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First Spanish Republic

The Spanish Republic known as the First Spanish Republic to distinguish it from the Spanish Republic of 1931–39, was the short-lived political regime that existed in Spain between the parliamentary proclamation on 11 February 1873 and 29 December 1874 when General Arsenio Martínez Campos's pronunciamiento marked the beginning of the Bourbon Restoration in Spain. The Republic's founding started with the abdication as King on 10 February 1873 of Amadeo I, following the Hidalgo Affair, when he had been required by the radical government to sign a decree against the artillery officers; the next day, 11 February, the republic was declared by a parliamentary majority made up of radicals and democrats. The Constituent Cortes was called upon to write a federal constitution; the radicals preferred a unitary republic, with a much lesser role for the provinces, once the republic had been declared the two parties turned against each other. The radicals were driven from power, joining those, driven out by the revolution of 1868 or by the Carlist War.

The first republican attempt in the history of Spain was a short experience, characterized by profound political and social instability and violence. The Republic was governed by four distinct presidents—Estanislao Figueras, Francesc Pi i Margall, Nicolás Salmerón, Emilio Castelar; the period was marked by three simultaneous civil wars: the Third Carlist War, the Cantonal Revolution, the Petroleum Revolution in Alcoy. The gravest problems for the consolidation of the regime were the lack of true republicans, their division between federalists and unitarians, the lack of popular support. Subversion in the army, a series of local cantonalist risings, instability in Barcelona, failed anti-federalist coups, calls for revolution by the International Workingmen's Association, the lack of any broad political legitimacy, personal in-fighting among the republican leadership all further weakened the republic; the Republic ended on 3 January 1874, when the Captain General of Madrid, Manuel Pavía, pronounced against the federalist government and called on all parties except Federalists and Carlists to form a national government.

The monarchists and Republicans refused, leaving the unitary Radicals and Constitutionalists as the only group willing to govern. General Francisco Serrano formed a new government and was appointed President of the Republic although it was a mere formality since the Cortes had been dissolved. Carlist forces managed to expand the territory under their control to the greatest extent in early 1874, though a series of defeats by the republic's northern army in the second half of the year might have led to the end of the war had it not been for bad weather; however the other monarchists had taken the name of Alfonsists as supporters of Alfonso, the son of the former Queen Isabel, were organised by Cánovas del Castillo. This period of the Republic lasted until Brigadier Martínez-Campos pronounced for Alfonso in Sagunto on 29 December 1874 and the rest of the army refused to act against him; the government collapsed, leading to the end of the republic and the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy with the proclamation of Alfonso XII as king.

King Amadeo I abdicated from the Spanish throne on 11 February 1873. His decision was due to the constant difficulties he had to face during his short tenure, as the Ten Years' War, the outbreak of the Third Carlist War, the opposition from alfonsino monarchists, which hoped for the Bourbon Restoration in the person of Alfonso, son of Isabella II, the many republican insurrections and the division among his own supporters; the Spanish Cortes, which were assembled in a joint and permanent session of both the Congress of Deputies and the Senate, declared themselves the National Assembly while waiting for any final notice from the King. The overwhelming majority was with the monarchists from the two dynastic parties that had exercised the government until then: the Radical Party of Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla and the Constitutional Party of Práxedes Mateo Sagasta. There was a small republican minority in the National Assembly, ideologically divided between federalism and centralism. One of them, federalist parliamentarian Francisco Pi y Margall moved the following proposal: "The National Assembly assumes powers and declares the Republic as the form of government, leaving its organization to the Constituent Cortes."

In his speech for the proposal, Pi y Margall—himself a federalist—renounced for the moment to establish a federal republic, hoping the would-be-assembled Constituent Cortes to decide over the issue, announced his acceptance of any other democratic decision. Another republican, Emilio Castelar, took the floor and said: After Castelar's powerful speech, amidst passionate applause, the Republic was declared with a resignation of the monarchists, with 258 votes in favour and only 32 against: "The National Assembly assumes all powers and declares the Republic as the form of government of Spain, leaving its organization to the Constituent Cortes. An Executive Power shall be elected directly by the Cortes, it shall be responsible to the same." In the same session, the first government of the Republic was elected. Federal republican Estanislao Figueras was elected the first "President of the Executive Power", an office incorporating the heads of State and Government. No "President of the Republic" was elected, as the Constitution creating such office was never en

