First Silesian War
The First Silesian War (German: Erster Schlesischer Krieg) was a conflict between Prussia and Austria lasting from 1740 to 1742, which resulted in Prussia's seizure of most of the region of Silesia from Austria. The war was fought mainly in Silesia, Moravia and Bohemia (the lands of the Bohemian Crown) and formed one theatre of the wider War of the Austrian Succession. It was the first in a series of three Silesian Wars fought between Frederick the Great's Prussia and Maria Theresa's Austria in the mid 1700s, all three of which ended in Prussian control of Silesia.
No particular triggering event started the war. Prussia cited its centuries-old dynastic claims on parts of Silesia as a casus belli, but realpolitik and geostrategic factors also played a role in provoking the conflict: Maria Theresa's contested succession to the Habsburg Monarchy provided an opportunity for Prussia to strengthen itself relative to regional rivals such as Saxony and Bavaria.
The war began with a Prussian invasion of Habsburg Silesia in late 1740, and it ended in a Prussian victory with the 1742 Treaty of Berlin, which recognized Prussia's seizure of most of Silesia and parts of Bohemia. Meanwhile, the wider War of the Austrian Succession continued, and conflict over Silesia would draw Austria and Prussia into a renewed Second Silesian War only two years later. The First Silesian War marked the unexpected defeat of the Habsburg Monarchy by a lesser German power and initiated the Austria–Prussia rivalry that would shape German politics for more than a century.
- 1 Context and causes
- 2 Course
- 3 Outcomes
- 4 References
- 5 Sources
- 6 External links
Context and causes
In the early eighteenth century, Brandenburg–Prussia's ruling House of Hohenzollern held dynastic claims to various of the Silesian duchies within the Habsburg province of Silesia, a populous and prosperous region contiguous with Prussia's core territory of Brandenburg. Besides its value as a source of tax revenue, industrial output and military recruits, Silesia held great geostrategic importance to the belligerents. The valley of the Upper Oder formed a natural military conduit between Brandenburg, Bohemia and Moravia, and whichever power held it could threaten its neighbors. Silesia also marked the northeastern frontier of the Holy Roman Empire, allowing its controller to limit the influence of Poland and Russia within Germany.
Brandenburg–Prussia's claims in Silesia were based, in part, on a 1537 inheritance treaty between the Silesian Piast Duke Frederick II of Legnica and the Hohenzollern Prince-Elector Joachim II Hector of Brandenburg, whereby the Silesian Duchies of Liegnitz, Wohlau and Brieg were to pass to the Hohenzollerns of Brandenburg if the Piast dynasty in Silesia should become extinct. At the time, the Habsburg King Ferdinand I of Bohemia (Silesia's legal overlord) rejected the agreement and pressed the Hohenzollerns to repudiate it. In 1603, Hohenzollern Elector Joachim III Frederick of Brandenburg also inherited the Silesian Duchy of Jägerndorf from his cousin, Margrave George Frederick of Brandenburg-Ansbach, and installed his second son, Johann Georg, as duke.
However, in the Bohemian Revolt and the ensuing Thirty Years' War, Johann Georg joined the Bohemian estates in revolt against the Catholic Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II. After the Catholic victory in the 1621 Battle of White Mountain, the Emperor confiscated Johann Georg's duchy and refused to return it to his heirs after his death; the Electors of Brandenburg continued, nevertheless, to assert themselves as the legitimate rulers of Jägerndorf. In 1675 the "Great Elector" Frederick William of Brandenburg laid claim to Liegnitz, Wohlau and Brieg when the Silesian Piast line ended with the death of Duke George William of Liegnitz, but the Habsburg Emperor disregarded the Hohenzollern claims and the lands escheated to the crown.
In 1685, when Austria was engaged in the Great Turkish War, Emperor Leopold I gave Great Elector Frederick William immediate control of the Silesian exclave of Schwiebus in return for military support against the Turks and the surrender of the outstanding Hohenzollern claims in Silesia. However, after the accession of the Great Elector's son and successor, Frederick III of Brandenburg, the Emperor took back control of Schwiebus in 1694, claiming that the territory had only been personally assigned to the late Great Elector for life. In response, Frederick III in turn reasserted the old Hohenzollern claims to Jägerndorf and the Silesian Piast heritage.
Two generations later, the newly crowned Hohenzollern King Frederick II of Prussia (hereafter referred to as "King Frederick") formed designs on Silesia soon after taking the Prussian throne in May 1740. King Frederick judged that his dynasty's claims were credible, and he had inherited from his father a large and well trained Prussian army and a healthy royal treasury. The European strategic situation was favorable for an attack on Austria, with Britain and France occupying each other's attentions and Russia in conflict with Sweden; Bavaria and Saxony also had claims against Austria and might join in the attack. Though the Hohenzollerns' dynastic claims provided a legalistic casus belli, considerations of realpolitik and geostrategy played the leading role in provoking the war.
