Glossary of rowing terms
In competitive rowing, the following specialized terms are important in the corresponding aspects of the sport: In competitive rowing events, abbreviations are used for different boat classes. Weight L, LWT or Lt: Lightweight rowing If not present the crew is open weightAge J: Junior B: Senior B Masters: over 27, includes a letter designation for the average age of the crew: A - 27 years of age and older B - 36 years of age and older C - 43 years of age and older D - 50 years of age and older E - 55 years of age and older F - 60 years of age and older G - 65 years of age and older H - 70 years of age and older I - 75 years of age and older J - 80 years of age and older If none of these abbreviations are present the crew is Senior A These age categories are common to both FISA and USRowing rules. USRowing designates a AA category for ages 21–26, defines Masters as over 21 rather than 27. There are no age restrictions for coxswains and their age is not factored into the average age of the crew.
Gender M: Men's W: Women's Mixed: Equal numbers of either gender Crew Size 1, 2, 4, 8: The number of rowers in the crew. It is common to use Roman numerals when referring to a VIII. Discipline x: Sculling boat If not present the boat is sweep-oarCoxswain +: Coxed -: Coxless If not present the boat is coxless, except for an eight. Examples M8+ = Men's eight W4- = Women's coxless four LM2- = Lightweight men's coxless pair BM1x = Men's single sculls under age 23 JW4x = Junior women's quad Masters WC2x = Masters women's double sculls with average crew age between 43-49 Mixed Masters 8+ = Eight with 4 women and 4 men as rowers and a coxswain of either gender Ambidextrous A rower who can row both on stroke side and bow side. A rower who can row both on the starboard and port sides of the boat. In the US this is known as bisweptual. Bow The rower closest to the front or bow of a multi-person shell. In coxless boats the person who keeps an eye on the water behind him to avoid accidents. Bowside Any sweep rower who rows with the oar on the bowside of the boat.
Coxswain or "cox" The oar-less crew-member included, responsible for steering and race strategy. The coxswain either sits in the stern or lies in the bow of the boat, faces in the direction of travel. Engine room The middle rowers in the boat. In an 8-person shell, these are seats 6, 5, 4 and 3, they are the biggest and strongest rowers, who provide most of the power to the boat. Hammer A rower known more for his or her powerful pulling rather than technical rowing proficiency. Heavyweight A rower who weighs more than the limit for lightweight rowing. Referred to as Open weight. Lightweight A rower whose weight allows him or her to be eligible to compete in lightweight rowing events. Novices or Novicing Rowers who are rowing for their first year, or a rower who has not won a qualifying regatta. Port left side of the boat; this means. Power House The middle rowers in the boat. In an 8-person shell, these are seats 6, 5, 4 and 3, they are the biggest and strongest rowers, who provide most of the power to the boat.
Sculler A rower who rows with two oars, one in each hand. Seat number A rower's position in the boat counting up from the bow. In an eight, the person closest to the bow of the boat is 1 or "bow," the next is 2, followed by 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 or "stroke." In certain countries the seats are numbered the opposite way, from stroke up to bow. Starboard A sweep rower who rows with the oar on the starboard or right side of the boat; this means. Stroke The rower closest to the stern of the boat, responsible for the stroke rate and rhythm. Strokeside Any sweep rower who rows with the oar on the Strokeside of the boat. Sweep A style of rowing in which each rower uses one oar. Wash The wake from a motorized boat, disliked by rowers as the wash affects the boat stability and can cause water to flood over the gunwales. Sometimes called "shells" in the US In a sweep boat, each rower has one oar. Eight A shell with 8 rowers. Along with the single scull, it is traditionally considered to be the blue ribbon event.
