Church of England or the Church of Scotland to display the Royal Arms to show loyalty to the Crown. A banner of the Royal Arms, known as the Royal Standard, is flown from the royal palaces when the monarch is in residence, Windsor Castle and Buckingham Palace being her principal abodes; this protocol applies to the monarch's principal residences in Scotland, where the Royal Standard is flown. When the monarch is not in residence the Union Flag, or in Scotland the ancient Royal Standard of Scotland, is flown.
The sold British newspaper The Times uses the Hanoverian Royal Arms as a logo, whereas its sister publication, The Sunday Times, displays the current Royal Arms. The Royal Arms are displayed in all c
National Security Council (United Kingdom)
The National Security Council of the United Kingdom is a Cabinet Committee tasked with overseeing all issues related to national security, intelligence coordination, defence strategy. The terms of reference of the National Security Council are to consider matters relating to national security, foreign policy, cyber security, resilience and resource security; the NSC was established on 12 May 2010 by Prime Minister David Cameron. The Council is a Cabinet committee; the UK's National Security Adviser is secretary to the council. The NSA role is held by Sir Mark Sedwill, who commenced work as the UK's fourth NSA in April 2017. In October 2018, Sedwill became Cabinet Secretary and it was subsequently reported that he would be expected to combine the NSA role with his new responsibilities as Cabinet Secretary and Head of the Home Civil Service. From 1 April 2015 the council oversaw the newly created Conflict and Security Fund, a fund of more than £1 billion per year for tackling conflict and instability abroad.
As of 25 October 2018, the NSC's membership is as follows: Other government ministers, senior officials and intelligence officers attend as necessary, some on a regular basis. The Chief of the Defence Staff represents the Chiefs of Staff Committee at the NSC, not individual Chiefs of each service. There are three subcommittees of the NSC, Nuclear Deterrence and Security, Hazards and Contingencies, Strategic Defence and Security Review Implementation; the Leader of the Opposition has attended on an occasional basis. The Nuclear Deterrence and Security Subcommittee is a restricted attendance subcommittee of the National Security Council with the terms of references to consider issues relating to nuclear deterrence and security; the Threats, Hazards and Contingencies Subcommittee is a subcommittee of the National Security Council with the terms of references to consider issues relating to terrorism and other security threats, hazards and intelligence policy and the performance and resources of the security and intelligence agencies.
The Strategic Defence and Security Review Implementation Subcommittee is a subcommittee of the National Security Council with the terms of references to consider matters relating to implementation of the Strategic Defence and Security Review and National Security Strategy. The Strategic Defence and Security Review Implementation Subcommittee is a subcommittee of the National Security Council with the terms of references to provide strategic direction to the Conflict and Security Fund and the Prosperity Fund; the size and shape of the National Security Secretariat and its senior leadership has fluctuated since its inception in May 2010. From July 2010, there were two Deputy National Security Advisers: Julian Miller for Foreign & Defence Policy and Oliver Robbins for Intelligence, Security & Resilience. By March 2013, Hugh Powell - a National Security Secretariat Director - had been promoted to a newly created third DNSA position; as of 6 November 2014, there were three DNSAs: Hugh Powell as DNSA, Julian Miller as DNSA and Paddy McGuinness as DNSA.
As of early December 2014, the National Security Secretariat was staffed by 180 officials and comprises five directorates: Foreign & Defence Policy. As of 10 February 2015, Liane Saunders - the National Security Secretariat's Director for Foreign Policy and its Afghanistan/Pakistan Coordinator - was described as an Acting Deputy National Security Adviser. On 16 June 2016, the Cabinet Office released staff data, correct as of 31 March 2016, listing two current Deputy National Security Advisers: Paddy McGuinness and Gwyn Jenkins. Jenkins appeared to have been in post since at least June 2015. Prior to becoming a deputy National Security Adviser, Jenkins was the military assistant to prime minister David Cameron; as of April 2017, it was announced that a diplomat, Dr Christian Turner CMG, had replaced Jenkins as the second Deputy National Security Adviser, with a portfolio comprising'foreign and defence policy.' According to one of Turner's tweets, dated 13 April 2017, his first week as Deputy National Security Adviser was the week commencing Monday 10 April 2017.
