Caledonian MacBrayne shortened to CalMac, is the major operator of passenger and vehicle ferries, ferry services, between the mainland of Scotland and 22 of the major islands on Scotland's west coast. Since 2006 the company's official name has been CalMac Ferries Ltd although it still operates as Caledonian MacBrayne. In 2006 it became a subsidiary of holding company David MacBrayne Ltd, owned by the Scottish Government. MacBrayne's known as David Hutcheson & Co. began in 1851 as a private steamship operator when G. and J. Burns, operators of the largest of the Clyde fleets, decided to concentrate on coastal and transatlantic services and handed control of their river and Highland steamers to a new company in which Hutcheson, their manager of these services, became senior partner, their main route went from Glasgow down the Firth of Clyde through the Crinan Canal to Oban and Fort William, on through the Caledonian Canal to Inverness. David Hutcheson was married to Margaret Dawson, born at her parents home'Bonnytoun House' in Linlithgow.
She was the sister of Adam Dawson who owned the St. Magdalene Whisky Distillery in Linlithgow and sister to James Dawson who were born at'Bonnytoun House'. In 2011 Glasgow historian Robert Pool added over 200 letters and documents to his collection relating to David Hutcheson and the Dawson family; the Caledonian Railway at first used the services of various early private operators of Clyde steamers began operating steamers on its own account on 1 January 1889 to compete better with the North British Railway and the Glasgow and South Western Railway. It extended its line to bypass the G&SW's Prince's Pier at Greenock and continue on to the fishing village of Gourock, where they had purchased the harbour. After years of fierce competition between all the fleets, the Caledonian and G&SW were merged in 1923 into the London and Scottish Railway and their fleets were amalgamated into the Caledonian Steam Packet Company, their funnels were painted yellow with a black top. At the same time the North British Railway fleet became part of the London and North Eastern Railway.
With nationalisation in 1948 the LMS and LNER fleets were amalgamated under British Railways with the name Clyde Shipping Services. In 1957 a reorganisation restored the CSP name, in 1965 a red lion was added to each side of the black-topped yellow funnels; the headquarters remained at Gourock pierhead. At the end of December 1968 management of the CSP passed to the Scottish Transport Group, which gained control of MacBrayne's the following June; the MacBrayne service from Gourock to Ardrishaig ended on 30 September 1969, leaving the Clyde to the CSP. On 1 January 1973 the Caledonian Steam Packet Co. acquired most of the ships and routes of MacBrayne's and commenced joint Clyde and West Highland operations under the new name of Caledonian MacBrayne, with a combined headquarters at Gourock. Funnels were now painted red with a black top, a yellow circle at the side of the funnel featuring the red Caledonian lion. In 1974 a new car ferry service from Gourock to Dunoon was introduced with the ferries MV Jupiter and MV Juno.
In 1990 the ferry business was spun off as a separate company, keeping the Caledonian MacBrayne brand, shares were issued in the company. All shares were owned by the state, first in the person of the Secretary of State for Scotland, by the Scottish Government. A joint venture between Caledonian MacBrayne and the Royal Bank of Scotland named NorthLink Orkney and Shetland Ferries won the tender for the subsidised Northern Isles services run by P&O Scottish Ferries, commencing in 2002; the ambitious programme ran into financial difficulties, the service was again put out to tender. Caledonian MacBrayne won this tender, formed a separate company called NorthLink Ferries Limited which began operating the Northern Isles ferry service on 6 July 2006. On 29 May 2012, NorthLink Ferries Ltd lost the contract for provision of the Northern Isles ferry services to Serco. To meet the requirements of European Union Community guidelines on state aid to maritime transport, the company's routes were put out to open tender.