Always with coxswain because of the size and speed of the boat - bow loader eights exist but are banned from most competitions for safety reasons. Four or A shell with 4 rowers. Coxless fours are referred to as straight fours, are used by lightweight and elite crews and are raced at the Olympics. In club and school rowing, one more sees a coxed four, easier to row, has a coxswain to steer. Pair or A shell with 2 rowers; the Coxless pair called a straight pair, is a demanding but satisfying boat to master. Coxed pairs are rowed by most club and school programs, it is no longer an Olympic class event, but it continues to be rowed at the World Rowing Championships. In a sculling boat, each rower has one on each side of the boat. Octuple A shell having 8 rowers with two oars each. A training boat, but raced by juniors in the UK. Quad A shell having 4 rowers with two oars each. Can be coxed but is coxless. Triple A shell for three scullers with two oars each without a coxswain; these boats are rare. Double A shell for two scullers without a cox
Sir Gregory Paul Winter is a Nobel Prize-winning British biochemist best known for his work on the therapeutic use of monoclonal antibodies. His research career has been based entirely at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology and the MRC Centre for Protein Engineering, in Cambridge, England, he is credited with invented techniques to both humanise and to humanise using phage display, antibodies for therapeutic uses. Antibodies had been derived from mice, which made them difficult to use in human therapeutics because the human immune system had anti-mouse reactions to them. For these developments Winter was awarded the 2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry along with George Smith and Frances Arnold, he is a Fellow of Trinity College and was appointed Master of Trinity College, Cambridge on 2 October 2012. From 2006 to 2011, he was Deputy Director of the Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Medical Research Council, acting Director from 2007 to 2008 and Head of the Division of Protein and Nucleic Acids Chemistry from 1994 to 2006.
He was Deputy Director of the MRC Centre for Protein Engineering from 1990 to its closure in 2010. Winter was educated at Newcastle upon Tyne, he went on to study Natural Sciences at the University of Cambridge graduating from Trinity College, Cambridge in 1973. He was awarded a PhD degree, from the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, for research on the amino acid sequence of tryptophanyl tRNA synthetase from the bacterium Bacillus stearothermophilus in 1977 supervised by Brian S. Hartley. Winter completed a term of post-doctoral fellowship at Imperial College London, another at the Institute of genetics in University of Cambridge. Following his PhD, Winter completed postdoctoral research at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, he continued to specialise in protein and nucleic acid sequencing and became a Group Leader at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in 1981. He became interested in the idea that all antibodies have the same basic structure, with only small changes making them specific for one target.
Georges Köhler and César Milstein had won the 1984 Nobel Prize for their work at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology, in discovering a method to isolate and reproduce individual, or monoclonal, antibodies from among the multitude of different antibody proteins that the immune system makes to seek and destroy foreign invaders attacking the body. However, these monoclonal antibodies had limited application in human medicine, because mouse monoclonal antibodies are inactivated by the human immune response, which prevents them from providing long-term benefits. Winter pioneered a technique to "humanise" mouse monoclonal antibodies; this antibody now looks promising for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Humanised monoclonal antibodies form the majority of antibody-based drugs on the market today and include several blockbuster antibodies, such as Keytruda, which works with your immune system to help fight certain cancers. Winter founded Cambridge Antibody Technology in 1989, Bicycle Therapeutics.
He worked on the Scientific Advisory Board of Covagen, is the chairman of the Scientific Advisory Board for Biosceptre International Limited. In 1989, Winter was a founder of Cambridge Antibody Technology, one of the early commercial biotech companies involved in antibody engineering. One of the most successful antibody drugs developed was HUMIRA, discovered by Cambridge Antibody Technology as D2E7, developed and marketed by Abbott Laboratories. HUMIRA, an antibody to TNF alpha, was the world's first human antibody, which went on to become the world's top selling pharmaceutical with sales of over $18Bn in 2017 Cambridge Antibody Technology was acquired by AstraZeneca in 2006 for £702m. In 2000, Winter founded Domantis to pioneer the use of domain antibodies, which use only the active portion of a full-sized antibody. Domantis was acquired by the pharmaceutical GlaxoSmithKline in December 2006 for £230 million. Winter subsequently founded another company, Bicycle Therapeutics Limited as a start up company, developing small protein mimics based on a covalently bonded hydrophobic core.
Winter was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1990 and awarded the Royal Medal by the society in 2011 "for his pioneering work in protein engineering and therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, his contributions as an inventor and entrepreneur". He was given the Scheele Award in 1994. In 1995, Winter won several international awards including the King Faisal International Prize for Medicine and in 1999, the Cancer Research Institute William B. Coley Award. Winter was the Joint Head of the Division of Protein and Nucleic acid Chemistry-Biotechnology, is Deputy Director, at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, an institution funded by the UK Medical Research Council, he was Deputy Director of the MRC's Centre for Protein Engineering until its absorption into the Laboratory of Molecular Biology. He is a member of the Advisory Council for the Campaign for Engineering. Winter was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1997 and Knight Bachelor in 2004, he has served as Master of Trinity College, Cambridge since 2012.
Winter was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry on 3 October 2018 for his work on phage displays for antibodies, along with George Smith and Frances Arnold. This article incorporates text available under the CC BY 4.0 license. Gregory Winter publications indexed by Google Scholar
Westminster School is an independent day and boarding school in London, located within the precincts of Westminster Abbey. With origins before the 12th century, the educational tradition of Westminster dates back as far as 960, in line with the Abbey's history. Boys are admitted to the Under School to the senior school at age thirteen; the school has around 750 pupils. The school motto, Dat Deus Incrementum, is taken from the New Testament 1 Corinthians 3:6, it is one of the original nine public schools of England as defined by the Clarendon Commission of 1861. Charging up to £7,800 per term for day pupils and £11,264 for boarders in 2014/15, Westminster is the 13th most expensive HMC day school and 10th most expensive HMC boarding school in the UK. Westminster School is the most prestigious academic secondary school in the UK, having achieved the highest percentage of students accepted by Oxbridge colleges over the period 2002–2006, has been ranked as the best boy's school in the country in terms of GCSE results in 2017.
The earliest records of a school at Westminster date back to the 1370s and are held in Westminster Abbey's Muniment Room, with parts of the buildings now used by the school dating back to the 10th century Anglo-Saxon Abbey at Westminster. In their annual accounts the school cites their origin as lying in a decree of Pope Alexander III in 1179 though the evidence for this is unclear. In 1540, Henry VIII ordered the dissolution of the monasteries in England, including that of the powerful Abbots of Westminster, but ensured the School's survival by his royal charter; the Royal College of St. Peter carried on with forty "King's Scholars" financed from the royal purse. By this point Westminster School had become a public school. During Mary I's brief reign the Abbey was reinstated as a Roman Catholic monastery, but the school continued. Elizabeth I refounded the school in 1560, with new statutes to select 40 Queen's Scholars from boys who had attended the school for a year. Queen Elizabeth visited her scholars, although she never signed the statutes nor endowed her scholarships, 1560 is now taken as the date that the school was "founded".
Elizabeth I appointed William Camden as headmaster, he is the only layman known to have held the position until 1937. It was Dr Busby, himself an Old Westminster, who established the reputation of the school for several hundred years, as much by his classical learning as for his ruthless discipline by the birch, immortalised in Pope's Dunciad. Busby prayed publicly Up School for the safety of the Crown, on the day of Charles I's execution, locked the boys inside to prevent their going to watch the spectacle a few hundred yards away. Regardless of politics, he thrashed Puritan boys alike without fear or favour. Busby took part in Oliver Cromwell's funeral procession in 1658, when a Westminster schoolboy, Robert Uvedale, succeeded in snatching the "Majesty Scutcheon" draped on the coffin. Busby remained in office throughout the Civil War and the Commonwealth, when the school was governed by Parliamentary Commissioners, well into the Restoration. In 1679, a group of scholars killed a bailiff, ostensibly in defence of the Abbey's traditional right of sanctuary, but because the man was trying to arrest a consort of the boys.