An opportunity arose for Brandenburg–Prussia to press its claims when Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI died in October 1740 without a male heir. With the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713, Charles had established his eldest daughter, Maria Theresa, as the successor to his hereditary titles, and upon his death she duly became ruler of Austria, as well as of the Bohemian and Hungarian lands within the Habsburg Monarchy. During Emperor Charles's lifetime, the Pragmatic Sanction had been generally acknowledged by the imperial states, but when he died it was promptly contested by several parties.
The newly crowned King Frederick saw in Austria's female succession an opportune moment for the seizure of Silesia, calling it "the signal for the complete transformation of the old political system" in a 1740 letter to Voltaire. He argued that the Pragmatic Sanction did not apply to Silesia, which was held by the Habsburgs as a part of the imperial demesne rather than as a hereditary possession. Frederick also argued that his father, King Frederick William I, had assented to the Sanction in return for assurances of Austrian support for Hohenzollern claims on the Rhenish Duchies of Jülich and Berg, which had never materialized.
Meanwhile, Prince-Elector Charles Albert of Bavaria and Prince-Elector Frederick Augustus II of Saxony had each married one of Maria Theresa's older cousins from a senior branch of the House of Habsburg, and they used these connections to justify claims to Habsburg territory in the absence of a male heir. Frederick Augustus II, who ruled Poland in personal union, was especially interested in gaining control of Silesia to connect his two realms into one contiguous territory (which would nearly surround Brandenburg); concern to prevent this outcome contributed to Prussia's haste in moving against Austria when the contested succession provided an opportunity.
Moves toward war
As Prussia reactivated its Silesian claims and prepared for war against Austria, it was joined by numerous other European powers. Charles Albert of Bavaria launched a claim to the imperial throne along with the Habsburg territories of Bohemia, Upper Austria and Tyrol, while Frederick Augustus of Saxony laid claim to Moravia and Upper Silesia. The kingdoms of Spain and Naples hoped to seize Habsburg possessions in northern Italy, while France sought control of the Austrian Netherlands and viewed the Habsburgs as traditional rivals. The electorates of Cologne and the Palatinate joined these to form an alliance known as the League of Nymphenburg, which aimed at the diminution or destruction of the Habsburg Monarchy and its dominant position among the German states.
Austria, for its part, was supported by Great Britain (in personal union with the Electorate of Hanover) and, eventually, Savoy–Sardinia and the Dutch Republic; the Russian Empire under Tsaritsa Elizabeth also indirectly took Austria's side in the wider conflict by making war against Sweden (a French ally at the time). Maria Theresa's aims in the conflict were, first, to preserve her hereditary lands and titles and, second, to win or compel support for the election of her husband, Francis Stephen of Lorraine, as Holy Roman Emperor, defending her house's traditional preeminence within Germany.
After Emperor Charles's death on 20 October, King Frederick quickly resolved to strike first; on 8 November he ordered the mobilization of the Prussian army, and on 11 December he issued an ultimatum to Maria Theresa demanding the surrender of Silesia. In return, he promised to acknowledge the Pragmatic Sanction and to give his vote as elector of Brandenburg in the imperial election to Maria Theresa's husband, Duke Francis Stephen of Lorraine. Not waiting for a response, he and his troops advanced into Silesia.
Silesian campaign of 1740–41
The Prussian army had massed quietly along the Oder during early December 1740, and on 16 December, without a declaration of war, King Frederick moved his army across the frontier into Silesia. The Prussian force consisted of two corps totaling 27,000 soldiers, while all of Silesia was defended by an Austrian garrison of only 8,000 men. The Austrians were only able to offer light resistance and garrison a few fortresses; the Prussians swept through the province, taking control of the capital at Breslau without a fight on 2 January 1741. The fortress at Ohlau was also taken without resistance on 9 January, after which the Prussians used it for their winter quarters. By the end of January 1741, almost the entirety of Silesia had come under Prussian control, and the remaining Austrian strongholds of Glogau, Brieg and Neisse were besieged.