To enable competitive bidding on an equal basis, Caledonian MacBrayne was split into two separate companies on 1 October 2006. Caledonian Maritime Assets Limited retained ownership of CalMac vessels and infrastructure, including harbours, while CalMac Ferries Ltd submitted tenders to be the ferry operator, their bid for the main bundle and Hebrides Ferry Services, succeeded and on 1 October 2007 CalMac Ferries Ltd began operating these services on a six-year contract. The Gourock to Dunoon service was the subject of a separate tender. In an interim arrangement CalMac Ferries Ltd continued to provide a subsidised service on this route, until 29 June 2011, when Argyll Ferries took over the service. On 14 July 2009, it was announced that CalMac would begin Sunday sailings to Stornoway on the Isle of Lewis from Sunday 19 July; these had faced strong opposition from Sabbatarian elements in the Lewis community the Lord's Day Observance Society and the Free Church of Scotland. However, CalMac stated that EU equality legislation made it unlawful to refuse a service to the whole community because of the religious beliefs of a part of it.
The company enjoys a de facto monopoly on the shipment of freight and vehicles to the islands, competes for passenger traffic with number of aircraft services of varying quality and reliability. Nonetheless, few if any of the routes operated by CalMac are profitable, the company receives significant government subsidies due to its vital r
Hunters Quay. Situated between Kirn to the south and Ardnadam to the north, Hunters Quay is the main base of Western Ferries LTD, operating between Hunters Quay and McInroy's Point, it is home to the Royal Marine Hotel, over one hundred years old. The 12-metre class yacht race in the 1908 London Olympic Games took place at Hunters Quay. Most of the sailing took place on the Solent, but only two boats entered the 12-metre class: Mouchette from the Royal Liverpool Yacht Club and Hera from the Royal Clyde Yacht Club, they were allowed to race on the Clyde for convenience. The course was twice round a 13-mile lap of the Clyde and finishing at Hunters Quay. Thomas C. Glen-Coats' Hera won. "Jim Crow", a pointed rock lying horizontally on the beach, was known as the "Jim Crow Stone" in the 1880s, by 1904 was painted with a face. The inspiration behind the name and design have been suggested to be: the Jump Jim Crow song and dance popularised by the American minstrel show performer Thomas D. Rice. Due to this potential link the rock has been painted over a number of times, but always returned to its original state.
Another is that it is named after the line "So they canonized him by the name of Jem Crow!" in the poem The Jackdaw of Rheims
Ailsa Craig is an island of 99 hectares in the outer Firth of Clyde, 16 kilometres west of mainland Scotland, upon which blue hone granite has long been quarried to make curling stones. The now uninhabited island is formed from the volcanic plug of an extinct volcano; the island, colloquially known as "Paddy's milestone", was a haven for Catholics during the Scottish Reformation in the 16th century, but is today a bird sanctuary, providing a home for huge numbers of gannets and an increasing number of puffins. An early reference to the rock is made by Sir Donald Monro, Archdeacon of the Isles who referred to the rock as "Elsay" in the 16th century; the modern name of the island is an anglicisation of the Gaelic, Aillse Creag meaning "fairy rock". An alternative Gaelic name is Creag Ealasaid meaning "Elizabeth's rock"; the first element, Aillse may represent Allt Shasann, "cliff of the English", mentioned in the Book of Leinster as Aldasain. The island is sometimes known as "Paddy's Milestone", being the halfway point of the sea journey from Belfast to Glasgow, a traditional route of emigration for many Irish labourers going to Scotland to seek work.
As a result of being the most conspicuous landmark in the channel between Ireland and Scotland, the island is known by a number of different names. The Bass Rock is sometimes nicknamed "the Ailsa Craig of the East", although its prominence in the Firth of Forth is not as great as that of Ailsa Craig in the Firth of Clyde. A number of features and places on the island have acquired names, Gaelic in most cases, such as Craigna'an; some names seem self-explanatory and indeed the'Swine Cave' may refer to a time when the Earl of Cassilis received part of his rent in hogs from the island. The island is 16 km west of Girvan; the island is part of the administrative district of South Ayrshire, in the ancient parish of Dailly. Geologically, Ailsa Craig is the remains of a volcanic plug from an extinct volcano, it stands out because all younger sedimentary rocks covering Southwest Scotland have long since been eroded away. But the island survived erosion because it is composed of much harder igneous rocks from the Palaeogene period.