Il Cromuele

Il Cromuele is a tragedy in five acts, released in 1671. It was conceived and written by Girolamo Graziani, through the sixties of the 17th century, in Modena, during the troubled reign of Laura Martinozzi; the first information on the composition of the Il Cromuele appears in the preface to Graziani's Varie Poesie e Prose. Since 1666 the writing of Il Cromuele is accompanied by an extensive correspondence with Jean Chapelain, as Graziani was waged by Colbert on behalf of Louis The Great. Henrighetta, Queen of England has escaped from Cromuele, the tyrant usurper who imprisoned her husband king Carlo in the Tower of London. After useless petitions to the Government of Edinburgh and to the one of Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, she has sailed towards France in order to ask for help her nephew Louis XIV, she is with a young Irish girl just known during the trip. The two women, for their security, are travelling as Dutch Merchants. During the voyage, their ship has been wrecked, their lifeboat was pushed by the wind to English coast, from where they reached London under the identities of Henrico and Edmondo.

In this guise, they have been housed in the Palace of Odoardo and Anna Hide, a family in pectore still loyalist despite it shows fidelity to the usurper Cromuele. The beauty and the singing qualities of Edmondo/Delmira, have meant that the two women were both introduced in Whitehall to attend a major Costume party that Cromuele has ordered, to distract Londoners from the consequences of his despotic government and a looming plague. So far the Backstory. With the arrival at Palace Edmondo/Delmira and Henrico/Henrighetta tragedy begins. It's the eve of King's decapitation; the death sentence has not yet been issued. Elisabetta, the wife of Cromuele, wants her husband to postpone the decision because she's secretly in love with the King, her confidant Orinda, an elder widow sensitive to love affairs, combines her clandestine meeting with Carlo within the prison, where Elisabetta will be able to offer him clemency in change of love. To arrange such an encounter, Orinda asks for help to Edmondo/Delmira and to Henrico/Henrighetta, reassured by their seeming foreigner.

The two heroines take this opportunity to groped to free Carlo, with the help of Odoardo and Anna Hide, to which in the meantime have revealed their true identities. But the discovery of the conspiracy precipitates the fate of Carlo, executed at dawn as well as Edmondo/Delmira who, has time to prove her identity, through some details of her story, Orinda supposes to recognize her daughter, sent abroad when young, to save her from a prophecy of die at home by relatives. Overwhelmed with grief, Orinda committees suicide on. After the regicide. Cromuele can sleep, but his sleep is interrupted by a nightmare in which Mary Stuart heralds the end of his power. Upon awakening, Cromuele receives the glad tidings of the existence of a newborn daughter believed dead, but still alive because exchanged with Orinda's one while in bassinet, but his happiness is short-lived because the anagnorisis plunges him into utter turmoil, when he discovers that his beloved daughter was the Edmondo/Delmira he has just executed.

With the Restoration, on the anniversary of the regicide the corpse of Oliver Cromwell had been exhumed and subjected to Posthumous execution. In the year of the publication of Il Cromuele, his head was still exposed in Westminster; the event is evoked through the premonition of Mary Stuart. Along with Oliver Cromwell, Charles I and their respective wives Elizabeth Bourchier and Henrietta Maria of France, we find Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon which after giving initial support for Commonwealth, changed his party back to Cavaliers, his daughter Anne Hyde, first wife of James II of which in fact in the drama appears in love. Appear, or are mentioned in their proper political position, generals of New Model Army such as John Lambert, Henry Ireton, Thomas Harrison and Thomas Fairfax; the two characters only required by the fiction, therefore presented only with their first name, have a precise reference to history or to contemporary chronicle. The death of Delmira caused by her father Cromuele, plungs him in total despair, Orinda elderly widow but hypersensitive to matters of love, becomes herself a victim of love if Platonic, for a woman.

They both recalled the viewer and the contemporary reader to real people: The first is a direct quote to the favorite daughter of Cromwell, Elizabeth Claypole that had broken off relations with her father not forgiving him his murderous methods. Elizabeth died when she was twenty-nine, as well as Delmira, her death after a long and painful illness, seemed having given the fatal blow to the health of her father, who died a month later; the episode, struck the imagination of his contemporaries who found in it a form of nemesis for regicide committed. The second, Orinda is a direct reference to the Welsh poet Katherine Philips, whose poetic production concerned only about love, marriage, on love relationships in general, arousing interest and scandal for his theories on Love between women, whose nom de plume was The Matchless Orinda; the Preface to the second edition of Il Cromuele, shows no trace of its premiere, there is no trace in the rich documentation in the Este's National Archives in Modena.