It was reported on 14 January 2018 that Paddy McGuinness was leaving the national security secretariat. His successor as deputy national security adviser for intelligence and resilience, Richard Moore, announced his appointment on 8 January via his personal Twitter account. Moore’s tenure as deputy NSA was brief, ending in early April when he returned to the Foreign and Commonwealth Office as Political Director, a move he announced via Twitter on 8 April. Although unconfirmed publicly by the UK government, since at least early July 2018, Madeleine Alessandri had replaced Moore as the second deputy national security adviser. However, in September 2018, Alessandri's name and appointment was mentioned in a government response to the Intelligence and Security Committee of Parliament and a list of government salaries; the Committee of Imperial Defence - A precursor of the NSC. Cabinet Office - National Security Counci
Government of the United Kingdom
The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It is commonly referred to as the UK Government or the British Government; the government is led by the Prime Minister. The prime minister and the other most senior ministers belong to the supreme decision-making committee, known as the Cabinet; the government ministers all sit in Parliament, are accountable to it. The government is dependent on Parliament to make primary legislation, since the Fixed-terms Parliaments Act 2011, general elections are held every five years to elect a new House of Commons, unless there is a successful vote of no confidence in the government or a two-thirds vote for a snap election in the House of Commons, in which case an election may be held sooner. After an election, the monarch selects as prime minister the leader of the party most to command the confidence of the House of Commons by possessing a majority of MPs.
Under the uncodified British constitution, executive authority lies with the monarch, although this authority is exercised only by, or on the advice of, the prime minister and the cabinet. The Cabinet members advise the monarch as members of the Privy Council. In most cases they exercise power directly as leaders of the Government Departments, though some Cabinet positions are sinecures to a greater or lesser degree; the current prime minister is Theresa May, who took office on 13 July 2016. She is the leader of the Conservative Party, which won a majority of seats in the House of Commons in the general election on 7 May 2015, when David Cameron was the party leader. Prior to this and the Conservatives led a coalition from 2010 to 2015 with the Liberal Democrats, in which Cameron was prime minister; the Government is referred to with the metonym Westminster, due to that being where many of the offices of the government are situated by members in the Government of Scotland, the Welsh Government and the Northern Ireland Executive in order to differentiate it from their own.
A key principle of the British Constitution is. This is called responsible government; the United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy in which the reigning monarch does not make any open political decisions. All political decisions are taken by Parliament; this constitutional state of affairs is the result of a long history of constraining and reducing the political power of the monarch, beginning with Magna Carta in 1215. Parliament is split into the House of Commons; the House of Commons is the more powerful. The House of Lords is the upper house and although it can vote to amend proposed laws, the House of Commons can vote to overrule its amendments. Although the House of Lords can introduce bills, most important laws are introduced in the House of Commons – and most of those are introduced by the government, which schedules the vast majority of parliamentary time in the Commons. Parliamentary time is essential for bills to be passed into law, because they must pass through a number of readings before becoming law.
Prior to introducing a bill, the government may run a public consultation to solicit feedback from the public and businesses, may have introduced and discussed the policy in the Queen's Speech, or in an election manifesto or party platform. Ministers of the Crown are responsible to the House. For most senior ministers this is the elected House of Commons rather than the House of Lords. There have been some recent exceptions to this: for example, cabinet ministers Lord Mandelson and Lord Adonis sat in the Lords and were responsible to that House during the government of Gordon Brown. Since the start of Edward VII's reign in 1901, the prime minister has always been an elected member of Parliament and therefore directly accountable to the House of Commons. A similar convention applies to the Chancellor of the Exchequer, it would be politically unacceptable for the budget speech to be given in the Lords, with MPs unable to directly question the Chancellor now that the Lords have limited powers in relation to money bills.