The plug, composed of granite, is all that remains from the massive volcanic activity caused by the formation of the Atlantic Ocean. Dykes of similar age can be found in Scotland through other older rocks such as the extensive Cleveland and Eskdalemuir dykes. Though only a few metres across, these volcanic dykes can be traced all the way from northern England back to an ancient supervolcano on the Isle of Mull. Research has shown that the granite on Ailsa Craig has an unusual crystalline composition that has a distinctive appearance but a uniform hardness; these properties have made the island's rock a favourite material for curling stones. The island has a fresh-water spring but no electricity, sewage or telephone connections. Apart from 2 hectares sold to the Northern Lighthouse Board in 1883, the island belongs to The 9th Marquess of Ailsa. In May 2011 it was announced. Reports in December 2013 claimed an unnamed environmental trust had placed a formal bid, while in April 2014 the National Trust of Scotland was reported to be considering a bid.
The chief well on the island lies above'the Loups' and this was used by the Northern Lighthouse Board who built a cistern there and piped the water to the lighthouse complex. The'Horse Well' was located behind the gasworks. Four cottages, a shed and a small area of adjacent land are in the ownership of the Scottish Indian business tycoon Bobby Sandhu, purchased for £85,000 from the Northern Lighthouse Board. A five-star hotel was to be built; the only surviving buildings on the island are the lighthouse on its east coast facing the Scottish mainland, a ruined towerhouse, built by Clan Hamilton to protect the area from Philip II of Spain in the 16th century and the old quarry manager's house, used by the RSPB. Mrs Margaret Girvan ran a tearoom in a wooden building that stood next to the tacksman's cottage, famed for its pristine white table cloths and fresh scones. Mrs Girvan kept goats in stone-built goat pens on the good grazing near Garry Loch; the feral billy goats were wont to interfere with these nanny goats and this was another reason for their demise.
Fishermen seem to have used the island for centuries, first being noted in 1549 and it is recorded that they at one time slept beneath sails stretched over hollows on the beach. A fishermen's cottages row was under construction in the 1840s. However, the main developer died, the project was abandoned, with the area used instead as a walled kitchen garden until the gasworks was built; the island seems to have been a part of the Barony of Knockgarron that lay in the Parish of Dailly and the holder, Duncan of Turnberry, Earl of Carrick established the abbey of Crossraguel and endowed it with the island of Ailsa Craig to "provide f
Tail of the Bank
The Tail of the Bank is the name given to the anchorage in the upper Firth of Clyde North of Greenock and Gourock. This area of the Firth gets its name from the sandbar to its East which marks the entrance to the Estuary of the River Clyde; the Tail of the Bank was a significant point of embarkation for many travellers emigrants, to Canada and the United States of America. Steamships of the Cunard Line en route from Liverpool to New York City called at Tail of the Bank to pick up additional passengers. In the past this area was at times crowded with ships during the Second World War when the Home Fleet warships of the Royal Navy temporarily left Scapa Flow after the sinking of HMS Royal Oak and were based at the Tail of the Bank; the Clyde Anchorages Emergency Port was improvised there in September 1940 by stevedoring companies evacuated from the Royal Docks of London. Hundreds of merchant ships of the Atlantic convoys gathered there, as well as ships of the Free French Navy; the upper Firth was protected by an anti-submarine boom at that time, stretching from Cloch point across the Firth to Dunoon on the Cowal Peninsula.