Dr Busby obtained a royal pardon for his scholars from Charles II and added the cost to the school bills. Until the 19th century, the curriculum was predominantly made up of Latin and Greek, all taught Up School; the Westminster boys were uncontrolled outside school hours and notoriously unruly about town, but the proximity of the school to the Palace of Westminster meant that politicians were well aware of the boys' exploits. After the Public Schools Act 1868, in response to the Clarendon Commission on the financial and other malpractices at nine pre-eminent public schools, the school began to approach its modern form, it was separated from the Abbey, although the organisations remain close and the Dean of Westminster Abbey is ex officio the Chairman of the Governors. There followed a scandalous public and parliamentary dispute lasting a further 25 years, to settle the transfer of the properties from the Canons of the Abbey to the school. School statutes have been made by Order in Council of Queen Elizabeth II.
The Dean of Christ Church and the Master of Trinity College, are ex officio members of the school's governing body. Unusually among public schools, Westminster did not adopt most of the broader changes associated with the Victorian ethos of Thomas Arnold, such as the emphasis on team over individual spirit, the school retained much of its distinctive character. Despite many pressures, including evacuation and the destruction of the school roof during the Blitz, the school refused to move out of the city, unlike other schools such as Charterhouse and St. Paul's, remains in its central London location. Westminster Under School was formed in 1943 in the evacuated school buildings in Westminster, as a distinct preparatory school for day pupils between the ages of eight to 13. Only the separation is new: for example, in the 18th century, Edward Gibbon attended Westminster from the age of 11 and Jeremy Bentham from the age of eight; the Under School has since moved to Vincent Square. Its current Master is Mark O'Donnell
Trinity Hall Boat Club
Trinity Hall Boat Club is the rowing club of Trinity Hall, a college of the University of Cambridge. Founded in 1827 it is amongst the oldest college boat clubs in England, it is the most successful Cambridge college at Henley Royal Regatta with a number of wins, including winning all the events but one in 1887. The club has produced numerous rowers for the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race and various national teams, including Tom James, who stroked the 8+ from Great Britain to the B-final in the 2004 Olympics in Athens and won gold with the 4- at the 2008 Olympics in Beijing; the club colours are black and white, its nickname is "Black and White army", its motto "Our power's a crescent", its supporters shout "Row Hall" to encourage the rowers. Unlike other boat clubs, whose scarves are derived from their college scarves, its scarf is made in a black and white tartan. THBC has a senior rowers' club called The White Society; the college first boats, both men and women have been Head of the Lent and May Bumps on numerous occasions in the history of the races, dominating the Mays in the 1890s and both events in the early 1990s.
From 1890 until 1898, Trinity Hall stayed Head of the Mays for 33 consecutive days, which remains to this day the longest continuous defence by a single club of the bumps headship since the Lent and May Bumps became separate events. Trinity Hall were deposed from the top spot in 1898 by First Trinity, who held the headship for 10 days Third Trinity who held the headship for a further 24 days again by First Trinity for 2 more days, meaning that boats from Trinity College held the headship for 36 consecutive days, but until the 1940s, Trinity maintained more than one boatclub. CUCBC – Lent and May Bumps programmes. Trinity Hall Boat Club CUCBC
The Boat Race
The Boat Race is an annual rowing race between the Cambridge University Boat Club and the Oxford University Boat Club, rowed between men's and women's open-weight eights on the River Thames in London, England. It is known as the University Boat Race and the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race; the men's race was first held in 1829 and has been held annually since 1856, except during the First and Second World Wars. The first women's event was in 1927 and the race has been held annually since 1964. Since 2015, the women's race has taken place on the same day and course, since 2018 the combined event of the two races has been referred to as "The Boat Race". In the 2019 race, which took place on Sunday 7 April 2019, Cambridge won the men's and women's races as well as both reserve races; the course covers a 4.2-mile stretch of the Thames from Putney to Mortlake. Members of both teams are traditionally known as blues and each boat as a "Blue Boat", with Cambridge in light blue and Oxford in dark blue.