After leaving winter quarters in early 1741, the Prussian forces began a spring campaign, and on 9 March Prince Leopold II of Anhalt-Dessau took Glogau by storm. In late March, an Austrian force of around 20,000 under the command of Wilhelm Reinhard von Neipperg crossed the Sudetes from Moravia to break the siege of Neisse, and the main Prussian force maneuvered to oppose its advance. The two armies engaged each other near the village of Mollwitz on 10 April, where the Prussians under Marshal Kurt von Schwerin successfully stopped the Austrian advance in the Battle of Mollwitz. Neither army acquitted itself well at Mollwitz, and King Frederick at one point fled (on Schwerin's advice) to avoid capture, but the Prussians held the field and subsequently portrayed the battle as a victory. The Prussian siege of Neisse had been lifted as Neipperg's army approached, but Brieg surrendered to the Prussians on 4 May, after which the main Prussian force encamped through the summer near Neisse, facing off against Neipperg's Austrians but fighting little.
Negotiations of summer 1741
After Austria's failure at Mollwitz to repel the Prussian invasion, other powers were emboldened to attack the beleaguered archduchy, widening the conflict into what would become the War of the Austrian Succession. France declared its support for Prussia's seizure of Silesia in the 5 June Treaty of Breslau, and in July it joined in the Treaty of Nymphenburg, by which France and Spain committed to support Bavaria's territorial claims against Austria. French forces began crossing the Rhine on 15 August, joining the Bavarian Elector's forces on the Danube and advancing toward Vienna, while a Spanish–Neapolitan army attacked Austria's holdings in northern Italy. Saxony, formerly an Austrian ally, now joined the French alliance, and Britain declared itself neutral to prevent French or Prussian attacks on Hanover.
Faced with the prospect of a total partition of her realm, Archduchess Maria Theresa worked through the summer to regroup and prepare a counterattack. On 25 June she received her formal coronation as Queen of Hungary in Pressburg and began trying to recruit a new army from her eastern lands. Meanwhile, fresh enemies attacked Austria on multiple fronts. The Franco-Bavarian force seized Linz on 14 September and advanced through Upper Austria, reaching the vicinity of Vienna by October, while Bohemia was simultaneously invaded by the Saxons. Seeing Austria's distress, King Frederick opened secret peace negotiations with Neipperg in Breslau, even as he continued to publicly support the League of Nymphenburg.
Although Prussia was allied with the French, the idea of France or Bavaria becoming the dominant power in Germany through Austria's destruction did not appeal to King Frederick. With British urging and mediation, on 9 October Austria and Prussia agreed to a secret armistice known as the Convention of Klein Schnellendorf, under which both belligerents would cease hostilities in Silesia (though maintaining their appearance), and Austria would eventually concede Lower Silesia in return for a final peace to be negotiated before the end of the year. Neipperg's Austrian forces were then recalled from Silesia to defend Austria against the western invaders, abandoning Neisse after a sham siege and leaving the whole of Silesia under Prussian control.
Bohemia–Moravia campaign of 1741–42
In mid October, Charles Albert of Bavaria and his French allies were encamped near Vienna, ready to besiege the Austrian capital. However, the Elector became concerned that Saxony and Prussia would seize parts of Bohemia, which he had also claimed, and on 24 October his force turned north to march on Prague. The Bavarian, French and Saxon armies converged around that city in November, besieging it and ultimately storming it on 26 November; Charles Albert went on to proclaim himself King of Bohemia on 7 December. Meanwhile, in early November King Frederick negotiated the border between putative territories of Prussian Silesia and Saxon Bohemia–Moravia with Frederick Augustus of Saxony, also securing French and Bavarian support for his seizure of the entirety of Silesia, along with the Bohemian County of Glatz.
As the Franco-Bavarian allies made territorial gains, King Frederick became concerned that Prussia might be sidelined in the eventual peace agreement; so, he repudiated the Convention of Klein Schnellendorf, accusing the Austrians of violating its secrecy, and joined the general advance southward into Bohemia and Moravia. In December, Schwerin's army advanced through the Sudetes into Moravia, occupying the capital at Olmütz on 27 December, while Prince Leopold's army besieged the fortress at Glatz on the edge of Bohemia. In January 1742 the Imperial election was held at Frankfurt, where Bavarian Elector Charles Albert was chosen as the next Holy Roman Emperor.
In early 1742 King Frederick organized a joint advance through Moravia toward Vienna with the Saxons and French, which began after their forces met on 5 February at Wischau; the French, however, were reluctant and uncooperative, and, after the seizure of Iglau on 15 February, they withdrew into Bohemia. The Prussians and Saxons marched on toward Brünn, the main Austrian stronghold remaining in Moravia, but they made little progress due to the substantial Austrian garrison and a shortage of supplies. This Moravian campaign achieved no significant gains, and the effort was finally abandoned on 5 April, after which the Prussians withdrew into Bohemia and Upper Silesia.