A monument in the form of a Cross of Lorraine combined with an anchor was erected on Lyle Hill overlooking the Tail of the Bank, to commemorate the Free French Naval Forces. It is associated locally with the Vauquelin class destroyer Maillé Brézé which blew up off Greenock with heavy loss of life on 30 April 1940, before the Free French Naval Forces were established. By 1944 the CAEP became one of the principal destinations for US troops sent to Britain. In 1974 the "sugar boat" Captayannis was at anchor at the Tail of the Bank when it was driven northwards by a storm and turned on its side on a sandbank midway between Greenock and Helensburgh, forming a large shipwreck, still visible in the middle of the Firth. Though the sugar trade has been reduced, Greenock's Ocean Terminal facility now handles container freight and regular cruise-liner traffic; the Royal Navy HMNB Clyde bases on Gare Loch and on Loch Long are linked by this area of the Clyde, the Greenock Great Harbour is one of the three main ports providing marine services support to the Navy under the Royal Maritime Auxiliary Service and operated by Serco Denholm.
"Admiralty boats" are therefore a common sight shepherding large Navy ships. Burns, John Allen, Heroes of the British Merchant Fleet The Clyde's Wreck - Captayannis, the "sugar boat"
Isle of Bute
The Isle of Bute, known as Bute, is an island in the Firth of Clyde in Scotland, United Kingdom. It is divided into lowland areas by the Highland Boundary Fault. A constituent island of the larger County of Bute, it is now part of the council area of Argyll and Bute. Bute's resident population was 6,498 in 2011, a decline of just over 10% from the figure of 7,228 recorded in 2001 against a background of Scottish island populations as a whole growing by 4% to 103,702 for the same period; the name "Bute" is of uncertain origin. Watson and Mac an Tàilleir support a derivation from Old Irish bót in reference to signal fires; this reference to beacon fires may date from the Viking period, when the island was known to the Norse as Bót. Other possible derivations include Brythonic budh, "victory", St Brendan, or both, his monastic cell. There is no derivation from Ptolemy's Ebudae; the island was known during the Viking era as Rothesay referring to the personal name Roth or Roderick and the Old Norse suffix ey.
This name was taken by the main town on the island, whose Gaelic name is Baile Bhòid. Bute lies in the Firth of Clyde; the only town on the island, Rothesay, is linked by ferry to the mainland. To its north is the coastal village of Port Bannatyne; the interior of the island is hilly, though not mountainous, with conifer plantations and some uncultivated land in the north. The highest point is Windy Hill at 278 metres; the centre of the island contains most of the cultivated land, while the island's most rugged terrain is found in the far south around Glen Callum. Loch Fad runs along the fault line; the western side of Bute is known for its beaches, many of which enjoy fine views over the Sound of Bute towards Arran and Bute's smaller satellite island Inchmarnock. Hamlets on the western side of the island include Straad, around St. Ninian's Bay, Kildavanan on Ettrick Bay. In the north, Bute is separated from the Cowal peninsula by the Kyles of Bute; the northern part of the island is more sparsely populated, the ferry terminal at Rhubodach connects the island to the mainland at Colintraive by the smaller of the island's two ferries.
The crossing is one of the shortest, less than 300 metres, takes only a few minutes but is busy because many tourists prefer the scenic route to the island. North Bute forms part of the Kyles of one of 40 in Scotland. Bute straddles the divide between highland and lowland Scotland with the Highland Boundary Fault cutting NNE-SSW through the island between Rothesay Bay and Scalpsie Bay. To the north of this line are metamorphosed sandstones and mudstones which constitute the Southern Highland Group of the Dalradian. To its south are the conglomerates, sandstones and siltstones of the Devonian age Stratheden Group and of the Carboniferous age Inverclyde Group. Associated with the latter are Carboniferous extrusive igneous rocks lavas and tuffs of the Clyde Plateau Volcanic Formation; these occur northeast of Scalpsie and south of Kilchattan Bay. The metamorphic rocks of the Dalradian sequence is divided locally into a couple of groups, themselves subdivided into formations, each of which contains ‘members’.