The last Chancellor of the Exchequer to be a member of the House of Lords was Lord Denman, who served as interim Chancellor of the Exchequer for one month in 1834. Under the British system, the government is required by convention and for practical reasons to maintain the confidence of the House of Commons, it requires the support of the House of Commons for the maintenance of supply and to pass primary legislation. By convention, if a government loses the confidence of the House of Commons it must either resign or a General Election is held; the support of the Lords, while useful to the government in getting its legislation passed without delay, is not vital. A government is not required to resign if it loses the confidence of the Lords and is defeated in key votes in that House; the House of Commons is thus the Responsible house. The prime minister is held to account during Prime Minister's Questions which provides an opportunity for MPs from all parties to question the PM on any subject
An official residence is the residence at which a nation's head of state, head of government, religious leader, leaders of international organizations, or other senior figure resides. It may or may not be the same location where the individual conducts work-related functions or lives. 3 Sutton Place, New York City Presidential Palace Presidential Palace Presidential Palace State House Kiriri Presidential Palace Unity Palace Palácio Presidencial Presidential Palace Presidential Palace Presidential Palace Kinshasa Presidential Palace Palais de la Nation Palais du mont Ngaliema Palais de Marbre Brazzaville Presidential Palace Le Palais de la Présidence Presidential Palace Abdeen Palace Heliopolis Palace Koubbeh Palace Montaza Palace Ras el-Tin Palace Government Building Asmara President's Office National Palace Imperial Palace Presidential Palace State House Osu Castle formal residence Golden Jubilee House current residence Peduase Lodge retreat Presidential Palace Villa Syli Belle Vue Presidential Palace State House Royal Palace State House Executive Mansion Al-Sikka, Tripoli Al Nasr Convention Centre Dar al-Salam Hotel Abusita Navy Base Royal Palace of Tripoli Bab al-Azizia Iavoloha Ambohitsorohitra Sanjika Palace New State House Presidential Palace Presidential Palace State House Clarisse House Mechouar Essaid, Rabat Dâr-al-Makhzen, Fes Dâr-al-Makhzen, Meknes Marchane Palace, Tangier Bahia Palace, Marrakech El Badi Palace, Marrakech Palácio da Ponta Vermelha State House Presidential Palace Aso Rock Villa Rivers State:Government House Urugwiro Presidential Palace Palais de la Republique State House State House Villa Somalia Mahlamba Ndlopfu, Genadendal Residence, Cape Town Leeuwenhof Cape Province:Government House Transvaal:Government House Natal:Government House Orange Free State:Government House Presidential Palace Presidential Palace Lozitha Palace State House The Palace of the Governors Carthage Palace State House State House State House Government House Government House Government House Ilaro Court Palace of the Revolution Presidential Palace Government House Palacio Nacional, Dominican Republic Government House National Palace King's House Government House Jamaica House Vale Royal Government House Government House Government House President's House St. Anns Diplomatic Residence Whitehall Official residence Belize House Government House Rideau Hall Citadelle of Quebec 24 Sussex Drive Harrington Lake Stornoway The Farm, Gatineau Park 7 Rideau Gate British Columbia:Government House Manitoba:Government House New Brunswick:Old Government House Nova Scotia:Government House Prince Edward Island:Government House Newfoundland and Labrador:Government House Quebec:Édifice Price/Price Building *The provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Quebec no longer have official residences for their lieutenant governors, but do provide them with accommodations.
Casa Presidencial, Costa Rica Casa Presidencial called Casa Blanca Casa Presidencial National Palace Palacio José Cecilio del Valle None. The President uses own private residence. Los Pinos National Palace Castillo de Chapultepec *In every state of the Mexico the Palacio de Gobierno, or Government Palace, was the official residence the governor, they are now maintained as the relevant governor's offices. Querétaro Casa de la Corregidora Presidential Palace Presidential Palace Palacio de las Garzas White House Camp David Number One Observatory Circle Blair House Presidential Townhouse Trowbridge House Waldorf Astoria New York (Ambassador to
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion