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First day of issue

A first day of issue cover or first day cover is a postage stamp on a cover, postal card or stamped envelope franked on the first day the issue is authorized for use within the country or territory of the stamp-issuing authority. Sometimes the issue is made from a permanent foreign or overseas office. Covers that are postmarked at sea or their next port of call will carry a Paquebot postmark. There will be a first day of issue postmark a pictorial cancellation, indicating the city and date where the item was first issued, "first day of issue" is used to refer to this postmark. Depending on the policy of the nation issuing the stamp, official first day postmarks may sometimes be applied to covers weeks or months after the date indicated. Postal authorities may hold a first day ceremony to generate publicity for the new issue, with postal officials revealing the stamp, with connected persons in attendance, such as descendants of the person being honored by the stamp; the ceremony may be held in a location that has a special connection with the stamp's subject, such as the birthplace of a social movement, or at a stamp show.

Prior to 1840, postage costs were high and they were paid by the person who received the mail. The cost was measured by how far the letter had to go. Sometimes this amounted to a considerable sum. Sir Rowland Hill calculated that the cost to the Post Office was far less than what some people were paying to send/receive their mail. Hill believed that sending mail should be affordable to all so proposed that postage should be pre-paid, based on the weight rather than the number of sheets and the cost should be drastically reduced. On 10 January 1840 a Uniform 1d postmark was released which allowed a universal penny postage rate, this was a postmark, paid and was applied when the letter was sent, it was decided that an adhesive label should be used to prevent forgeries and mis-use of the postal service and the Penny Black stamp was born. The stamp was covered a letter up to 14 grams in weight, it was released for sale on 6 May 1840 however, several post offices that received the stamps prior to that date released the stamps early.

The City of Bath is known for releasing the stamps on 2 May 1840. Here began the first First Day Covers. Event covers known as commemorative covers, instead of marking the issuance of a stamp, commemorate events. A design on the left side of the envelope explains the anniversary being celebrated. Ideally the stamp or stamps affixed relate to the event. Cancels are obtained either from the location or, in the case of the United States, from the Postal Service's Cancellation Services unit in Kansas City. Philatelic covers are envelope prepared with a stamp and sent through the mail delivery system to create a collectible item. Information about philatelic covers is available online in catalogs and collector websites. Computer vended postage stamps issued by Neopost had first-day-of-issue ceremonies sponsored by the company, not by an official stamp-issuing entity. Personalised postage stamps of different designs are sometimes given first-day-of-issue ceremonies and cancellations by the private designer.

The stamps issued by private local posts can have first days of issue, as can artistamps. The postmark is one of the most important features of a cover. Stamps are cancelled by a postmark, which shows they have been used and can’t be re-used to send a letter. Circular Date Stamps are the'bread-and-butter' postmarks used on everyday mail by Post Office counters across the UK. A CDS postmark is straight forward and only features the town’s name and the date. There is no picture, it you wanted to use a CDS postmark because the town is relevant to the stamp issue, you would have to go to the town’s local Post Office to get it. On a cover, the postmark should link them to the envelope. Postmarks came to the foreground in the early 1960s, when collectors started to demand more interesting cancellations on their first day covers. For the Red Cross issue in 1963, a special Florence Nightingale cover was posted at her birthplace, West Wellow; the Botanical Conference issue of 1964 featured primroses on the stamps, so one clever cover dealer posted his covers at Primrose Valley.

This kind of relevant postmark made a cover worth ten times more than the same cover with a standard postmark issued by the Philatelic Bureau at Edinburgh. In the US, the U. S. Postal Service chooses several, as ` official' first day cities; these have a special connection to the stamp issue being released, these postmarks are the only ones that have the wording:'First Day of Issue' With postmarks becoming more and more important to the covers, pictorial postmarks became popular. Pictorial postmarks are known as Special Handstamps/Postmarks. In 1924 The first commemorative set of stamps for the British Empire Exhibition had both special postmarks and a special slogan, but it was not until the late 1960s/early 1970s that dealers and organisations caught on that you could sponsor/design a connected postmark and it would make an ordinary cover something special; these days anyone can sponsor a postmark. They need to design the postmark, get it approved by Royal Mail and pay a fee; the postmark becomes the property of Royal Mail and anyone is allowed to use it on their covers.