The youngest strata are at the top of the list: Trossachs Group Ardscalpsie Formation Quien Hill Grit Member Loch Dhu Slate Member Southern Highlands Group St Ninian Formation Toward Quay Grit Member Bullrock Greywacke Member Dunoon Phyllite FormationThe Palaeozoic sedimentary and extrusive igneous sequence in stratigraphic order is as follows. All are of Carboniferous age except the Bute Conglomerate, late Devonian and separated from the overlying Kinnesswood sandstones and mudstones by an unconformity. Strathclyde Group Clyde Plateau Volcanic Formation Birgidale Mudstone Formation Inverclyde Group Clyde Sandstone Formation Ballagan Formation Kinnesswood Formation Stratheden Group Bute Conglomerate FormationA couple of thin coal seams are recorded within the volcanic sequence inland of Ascog; the centre of the island is cut by a couple of east-west trending late Carboniferous dykes of quartz-microgabbro and the whole island by a much more numerous swarm of Palaeogene age microgabbro dykes aligned NNW-SSE in the north but WSW-ESE and NNE-SSW in the south.
Sills and other intrusive bodies are present in the extreme south. Raised beaches are present around most of Bute’s coastline, lying around 8m above current sea levels. Higher marine platforms with partial cover of sand and gravel are recognised further inland, dating from earlier parts of the Devensian ice age. Till derived from the ice age is widespread inland while isolated peat deposits in the north. Alluvium floors numerous stream valleys. Small areas of blown sand are to be found landward of some sandy bays; the human occupation of Bute dates from prehistoric times. The Queen of the Inch necklace is an article of jewellery made of jet found in a cist that dates from circa 2000 BC. Bute was colonised by Gaelic peoples; the island subsequently fell under Norse control and formed part of the Kingdom of the Isles, ruled by the Crovan dynasty. The Irish Text Martyrology of Tallaght makes a reference to Blane, the Bishop of Kingarth on Bute, "in Gall-Ghàidheil". However, in the 12th century, the island fell under the control of Somerled, Lord of Argyll, his Clann Somhairle descendants.
At about t
Cowal is a peninsula in Argyll and Bute, in the west of Scotland, that extends into the Firth of Clyde. The northern part of the peninsula is covered by the Argyll Forest Park managed by Forestry and Land Scotland; the Arrochar Alps and Ardgoil peninsula in the north fringe the edges of the sea lochs whilst the forest park spreads out across the hillsides and mountain passes, making Cowal one of the remotest areas in the west of mainland Scotland. The Loch Lomond and The Trossachs National Park extends into Cowal; the peninsula is separated from Knapdale by Loch Fyne, from Inverclyde and North Ayrshire to the east by the Firth of Clyde. Loch Long and its arm, Loch Goil are to the north-east; the south of the peninsula is split into three forks by Loch Riddon. The Isle of Bute lies to the south separated by the narrow Kyles of Bute which connect the Firth of Clyde to Loch Riddon. Cowal's only burgh is Dunoon in the south-east. Other ferries run from Portavadie in the west to Tarbert in Kintyre, from Colintraive in the south to Rhubodach on the Isle of Bute.
Much of Cowal was once held by the Lamonts. The Campbells came to be one of the most powerful families in Cowal; the Cowal peninsula is bounded by Loch Fyne on the west and Loch Long and the Firth of Clyde on the east. It is separated from the Isle of Bute by the deep narrow straits of the Kyles of Bute; the coastline is incised by deep sea lochs, principally Loch Riddon, Loch Striven. These split the southern half of Cowal into three narrower peninsulas; the small central peninsula is divided from the Kilfinan peninsula by Loch riddon, the interjection of Bute, its Kyles. Cowal's underlying geology is made up of resistant metamorphic rocks, but south of the Highland Boundary Fault part of the Toward peninsula is composed of sedimentary rocks; the landscape is mountainous, the high ground dominated by moorland, peat mosses and the forest that extends down the sides of the sea lochs to the water's edge. The acreage of improved farmland is small. Most land is owned by the Forestry and Land Scotland except in the more settled areas.
