Firth of Forth

The Firth of Forth is the estuary of several Scottish rivers including the River Forth. It meets the North Sea with Lothian on the south, it was known as Bodotria in Roman times. In the Norse sagas it was known as the Myrkvifiörd. An early Welsh name is Merin Iodeo, or the "Sea of Iudeu". Firth is an anglicization of fjord. Forth is the name of the river. Geologically, the Firth of Forth is a fjord, formed by the Forth Glacier in the last glacial period; the drainage basin for the Firth of Forth covers a wide geographic area including places as far from the shore as Ben Lomond, Harthill and the edges of Gleneagles Golf Course. Many towns line the shores, as well as the petrochemical complexes at Grangemouth, commercial docks at Leith, former oil rig construction yards at Methil, the ship-breaking facility at Inverkeithing and the naval dockyard at Rosyth, along with numerous other industrial areas, including the Forth Bridgehead area, encompassing Rosyth and the southern edge of Dunfermline, Kirkcaldy, Bo'ness and Leven.

The firth is bridged in two places. The Kincardine Bridge and the Clackmannanshire Bridge cross it at Kincardine, while further east the Forth Bridge, the Forth Road Bridge and the Queensferry Crossing cross from North Queensferry to South Queensferry; the Romans made a bridge of around 900 boats at South Queensferry. From 1964 to 1982, a tunnel existed under the Firth of Forth, dug by coal miners to link the Kinneil colliery on the south side of the Forth with the Valleyfield colliery on the north side; this is shown in the 1968 educational film "Forth - Powerhouse for Industry". The shafts leading into the tunnel were filled and capped with concrete when the tunnel was closed, it is believed to have filled with water or collapsed in places. In July, 2007, a hovercraft passenger service completed a two-week trial between Portobello and Kirkcaldy, Fife; the trial of the service was hailed as a major operational success, with an average passenger load of 85 percent. It was estimated the service would decrease congestion for commuters on the Forth road and rail bridges by carrying about 870,000 passengers each year.

Despite its initial success, the project was cancelled in December, 2011. The inner firth, located between the Kincardine and Forth bridges, has lost about half of its former intertidal area as a result of land reclamation for agriculture, but for industry and the large ash lagoons built to deposit spoil from the coal-fired Longannet Power Station near Kincardine. Historic villages line the Fife shoreline; the firth is a Site of Special Scientific Interest. The Firth of Forth Islands SPA is home to more than 90,000 breeding seabirds every year. There is a bird observatory on the Isle of May. A series of sand and gravel banks in the approaches to the firth have since 2014 been designated as a Nature Conservation Marine Protected Area under the name Firth of Forth Banks Complex; the youngest person to swim across the Firth of Forth was 13-year-old Joseph Feeney, who accomplished the feat in 1933. In 2008, a controversial bid to allow oil transfer between ships in the firth was refused by Forth Ports.

SPT Marine Services had asked permission to transfer 7.8 million tonnes of crude oil per year between tankers, but the proposals were met with determined opposition from conservation groups. Bass Rock Craigleith Cramond Eyebroughy Fidra Inchcolm Inchgarvie Inchkeith Inchmickery with Cow and Calf Lamb Isle of May Lowest bridging point: StirlingNorth shore South shore Isle of May bird observatory Forthfast experimental hovercraft service, 16–28 July 2007 Inchcolm Virtual Tour Take a virtual tour around some of the Inchcolm's military defences

Robert Morris (cryptographer)

Robert H. Morris Sr. was an American cryptographer and computer scientist. Morris was born in Massachusetts, his parents were Walter W. Morris, a salesman, Helen Kelly Morris, he received a bachelor's degree in mathematics from Harvard University in 1957 and a master's degree in applied mathematics from Harvard in 1958. He married Anne Farlow, they had three children together: Robert Tappan Morris, Meredith Morris, Benjamin Morris. From 1960 until 1986, Morris was a researcher at Bell Labs and worked on Multics and Unix. Together with Douglas McIlroy, he created M6 macro processor in FORTRAN IV, ported to Unix. Using the TMG compiler-compiler, together with McIlroy, developed the early implementation of PL/I compiler called EPL for Multics project; the pair contributed a version of runoff text-formatting program for Multics. Morris's contributions to early versions of Unix include the math library, the bc programming language, the program crypt, the password encryption scheme used for user authentication.

The encryption scheme, was based on using a trapdoor function to compute hashes of user passwords which were stored in the file /etc/passwd. In 1986, Morris began work at the National Security Agency, he served as chief scientist of the NSA's National Computer Security Center, where he was involved in the production of the Rainbow Series of computer security standards, retired from the NSA in 1994. He once told a reporter. There is a description of Morris in Clifford Stoll's book The Cuckoo's Egg. Many readers of Stoll's book remember Morris for giving Stoll a challenging mathematical puzzle in the course of their discussions on computer security: What is the next number in the sequence 1 11 21 1211 111221?. Stoll chose not to include the answer to this puzzle in The Cuckoo's Egg, to the frustration of many readers. Robert Morris died in New Hampshire. Rule 1 of cryptanalysis: check for plaintext; the three golden rules to ensure computer security are: do not own a computer. UNIX Operating System Security, AT&T Bell Laboratories Technical Journal, 63, part 2, #8, pp. 1649–1672.

Dennis Ritchie: "Dabbling in the Cryptographic World" tells the story of cryptographic research he performed with Morris and why that research was never published

Phenes raptor

Phenes raptor is a species of dragonfly from Chile and other parts of South America. Larvae specimen have been collected along the Malleco River and additionally from a farm mill, whereas an adult specimen has been collected from additional sites in Chile. Phenes raptor is a predator, it is the physically largest dragonfly in Chile. Phenes raptor is the only member of its genus; the body of Phenes raptor is part of a group of Odonata with similar features, nicknamed the Odonata of Chile. These measure 35–52 mm for its hindwings, they tend to have thin yet stubby bodies, tinted yellow. Their faces are black, with a thin crossbar above its mouth, while its eyes are set apart, the eyes are joined by a point or dot near the center of its face; the male Phenes raptor has small anal appendages, with three to four 4-celled triangles, which includes a small notch towards the tip of the appendage. Veins connect the hindwings; the females do not have any veins connecting their stigma to another area of their anatomy.

Their wings are not symmetrically formed and have a forewing triangle, divided into two to three cells and a few dots bordering the edge of the wing. The specimen's frons is well developed and has a longitudinal groove which parted the frons; the abdomen has patterns on it, described as "leaf-like". Some specimens have small, red claws which are retracted; the red thorax has two yellow stripes and is covered in small, white hairs