As of 2019, Cambridge has won the men's race 84 times and Oxford 80 times, with one dead heat. Cambridge has led Oxford in cumulative wins since 1930. In the women's race, Cambridge have won the race 44 times and Oxford 30 times. Cambridge has led Oxford in cumulative wins since 1966. A reserve boat race has been held since 1966 for the women. Over 250,000 people watch the race from the banks of the river each year. In 2009, a record 270,000 people watched. A further 15 million or more watch it on television; the tradition was started in 1829 by Charles Merivale, a student at St John's College and his Old Harrovian school friend Charles Wordsworth, studying at Christ Church, Oxford. The University of Cambridge challenged the University of Oxford to a race at Henley-on-Thames but lost easily. Oxford raced in dark blue because five members of the crew, including the stroke, were from Christ Church Head of the River, whose colours were dark blue. There is a dispute as to the source of the colour chosen by Cambridge.
The second race was with the venue moved to a course from Westminster to Putney. Over the next two years, there was disagreement over where the race should be held, with Oxford preferring Henley and Cambridge preferring London. Following the official formation of the Oxford University Boat Club, racing between the two universities resumed in 1839 on the Tideway and the tradition continues to the present day, with the loser challenging the winner to a rematch annually; the race in 1877 was declared a dead heat. Both crews finished in a time of 8 seconds in bad weather; the verdict of the race judge, John Phelps, is considered suspect because he was over 70 and blind in one eye. Rowing historian Tim Koch, writing in the official 2014 Boat Race Programme, notes that there is "a big and entrenched lie" about the race, including the claim that Phelps had announced "Dead heat... to Oxford by six feet". Phelps's nickname "Honest John" was not an ironic one, he was not drunk under a bush at the time of the finish.
He did have to judge. Some newspapers had believed Oxford won a narrow victory but their viewpoint was from downstream. With no clear way to determine who had surged forward at the exact finish line, Phelps could only pronounce it a dead heat. Koch believes that the press and Oxford supporters made up the stories about Phelps which Phelps had no chance to refute. Oxford disabled, were making effort after effort to hold their waning lead, while Cambridge, curiously enough, had settled together again, were rowing as one man, were putting on a magnificent spurt at 40 strokes to the minute, with a view of catching their opponents before reaching the winning-post, thus struggling over the remaining portion of the course, the two eights raced past the flag alongside one another, the gun fired amid a scene of excitement equalled and never exceeded. Cheers for one crew were succeeded by counter-cheers for the other, it was impossible to tell what the result was until the Press boat backed down to the Judge and inquired the issue.
John Phelps, the waterman, who officiated, replied that the noses of the boats passed the post level, that the result was a dead heat. In 1959 some of the existing Oxford blues attempted to oust president Ronnie Howard and coach Jumbo Edwards. However, their attempt failed. Three of the dissidents returned and Oxford went on to win by six lengths. Following defeat in the previous year's race, Oxford's first in eleven years, American Chris Clark was determined to gain revenge: "Next year we're gonna kick ass... Cambridge's ass. If I have to go home and bring the whole US squad with me." He recruited another four American post-graduates: three international-class rowers and a cox, in an attempt to put together the fastest Boat Race crew in the history of the contest. Disagreements over the training regime of Dan Topolski, the Oxford coach, led to the crew walking out on at least one occasion, resulted in the coach revising his approach. A fitness test between Clark and club president Donald Macdonald resulted in a call for Macdonald's removal.