The coast is rocky and the few beaches are shingle and gravel except on Loch Fyne: the longest sandy beach is at Ardentinny on Loch Long. The only lowland areas are around the coast where most of the settlement is found around Dunoon Cowal's largest settlement on the Firth of Clyde. Other settlements include Innellan, Kilmun, Arrochar, Tighnabruaich and Strachur; the A83 trunk road crosses the northern end of the peninsular passing Arrochar at the head of Loch Long and Cairndow near the head of Loch Fyne. It follows or runs parallel to William Caulfield's historic military road that takes its name, Rest and Be Thankful from the stone seat erected at the summit at the head of Glen Croe; as the A83 has been subject to landslips, the old route has been used as a diversionary route. The other A roads are the A815 which links the A83 with Dunoon via Strachur where the A886 leaves it and heads south via Glendaruel to Colintraive where the ferry connects it to the Isle of Bute and the A8003 which links Tighnabruaich to the A886.
Other roads are narrow roads or tracks. At Colintraive the Caledonian MacBrayne vehicle ferry takes five minutes to cross the 400-yard strait to Rhubodach on Bute; the ferry from Portavadie to Tarbert on Kintyre across Loch Fyne takes 25 minutes. Frequent services operated by Argyll Ferries connect Dunoon to Gourock where they connect with trains to Glasgow Central railway station. Evidence of early occupation of the area is in the form of cairns or burial mounds. One example is a Bronze Age cairn from between about 2000 BC and 800 BC is situated close to the summit of Creag Evanachan, 195 metres above sea level overlooking Loch Fyne, it up to 2 metres high. Another is the cairn at Dunchraigaig, 100 feet in diameter and was first excavated in 1864. At the south end a cist contained the deposits of burnt bones from 10 bodies. A smaller cist in the centre contained a bowl, burnt bone and flint chips, in the clay below them, the remains of a burial. A third smaller cist contained a food bowl, burnt bones and flint chips.
A whetstone, flint knife, fragments of pottery and a greenstone axe were found. When the Irish invaded the region, it became part of their kingdom of Dal Riata; the Cenél Comgaill, a kin group within Dal Riata, controlled the Cowal peninsula, which took their name. Prior to this, little is known, except as revealed archaeologically, though the region may have been part of the Pictish kingdom of Fortriu. Following a subsequent invasion by Norsemen, the Hebridean islands of Dal Riata became the Kingdom of the Isles, which following Norwegian unification became part of Norway, as Suðreyjar; the remaining parts of Dal Riata attracted the name Argyle, in reference to their ethnicity. In an unclear manner, the kingdom of Alba was founded elsewhere by groups originating from Argyll, expanded to include Argyll itself. However, an 11th-century Norse military campaign led to the formal transfer of Lorn, Kintyre, Knapdale and Arran, to Suðreyjar; this left Alba with no part of Argyll except Cowal, the land between Loch Awe and Loch Fyne.
After Alba united with Moray, over the course of the century, it became Scotland. In 1326, a sheriff was appointed for the Scottish parts of
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to as Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. Most of modern Scotland was once Gaelic-speaking, as evidenced by Gaelic-language placenames. In the 2011 census of Scotland, 57,375 people reported as able to speak Gaelic, 1,275 fewer than in 2001; the highest percentages of Gaelic speakers were in the Outer Hebrides. There are revival efforts, the number of speakers of the language under age 20 did not decrease between the 2001 and 2011 censuses. Outside Scotland, Canadian Gaelic is spoken in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. Scottish Gaelic is not an official language of either the United Kingdom. However, it is classed as an indigenous language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, which the British government has ratified, the Gaelic Language Act 2005 established a language development body, Bòrd na Gàidhlig.