As the Moravian advance collapsed, Charles Alexander of Lorraine (Maria Theresa's brother-in-law) led a renewed Austro-Hungarian army of 30,000 through Moravia toward Bohemia, hoping to disperse the Prussians and liberate Prague. In early May, a Prussian army of 28,000 led by King Frederick and Prince Leopold marched into the plains of the Elbe southeast of Prague, maneuvering to block the Austrian advance. The two armies met when Charles's Austrians attacked Prince Leopold's camp near the village of Chotusitz on 17 May; the resulting Battle of Chotusitz ended in a narrow Prussian victory, with substantial casualties on both sides. Prince Charles's defeat at Chotusitz, followed shortly by the defeat of another Austrian army at the 24 May Battle of Sahay, left Prague securely in the invaders' hands and Austria with no immediate means of driving them out of Bohemia.
Treaties of Breslau and Berlin
In the aftermath of Chotusitz, Prussia intensified its efforts to reach a separate peace with Austria, and negotiators from the two belligerents met again in Breslau in late May. King Frederick now demanded almost the whole of Silesia, as well as the County of Glatz, concessions which Maria Theresa was reluctant to make; however, the British envoy, Lord Hyndford, pressed her to make peace with Prussia and concentrate her forces against the French. The British treasury had financed much of Austria's war effort through cash subsidies, and Hyndford threatened now to withdraw Britain's support if Maria Theresa refused to give up the Silesian War for lost. The two belligerents eventually reached an agreement in the 11 June Treaty of Breslau, which ended the First Silesian War.
Under this treaty, Austria conceded to Prussia the large majority of Silesia along with the County of Glatz, territories which would later be consolidated to form the Prussian Province of Silesia. Austria retained two small portions of the extreme southern end of Silesia, including the Duchy of Teschen and parts of the Duchies of Jägerndorf, Troppau, and Neisse; these lands would later be combined to form the crown land of Austrian Silesia. Prussia also agreed to take on some of Austria's debts that had been secured against assets in Silesia, as well as committing to remain neutral for the remainder of the ongoing War of the Austrian Succession. This arrangement was formalized and confirmed in the Treaty of Berlin, signed 28 July 1742.
The First Silesian War ended in a clear victory for Prussia; Prussia secured substantial new territory in Silesia and Glatz, and the kingdom's resources and prestige were greatly enhanced. However, by making a separate peace while the wider War of the Austrian Succession raged on, King Frederick betrayed his erstwhile allies in the League of Nymphenburg and earned a reputation for diplomatic unreliability and double-dealing. The seizure of Silesia also ensured continuing conflict with Austria.
With Prussia removed from the conflict, a major Austrian counterattack began regaining lost ground on other fronts, and the diplomatic situation shifted in Austria's favor. Maria Theresa's determination to recover Silesia would lead to renewed conflict with Prussia in the Second Silesian War only two years later, with a Third Silesian War to follow after another decade.
In the territorial settlement that ended the war, Prussia gained control of extensive new lands in Silesia, a densely industrialized region (for the time period) with a large population and substantial tax yields. The small kingdom's unexpected victory over the Habsburg Monarchy marked the beginning of Prussia's rise toward the status of a European great power, as it began to leave German rivals such as Bavaria and Saxony behind.
However, this success planted the seeds of future challenges. Prussia's seizure of Silesia made Austria into a lasting and determined enemy, beginning the Austria–Prussia rivalry that would come to dominate German politics over the next century. King Frederick's unilateral withdrawal from the Nymphenburg alliance (and its repetition at the end of the Second Silesian War) turned sentiment in the French royal court against him, contributing to France's eventual realignment toward Austria in the Diplomatic Revolution of the 1750s; France would later oppose Prussia in the Third Silesian War.
The Treaties of Breslau and Berlin cost the Habsburg Monarchy its wealthiest province, and capitulating to a lesser German prince significantly dented the House of Habsburg's prestige. The House of Habsburg was defeated in the Imperial election for the first time in three centuries. The Austrian army had found itself outmatched by the more disciplined Prussians, and in late 1741 the Nymphenburg alliance had threatened the Habsburg Monarchy with disaster.
However, peace in the Silesian theatre gave the Austrian forces a free hand to reverse the gains made by the French and Bavarians the previous year. The western invaders were driven back up the Danube Valley in early 1742, and the Franco-Bavarian forces occupying Prague were isolated and besieged, eventually giving up the city in December. By the summer of 1743, Austria would recover control of Bohemia, drive the French back across the Rhine into Alsace, and occupy Bavaria, exiling the Bavarian Emperor Charles to Frankfurt.
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