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First Vatican Council

The First Vatican Council was convoked by Pope Pius IX on 29 June 1868, after a period of planning and preparation that began on 6 December 1864. This, the twentieth ecumenical council of the Catholic Church, held three centuries after the Council of Trent, opened on 8 December 1869 and adjourned on 20 October 1870. Unlike the five earlier general councils held in Rome, which met in the Lateran Basilica and are known as Lateran councils, it met in the Vatican Basilica, hence its name, its best-known decision is its definition of papal infallibility. The council was convoked to deal with the contemporary problems of the rising influence of rationalism and materialism, its purpose was, besides this. There was discussion and approval of only two constitutions: the Dogmatic Constitution on the Catholic Faith and the First Dogmatic Constitution on the Church of Christ, the latter dealing with the primacy and infallibility of the Bishop of Rome; the first matter brought up for debate was the dogmatic draft of Catholic doctrine against the manifold errors due to rationalism.

The Council condemned rationalism, naturalism and pantheism. The Catholic Church was on the defensive against the main ideology of the 19th century; this council was summoned by Pope Pius IX by a bull on 29 June 1868. The first session was held in St. Peter's Basilica on 8 December 1869. Preliminary sessions dealt with committee assignments. Bishop Bernard John McQuaid complained of rainy weather, inadequate heating facilities, boredom. Bishop James Roosevelt Bayley of Newark, New Jersey, noted the high prices in Rome; when Lord Houghton asked Cardinal Manning what had been going on, he answered: “Well, we meet, we look at one another, we talk a little, but when we want to know what we have been doing, we read the Times”. The doctrine of papal infallibility was not new and had been used by Pope Pius in defining as dogma, in 1854, the Immaculate Conception of Mary, the mother of Jesus. However, the proposal to define papal infallibility itself as dogma met with resistance, not because of doubts about the substance of the proposed definition, but because some considered it inopportune to take that step at that time.

Richard McBrien divides the bishops attending Vatican I into three groups. The first group, which McBrien calls the "active infallibilists", was led by Henry Edward Manning and Ignatius von Senestréy. According to McBrien, the majority of the bishops were not so much interested in a formal definition of papal infallibility as they were in strengthening papal authority and, because of this, were willing to accept the agenda of the infallibilists. A minority, some 10 per cent of the bishops, McBrien says, opposed the proposed definition of papal infallibility on both ecclesiastical and pragmatic grounds, because, in their opinion, it departed from the ecclesiastical structure of the early Christian church. From a pragmatic perspective, they feared that defining papal infallibility would alienate some Catholics, create new difficulties for union with non-Catholics, provoke interference by governments in ecclesiastical affairs; those who held this view included most of the German and Austro-Hungarian bishops, nearly half of the Americans, one third of the French, most of the Chaldaeans and Melkites, a few Armenians.

Only a few bishops appear to have had doubts about the dogma itself. On 24 April 1870, the dogmatic constitution on the Catholic faith Dei Filius was adopted unanimously; the draft presented to the council on 8 March drew no serious criticism, but a group of 35 English-speaking bishops, who feared that the opening phrase of the first chapter, "Sancta romana catholica Ecclesia", might be construed as favouring the Anglican branch theory succeeded in having an additional adjective inserted, so that the final text read: "Sancta catholica apostolica romana Ecclesia". The constitution thus set forth the teaching of the "Holy Catholic Apostolic Roman Church" on God and faith. There was stronger opposition to the draft constitution on the nature of the church, which at first did not include the question of papal infallibility, but the majority party in the council, whose position on this matter was much stronger, brought it forward, it was decided to postpone discussion of everything in the draft except infallibility.

The decree did not go forward without controversy. Pius IX rejected Guidi's view of the bishops as witnesses to the tradition, maintaining: "I am the tradition."On 13 July 1870, a preliminary vote on the section on infallibility was held in a general congregation: 451 voted in favour, 88 against, 62 in favour but on condition of some amendment. This made evident what the final outcome would be, some 60 members of the opposition left Rome so as not to be associated with approval of the document; the final vote, with a choice only between placet and non placet, was taken on 18 July 1870, with 433 votes in favour and only 2 against defining as a dogma the infallibility of the pope when speaking ex cathedra. The two votes in opposition were cast by Bishops Aloisio Edward Fitzgerald; the dogmatic constitution states, in chapter 4:9, that the Pope has "full and supreme power of jurisdiction over the whole Church".

1967 in Norwegian music

The following is a list of notable events and releases of the year 1967 in Norwegian music. The 15th Bergen International Festival started in Norway; the 4th Kongsberg Jazz Festival started in Norway. The 7th Moldejazz started in Norway. G Jan Garbarek Trio & QuartetTil Vigdis November25 – Johannes Hanssen, bandmaster and teacher. February1 – John Hegre, guitarist and sound engineer. 3 Børge Petersen-Øverleir and rock guitarist. Gisle Kverndokk, contemporary composer. 12 – Stein Inge Brækhus, jazz drummer and record producer 22 – Audun Erlien, jazz bassist and electronica performer. 26 – Audun Skorgen, jazz bassist. March9 – Siri Broch Johansen, Sami author and singer. 13 – Håkon Storm-Mathisen, jazz guitarist and composer. 31 – Ivar Kolve, jazz vibraphonist and composer. April1 – Dag Stokke, keyboardist in the band TNT, church organist and mastering engineer, cancer. 8 – Margit Bakken, vocalist and songwriter. 14 – Frode Unneland and multi-instrumentalist. 24 – Magnus Grønneberg, vocalist. May18 – Svein Folkvord, jazz double bassist, sound engineer, composer.

July27 – Hans Mathisen, jazz guitarist and composer. August11 – Petter Wettre, jazz saxophonist and composer. 1967 in Norway Music of Norway Norway in the Eurovision Song Contest 1967

American Review of International Arbitration

The American Review of International Arbitration is a quarterly academic journal covering international arbitration. It is run and edited by faculty members at Columbia University Law School, as well as practitioners in international arbitration; the journal publishes articles on international arbitration. It publishes case summaries and reviews of new books in the field; as of 2012, the American Review of International Arbitration is the most cited international arbitration law journal in the world. And the fourth most cited for international trade; the journal has been described by its peers as "a journal which all involved in the international arbitration process ought to give serious attention to."The journal is edited by Professor George Bermann, Professor Robert Smit and Professor Kabir Duggal at Columbia University Law School. Official website