The cause of the probable non-representation is the dynastic marriage occurred in 1673 between Maria Beatrice d'Este and James Stua

Direct response television

Direct response television is any television advertising that asks consumers to respond directly to the company — either by calling a toll-free telephone number, sending an SMS message, or by visiting a web site. This is a form of direct response marketing. There are two types of direct response television, short form, long form. Short form is any DRTV commercial, two minutes or less in length. Long form; this was the accepted term for an infomercial from 1984 until "infomercial" came into vogue in 1988. The most common time period available for purchase as "long form" infomercial media is 28 minutes, 30 seconds in length. Long form is used for products that need to educate the consumer to create awareness and have a higher price. A small amount or media time may be purchased in lengths less than 30 minutes but more than 2 minutes. Five minutes is the most available time of these lengths. Direct response television campaigns are managed by specialist Direct Response or DRTV agencies with a full range of strategic, production and campaign services.

They may be managed by media buying agencies who specialize in direct response. In either case, these agencies purchase two types of air-time in two ways; the first is to purchase off of a broadcast network's rate-card for time. The second is to purchase remnant airtime, time that stations were not able to sell, need to fill or cheaply to avoid broadcasting dead-air; this is cheaper for agencies. As DRTV has gained presence outside of its start in the United States, local agencies have developed in many countries. To qualify as DRTV, the advertising must ask the consumer to contact the advertiser directly by phone, by text message, or via the web. In the early days of DRTV, this was nearly always to purchase the product. Over time, a wide range of consumer actions have become used. And, many consumers watch the advertising but choose to purchase at retail without contacting the company. For every unit sold on TV, anywhere from 3 to as high as 15 units might be sold at retail depending on retail distribution.

When it first appeared, DRTV was used to market goods and services directly from the manufacturer or wholesaler to the consumer, bypassing retail. Over time, it has become used as a more general advertising medium and is now used by a wide range of companies --- to support retail distribution. Non-profit organizations benefit from DRTV by making a direct appeal to viewers to make a donation. Many types of companies use DRTV. Marketing companies who specialize in DRTV continue to use the format to offer product sold through TV. Many of these items find their way to retail shelves once their television campaign has ended or has matured. For example, the Dirt Devil Broom Vac was only available on TV for three months before retail launch. Mass merchant retailers have "as seen on TV" sections in their stores. Starting in the 1990s, many brand manufacturers began to use DRTV as a part of their advertising mix. In these cases, most products featured on DRTV are available at retail; the DRTV campaigns ask for direct consumer action either to purchase the product or to obtain a coupon which they can use at the retail store.

Companies who have used DRTV for these purposes include DuPont, Hamilton-Beach, Space Bag, Rubbermaid, P&G, Philips Consumer Electronics, Bissell and Sears. DRTV has become a used advertising medium for insurance companies, mortgage companies, cell phone providers, credit card companies, a host of other services. Companies using this approach include Blue Shield, AAA Insurance, Bank of America, Citibank Credit Cards, DirecTV, Dish Network, many more. Lead generation has become a large segment of many DRTV campaigns; these campaigns collect leads and close the sale at a date via direct mail, email, or phone specialists. Other uses of DRTV include branding via hybrid campaigns, whereas you create awareness of the product and drive retail sales with no firm response goal; this is sometimes called Brand Response TV. Several award programs recognize excellence in DRTV advertising. Awards are sponsored by the Electronic Retailing Association who honor both short-form and long-form DRTV advertising at their annual Moxie Awards Gala in conjunction with the ERA D2C Convention.

Annually the Jordan-Whitney Greensheet offers a range of DRTV recognition awards. And general advertising and production award shows, like the Telly's, WorldFest and Davey's, include categories for long form TV Infomercial and DRTV work. For short-form television direct marketing, the DMA recognizes program excellence via the A. Eicoff Broadcast Innovation Award, named for DRTV pioneer and DMA Hall of fame member, Alvin Eicoff. Many advertisements during the Super Bowl have been DRTV ads and encouraged direct response via websites and 800 numbers; these include ads for web services ranging from Cars. Com to Pets.com and Monster.com. The eTrade advertisement shown during the 2008 Super Bowl featured both an 800 number and a website for response In 2000, Netpliance aired a 30-second advertisement driving phone calls to 1-800-iopener or Netpliance.com in Super Bowl XXXIV. Anticipating high response they obtained additional web hosting services in order to support direct response web traffic from the advertisement.

During the 2009 Super Bowl XLIII, Cash 4 Gold ran a national advertisement during the Super Bowl. This was erroneously reported to be the first DRTV ad in Super Bowl history. Nathanson, Jon. "Th