This means other people's postmarks. However, to be an “official” cover, a postmark has to be on the cover produced by the organisation that sponsored the post

Paul Baum (mathematician)

Paul Frank Baum is an American mathematician, the Evan Pugh Professor of Mathematics at Pennsylvania State University. He is known for formulating the Baum–Connes conjecture with Alain Connes in the early 1980s. Baum studied at Harvard University, earning a bachelor's degree summa cum laude in 1958, he went on to Princeton University for his graduate studies, completing his Ph. D. in 1963 under the supervision of John Coleman Moore and Norman Steenrod. He was several times a visiting scholar at the Institute for Advanced Study After several visiting positions and an assistant professorship at Princeton, he moved to Brown University in 1967, remained there until 1987 when he moved to Penn State, he became a distinguished professor in 1991 and was given his named chair in 1996. In 2007, a meeting in honor of his 70th birthday was held in Warsaw by the Polish Academy of Sciences. In 2011, the University of Colorado gave him an honorary doctorate. In 2012 he became a fellow of the American Mathematical Society

Peter Baltz

Peter Baltz was a French-born baker from Bas-Rhin, who emigrated to the United States in 1853. He was on the Los Angeles Common Council, and became a successful businessperson and property owner again in San Jose, California. Baltz was born in Bas-Rhin Department of the Alsace region of France on 10 May 1831. In 1853 he emigrated to the United States, where he "experienced many trials and hardships," working in "the principal Eastern cities." He crossed the country westward to California in 1856, settled in Los Angeles, where he opened a bakery. In 1860 he served on the governing body of the city; the successful business was destroyed by fire in 1862 however. Baltz took up mining, but lost some five thousand dollars in the venture, he opened a new bakery in San Francisco, saved "several thousand dollars," and returned to Europe for a time to visit his parents. In 1869 he resettled in San Jose. Industry and enterprise have brought their regard to Mr. Baltz in the way of a handsome fortune, he owns over $75,00 worth of property in San Joe, has erected a large business and hotel building on West Santa Clara Street this year, costing many thousand dollars.

In September 1894 a two-story building he owned in San Jose was destroyed by fire, in February 1902 a barn he owned was gutted by an "incendiary fire," two horses perishing. Baltz was variously reported as marrying at the age of 39 with Angeline Kuhn, a 46-year-old widow, like him from "Basreun France," and/or with "Miss Chrisinte Kesser, a lady of his own country, tho whom he was engaged before his emigration", he died on August 18, 1903, at the age of seventy-three, leaving "a considerable estate." Access to the newspaper links may require the use of a library card

MasterChef Selebriti Malaysia

MasterChef Selebriti Malaysia is a Malaysian competitive cooking game show. It is spin-off of MasterChef Malaysia, itself an adaptation of the British show MasterChef, features celebrity contestants, it began production in May 2012 and premiered on Astro Ria and Mustika HD on 25 May 2012. MasterChef Malaysia has a different format in each episode. A typical episode format is as follows: 1. Saturday - Peti Saji Misteri & Ujian Cipta Rasa; each participant is given a box containing ingredients to cook the same and need to prepare a meal using ingredients given alone. This dish will be felt by Chef MCM, a winner will be selected. Peti Saji Misteri winner will be given the opportunity to choose the main course of the Ujian Cipta Rasa. Participants must create a dish using the selected main dish. 2. Sundays - Ujian Sajian Pantas & Penyingkiran. Three participants who are unable to satisfy Chef MCM from the night before the challenge will be a recipe for a particular dish, they need to produce the same dish in the allotted time.

Participants who make poor meal would be eliminated from the competition. 3. Monday - Cabaran Sajian Luar; the participants will be divided into teams consisting of the same number and was given the task and time frame to complete this challenge. The task is like cooking for military camps; the losing team will face relegation next night. 4. Tuesday - Ujian Sajian Pantas & Penyingkiran. Participants who are unable to satisfy Chef MCM from the night before the challenge will be a recipe for a particular dish, they need to produce the same dish in the allotted time. Participants who make poor meal would be eliminated from the competition. Moh Johari Edrus Zubir Md. Zain Adu Amran Hassan Celebrity MasterChef Malaysia Season 1 features 16 celebrities as contestants; the contestants include: This chef won the competition. This chef received second place; the chef received an advantage in the next challenge. The chef was safe from the Elimination Test; the chef did not win. The chef was not selected as a top bottom entry in the challenge.

The chef was on the blue team in the Team Challenge The chef was on the red team in the Team Challenge The chef was on the yellow team in the Team Challenge The chef was on the green team in the Team Challenge The chef won the Mystery Box Challenge and did not have to compete in the Invention Test. The chef was on the losing team in the Team Challenge or the chef was one of the bottom entries in an individual challenge, competed in the Elimination Test, advanced; the chef competed in second elimination test after first elimination test, advanced. The chef was on the losing team in the Team Challenge, but did not compete in the elimination test, advanced; the chef was one of the bottom entries in an individual challenge The chef was Saved from eliminated The chef was eliminated from MasterChef. Celebrity MasterChef Malaysia Season 2 features 19 celebrities as contestants; the contestants include: Aznil Nawawi withdrew from competition ^Note 1 On episode 4, Aznil, Che Ta and Keroz willingly to be in the bottom 5 and go through elimination process without being selected by Celina after their team lose.^Note 2 On episode 8, red team lose and the result of elimination round for performance that week were not revealed and later it was revealed Saathiya Ramasamy was eliminated.


Producing Parker

Producing Parker is a Canadian adult animated television sitcom that debuted May 4, 2009 on TVtropolis. Episodes began airing on Global in fall 2009; the plot revolves around the behind-the-scenes antics of a female-targeted daytime television talk show, stars Parker Kovak, the producer of "The Dee Show", Dee, its self-absorbed and high maintenance host. The show's cast includes Peter Keleghan and Aaron Abrams. Kim Cattrall was awarded a Gemini for "Best Performance in an Animated Program or Series" in 2010; the series is co-produced by Breakthrough Animation and Philippine Animators Group Inc. in association with CanWest Global and was confirmed for a second season set for February 2011. The second season premiered April 8, 2011 on Canada's TVtropolis; the series was not renewed for a third season. Parker Kovak: The overworked, underpaid daytime talk show producer of The Dee Show. A kind-hearted but mildly neurotic woman in her late twenties, she is of Eastern-European descent. Dee: The ageless, nymphomaniac glamorous and high maintenance star of The Dee Show.

She was raised by a family of cougars in the California mountains. Simon Nolan: The left wing, slacker writer for The Dee Show, Parker's good friend who has a secret crush on her. Chicago Hyatt: Parker's attractive, yet under-qualified "loose" blonde intern, as well as her unwitting confidant, she is Blake's third cousin. Blake Bellamy: The young, absent-minded British station owner of Bellamy Broadcasting, cousin of Chicago. Parker has a crush on him and he has, as he puts it, "some sort of feeling" for her. Massimo: Parker's talking dog, her main companion. A refined canine friend who enjoys the fine arts, good wine and endlessly chasing his own tail. Hal: Handy man and operator on The Dee Show. Known to be a contractor/olympic diver/dog groomer/ordained satanist minister. Russell: Dee's flamboyant, image-driven gay personal stylist and best friend. Victoria Lafayette: Victoria is the charitative host of The Victoria Show whom Dee sees as her enemy and who once hired Parker as her producer, she runs several international charities.

She physically resembles her personality is similar to Oprah's. Antique Annie She is the elderly host of an Antiques roadshow style show. In the episode "Dee Mother Load" it is hinted. Dr. William Perry: A chemist and relationship fidelity expert, featured as a recurrent guest on The Dee Show and acts as a de facto physician for the show's crew. James Hard: Television news anchor of "Hard News Report" Jeremy: Chicago's friend and lover, works as the mail carrier of The Dee Show. 1. "Producing Parker": Parker Kovak hopes to get promoted to producer of "The Dee Show", first meets her attractive but promiscuous intern, Chicago. Meanwhile, Dee is upset about the small size of her bottom. 2. "Model Moms": Dee orders Parker to get her a baby after a segment from the Model Moms. 3. "The Skinny On Parker": Dee decides to become obese for higher ratings and Parker begins dating Günter Fürst, an action star and former Republican senator turned fitness guru who takes her on extreme action movie work-outs. When she realizes the work-outs make her lose weight, Parker begins getting obsessed with physical fitness.

4. " A Friend In Dee": Dee decides to become friends with Parker, Parker finds Dee to be an irritating friend. Meanwhile, Simon uses his skills to try and expose the horrific problems of a third-world spa resort while failing to realize that he is the one causing the problems. 5. "Renovating Parker": "The Dee Show" decides to get a makeover after Dee's floor breaks. Dee orders Parker to find her a attractive contractor. Parker uses Hal and turns him into a hunky contractor, but things start to get worse as Hal decides to abandon "The Dee Show" and move to the rival "The Victoria Show". 6. "Dog Dee Afternoon": Dee kicks Parker's dog'Massimo' while on-the-air, which creates a controversy that might cost Parker her job. 7. "In Dee Club": Dee tries to become a lesbian after a break-out scandal involving her rival Victoria Lafayette and a Catholic nun. 8. "And Dee Winner Is...": After she doesn't get nominated for a Blabby Award, Dee goes into a mad frenzy. When Parker gets nominated for a Blabby instead, Dee goes over the edge and joins a group called Losers Anonymous, which teaches her to let go of her ambition.

Meanwhile, Simon runs a betting pool on how Dee will have a nervous breakdown. 9. "Age Dee-fying": Dee mutates into a half-woman/half snake when being treated with poisonous snake venom. Simon undertakes a mission to determine Dee's age using Antique Annie. 10. "Mentoring Parker": With Chicago leaving for a role in a movie, Parker has the chance to hire a perfect intern. But when Dee gave an audience member the job position, she turns out to be more reliable than she expected, but is this audience member too good to be true or something else? 11. "Eat, Parker": After reading "Feast, Salsa," Parker decides to go shop for a motorcycle. Meanwhile, Dee gets ready for her bookclub segment on the show with the guest author, Jackie Cartwright of the book Parker read, but is Parker's guest hiding something? 12. "A Recipe For Dee-saster": Dee bakes some cookies on the show. But when she eats one, Dee chokes on it and becomes unconsci

The Broadway League

The Broadway League the League of American Theatres and Producers and League of New York Theatres and Producers, is the national trade association for the Broadway theatre industry based in New York, New York. Its members include theatre owners and operators, producers and general managers in New York and more than 250 other North American cities, as well as suppliers of goods and services to the theatre industry. Founded in 1930 to counter ticket speculation and scalping, the Broadway League has expanded its mission and programs over time. In addition to negotiating labor agreements with 14 unions in New York City and engaging in lobbying initiatives throughout the country, the League recognizes excellent works and artists through award programs such as Tony Awards, promotes the Broadway theatre industry through audience development programs such as Kids' Night on Broadway and Viva Broadway, provides periodical studies and industry information such as box office grosses and demographic surveys for journalists and the general public.

The Broadway League has more than 700 members representing the Broadway theatre industry in New York and more than 200 other North American cities across the United States. In addition to theatre owners, presenters, general managers who create productions and operate theatres across the country, industry specialists and vendors such as press agents, booking agents, advertising agencies, scenery and prop shops are all eligible for membership; the League was founded in 1930 as the "League of New York Theatres and Producers". It was founded by Broadway theatre operators to further common interests, with the main purpose of fighting ticket speculation and scalping; the original purpose of the League described in its charter was to “protect the general public patrons of the theater, owners of theatrical entertainments, operators of theaters and reputable theater ticket brokers against the evils of speculation of theater tickets.” The League's first successful act was the writing of the Theater Ticket Code of Fair Practice which became a state law in 1940.

These efforts are still relevant today, as ticket resellers in New York State are required to obtain a license from the Department of State and are prohibited from reselling tickets within 500 feet of theatres or box offices. In the following years the League expanded its charter several times. In 1938, the League became the official collective bargaining unit representing the theatre owners and producers on Broadway to negotiate labor agreements with unions such as Actors' Equity. With the decline of Broadway in the 1980s the League changed its name to the "League of American Theatres and Producers" and began to expand its domain to theatres across the United States. On December 18, 2007 the League adopted its current name, "The Broadway League". In a press statement announcing the name change, the League explained that its membership is "not limited to theatre owners and producers, but includes Broadway presenters, general managers and other Broadway industry professionals," and the new name "more aptly reflects the composition of the League's membership."

The Broadway League is a collective bargaining unit representing Broadway producers and theatre owners, negotiates labor agreements with 14 unions in New York City to set the minimum terms for hiring union members. Broadway productions are unionized, all employees are members of unions such as Actors' Equity Association, Stage Directors and Choreographers Society, Local 802 of American Federation of Musicians, Local One of International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees; the Broadway League works with the Dramatists Guild of America, an organization composed of playwrights and lyricists, to engage authors for Broadway productions. Though the Guild is not a union because authors are not employees of producers or theatres, the Guild provides the Approved Production Contract, a contract template for authors to use in negotiations with producers. Out of 40 existing Broadway theatres, the collectively bargained agreements the League negotiates with unions only apply to the theatres owned by the Shubert Organization, Jujamcyn Theaters, the Nederlander Organization.

Theatres owned and operated by not-for-profit organizations such as the Roundabout Theatre Company, Lincoln Center Theater, Manhattan Theatre Club are under the jurisdiction of the League of Resident Theatres which negotiates separate agreements with unions. Disney Theatrical Group, which owns the New Amsterdam Theatre negotiates labor agreements independently, as well as a handful of others; the most recent strike on Broadway occurred in November 2007, when the Broadway League and the stagehands union, Local One of IATSE, failed to come to agreement after months of negotiation. Local One was joined by other Broadway unions such as AEA and SDC, 27 shows running on Broadway were shut down; this marked the first strike on Broadway in Local One’s 120-year history, the strike lasted for 19 days, recording the longest strike on Broadway since 1975. The economic impact of the strike spread beyond the Broadway shows, to nearby restaurants, gift shops, bars. Tim Tompkins, the head of the Times Square Business Improvement District, explained that “a lot of folks come to New York to go to a Broadway show and with this cloud of uncertainty, they postpone or cancel their trips.

So that’s a double hit." According to the New York City comptroller’s office, the strike resulted in $2 million in lost revenue per day in addition to the lost ticket sales, mounting to $40 million total. The main conflict in the negotiation was the work rules regarding load-ins; the existing