Aside from "Scottish Gaelic", the language may be referred to as "Gaelic", pronounced or in English. "Gaelic" may refer to the Irish language. Scottish Gaelic is distinct from Scots, the Middle English-derived language varieties which had come to be spoken in most of the Lowlands of Scotland by the early modern era. Prior to the 15th century, these dialects were known as Inglis by its own speakers, with Gaelic being called Scottis. From the late 15th century, however, it became common for such speakers to refer to Scottish Gaelic as Erse and the Lowland vernacular as Scottis. Today, Scottish Gaelic is recognised as a separate language from Irish, so the word Erse in reference to Scottish Gaelic is no longer used. Gaelic was believed to have been brought to Scotland, in the 4th–5th centuries CE, by settlers from Ireland who founded the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata on Scotland's west coast in present-day Argyll.:551:66 However, archaeologist Dr Ewan Campbell has argued that there is no archaeological or placename evidence of a migration or takeover.
This view of the medieval accounts is shared by other historians. Regardless of how it came to be spoken in the region, Gaelic in Scotland was confined to Dál Riata until the eighth century, when it began expanding into Pictish areas north of the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde. By 900, Pictish appears to have become extinct replaced by Gaelic.:238–244 An exception might be made for the Northern Isles, where Pictish was more supplanted by Norse rather than by Gaelic. During the reign of Caustantín mac Áeda, outsiders began to refer to the region as the kingdom of Alba rather than as the kingdom of the Picts. However, though the Pictish language did not disappear a process of Gaelicisation was under way during the reigns of Caustantín and his successors. By a certain point during the 11th century, all the inhabitants of Alba had become Gaelicised Scots, Pictish identity was forgotten. In 1018, after the conquest of the Lothians by the Kingdom of Scotland, Gaelic reached its social, cultural and geographic zenith.:16–18 Colloquial speech in Scotland had been developing independently of that in Ireland since the eighth century.
For the first time, the entire region of modern-day Scotland was called Scotia in Latin, Gaelic was the lingua Scotica.:276:554 In southern Scotland, Gaelic was strong in Galloway, adjoining areas to the north and west, West Lothian, parts of western Midlothian. It was spoken to a lesser degree in north Ayrshire, the Clyde Valley and eastern Dumfriesshire. In south-eastern Scotland, there is no evidence that Gaelic was widely spoken. Many historians mark the reign of King Malcom Canmore as the beginning of Gaelic's eclipse in Scotland, his wife Margaret of Wessex spoke no Gaelic, gave her children Anglo-Saxon rather than Gaelic names, brought many English bishops and monastics to Scotland.:19 When Malcolm and Margaret died in 1093, the Gaelic aristocracy rejected their anglicised sons and instead backed Malcolm's brother Donald Bàn. Donald had spent 17 years in Gaelic Ireland and his power base was in the Gaelic west of Scotland, he was the last Scottish monarch to be buried on Iona, the traditional burial place of the Gaelic Kings of Dàl Riada and the Kingdom of Alba.
However, during the reigns of Malcolm Canmore's sons, Alexander I and David I, Anglo-Norman names and practices spread throughout Scotland south of the Forth–Clyde line and along the northeastern coastal plain as far north as Moray. Norman French displaced Gaelic at court; the establishment of royal burghs throughout the same area under David I, attracted large numbers of foreigners speaking Old English. This was the beginning of Gaelic's status as a predominantly rural language in Scotland.:19-23 Clan chiefs in the northern and western parts of Scotland continued to support Gaelic bards who remained a central feature of court life there. The semi-independent Lordship of the Isles in the Hebrides and western coastal mainland remained Gaelic since the language's recovery there in the 12th century, providing a political foundation for cultural prestige down to the end of the 15th century.:553-6By the mid-14th century what came to be called Scots emerged as the official language of government and law.:139 Scotland's emergent nat