Justin Portal Welby is the 105th Archbishop of Canterbury and the most senior bishop in the Church of England, a politician by virtue of his seat in the House of Lords. Welby was the vicar of Southam and most was the Bishop of Durham, serving for just over a year; as Archbishop of Canterbury, he is the Primate of All England and the head Primus inter pares of the worldwide Anglican Communion. Welby was educated at the University of Cambridge where he studied law. In life, he received an ordination at St John's College, Durham. After several parochial appointments he became the Dean of Liverpool in 2007 and the Bishop of Durham in 2011. Welby's theology is reported as representing the evangelical tradition within Anglicanism. Having worked in business before his ordination, some of his publications explore the relationship between finance and religion and, as a member of the House of Lords, he sits on the panel of the 2012 Parliamentary Commission on Banking Standards. Justin Portal Welby was born in London, England, on 6 January 1956 nine months after the marriage of his mother Jane Gillian Portal to Gavin Bramhall James Welby.
Jane had served as a personal secretary to Sir Winston Churchill from December 1949 until her marriage to Gavin Welby in April 1955 soon after she had a short relationship with the private secretary to Churchill, Sir Anthony Montague Browne. Gavin Welby, born Bernard Gavin Weiler in Ruislip, West London, was the son of Bernard Weiler, a German-Jewish immigrant and importer of luxury items who changed the family name to Welby shortly after the First World War broke out. Welby describes his early childhood as "messy": Gavin and Jane Welby were both alcoholics, they divorced in 1959, when he was three years old, he was placed in Gavin Welby's custody. In 1960 Gavin Welby was engaged to the actress Vanessa Redgrave, who called the engagement off after her mother Lady Redgrave wrote to Vanessa's father, Sir Michael Redgrave, that Gavin Welby was "a real horror... a pretty rotten piece of work". Gavin Welby died in 1977 of alcohol-related causes. Welby's mother stopped drinking in 1968, in 1975 married Charles Williams, a business executive and first-class cricketer, made a life peer in 1985.
Williams was the nephew of Elizabeth Laura Gurney, a member of the Gurney family of Norwich who were prominent Quakers and social reformers. Welby describes his stepfather as being supportive of him. Paternity testing in 2016 showed that Welby's biological father was not Gavin Welby but Sir Anthony Montague Browne. Welby said he was not disturbed by this discovery but did admit that it had come as "a complete surprise", adding: "I know that I find who I am in Jesus Christ, not in genetics, my identity in him never changes." Welby's mother Jane Portal was the daughter of Iris Butler, a journalist and historian whose brother R. A. "Rab" Butler, Lord Butler of Saffron Walden, was a Conservative politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer, Home Secretary, Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Secretary. Their father was Sir Montagu Butler, Governor of the Central Provinces of British India and Master of Pembroke College, Cambridge. Sir Montagu Butler was the grandson of George Butler, headmaster of Harrow School and Dean of Peterborough.
Jane Portal's father was Gervas Portal, a half-brother of the World War II Chief of the Air Staff, Charles Portal, 1st Viscount Portal of Hungerford. Gervas Portal's mother Rose Leslie Portal née Napier was the granddaughter of General Sir William Napier and his wife Caroline Amelia Fox. General Napier and his brothers, Generals Sir Charles James Napier and Sir George Thomas Napier, were sons of George Napier and his second wife Lady Sarah Lennox. Caroline Amelia Fox was the daughter of General Henry Edward Fox, younger brother of prominent Whig politician Charles James Fox. Lady Caroline Lennox and Lady Sarah Lennox were two of the five famous Lennox sisters, daughters of the 2nd Duke of Richmond, son of the 1st Duke of Richmond, illegitimate son of King Charles II and his mistress Louise de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth. Welby was educated at Seaford, he graduated in 1978 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in law. In a 12 July 2013 interview with The Daily Telegraph, Welby related his conversion experience when he was a student at Trinity College, Cambridge.
He said. But I didn't believe. I wasn't interested at all." But during the evening of 12 October 1975 in Cambridge, praying with a Christian friend, Welby said that he felt “a clear sense of something changing, the presence of something that had not been there before in my life. He said to his friend, “Please don’t tell anyone about this.” Welby said that he was embarrassed that this had happened to him. He has since credited his time at Cambridge as being a major moment of self-realisation in his life. At the age of 19 he began speaking in tongues. Welby worked for eleven years in the oil industry, fiv
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate