Headlands and bays
Both headland and bay are two coastal features that are related and found on the same coastline. A bay is a body of water—usually seawater and sometimes fresh water— surrounded by land, whereas a headland is surrounded by water on three sides. Headlands are characterized by rocky shores, intense erosion and steep sea cliffs. Bays have less wave activity and have sandy beaches. Headlands and bays form on discordant coastlines, where the land consists of bands of rock of alternating resistance that run perpendicular to the coast. Bays form where less resistant rocks, such as sands and clays, are eroded, leaving bands of stronger, or more resistant rocks, which form a headland or peninsula. Refraction of waves occurs on headlands concentrating wave energy on them, so many other landforms, such as caves, natural arches, stacks, form on headlands. Wave energy is directed at right angles to the wave crest, lines drawn at right angles to the wave crest represent the direction of energy expenditure. Orthogonals converge on headlands and diverge in bays, which concentrates wave energy on the headlands and dissipates wave energy in the bays.
In the formation of sea cliffs, wave erosion undercuts the slopes at the shoreline, which retreat landward. This accelerates mass movement; the debris from these landslides collects at the base of the cliff and is removed by the waves during storms, when wave energy is greatest. This debris provides sediment, transported through longshore current for the nearby bay. Joints in the headlands are eroded back to form caves; these gaps collapse and leave tall stacks at the ends of the headlands. These too are eroded by the waves. Wave refraction disperses wave energy through the bay, along with the sheltering effect of the headlands, this protects bays from storms; this effect means that the waves reaching the shore in a bay are weaker than the waves reaching the headland, the bay is thus a safer place for water activities like surfing or swimming. Through the deposition of sediment within the bay and the erosion of the headlands, coastlines straighten out, but the same process starts all over again.
A beach is a dynamic geologic feature that can fluctuate between advancement and retreat of sediment. The natural agents of fluctuation include waves, tides and winds. Man-made elements such as the interruption of sediment supply, such as a dam, withdrawal of fluid can affect beach stabilization. Static equilibrium refers to a beach, stable and experiences neither littoral drift nor sediment deposition nor erosion. Waves diffract around the headland and near the beach when the beach is in a state of static equilibrium. Dynamic equilibrium occurs when the beach sediments are deposited and eroded at equal rates. Beaches that have dynamic equilibrium are near a river that supplies sediment and would otherwise erode away without the river supply. Unstable beaches are a result of human interaction, such as a breakwater or dammed river. Unstable beaches are reshaped by continual erosion or deposition and will continue to erode or deposit until a state of equilibrium is reached in the bay. GeoResources - diagrams of headland and bay formation
Whales are a distributed and diverse group of aquatic placental marine mammals. They are an informal grouping within the infraorder Cetacea excluding dolphins and porpoises. Whales and porpoises belong to the order Cetartiodactyla with even-toed ungulates and their closest living relatives are the hippopotamuses, having diverged about 40 million years ago; the two parvorders of whales, baleen whales and toothed whales, are thought to have split apart around 34 million years ago. The whales comprise eight extant families: Balaenopteridae, Cetotheriidae, Monodontidae, Physeteridae and Ziphiidae. Whales are creatures of the open ocean. So extreme is their adaptation to life underwater. Whales range in size from the 2.6 metres and 135 kilograms dwarf sperm whale to the 29.9 metres and 190 metric tons blue whale, the largest creature that has lived. The sperm whale is the largest toothed predator on earth. Several species exhibit sexual dimorphism. Baleen whales have no teeth, they use their throat pleats to expand the mouth to take in huge gulps of water.
Balaenids have heads. Toothed whales, on the other hand, have conical teeth adapted to catching squid. Baleen whales have a well developed sense of "smell", whereas toothed whales have well-developed hearing − their hearing, adapted for both air and water, is so well developed that some can survive if they are blind; some species, such as sperm whales, are well adapted for diving to great depths to catch squid and other favoured prey. Whales have evolved from land-living mammals; as such whales must breathe air although they can remain submerged under water for long periods of time. Some species such as the sperm whale are able to stay submerged for as much as 90 minutes, they have blowholes located on top of their heads, through which air is expelled. They are warm-blooded, have a layer of fat, or blubber, under the skin. With streamlined fusiform bodies and two limbs that are modified into flippers, whales can travel at up to 20 knots, though they are not as flexible or agile as seals. Whales produce a great variety of notably the extended songs of the humpback whale.
Although whales are widespread, most species prefer the colder waters of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, migrate to the equator to give birth. Species such as humpbacks and blue whales are capable of travelling thousands of miles without feeding. Males mate with multiple females every year, but females only mate every two to three years. Calves are born in the spring and summer months and females bear all the responsibility for raising them. Mothers of some species nurse their young for one to two years. Once relentlessly hunted for their products, whales are now protected by international law; the North Atlantic right whales nearly became extinct in the twentieth century, with a population low of 450, the North Pacific grey whale population is ranked Critically Endangered by the IUCN. Besides whaling, they face threats from bycatch and marine pollution; the meat and baleen of whales have traditionally been used by indigenous peoples of the Arctic. Whales have been depicted in various cultures worldwide, notably by the Inuit and the coastal peoples of Vietnam and Ghana, who sometimes hold whale funerals.
Whales feature in literature and film, as in the great white whale of Herman Melville's Moby Dick. Small whales, such as belugas, are sometimes kept in captivity and trained to perform tricks, but breeding success has been poor and the animals die within a few months of capture. Whale watching has become a form of tourism around the world; the word "whale" comes from the Old English whæl, from Proto-Germanic *hwalaz, from Proto Indo European *kwal-o-, meaning "large sea fish". The Proto-Germanic *hwalaz is the source of Old Saxon hwal, Old Norse hvalr, Swedish val, Middle Dutch wal, Dutch walvis, Old High German wal, German Wal; the obsolete "whalefish" has a similar derivation, indicating a time when whales were thought to be fish. Other archaic English forms include wal, whal, whaille, etc; the term "whale" is sometimes used interchangeably with dolphins and porpoises, acting as a synonym for Cetacea. Six species of dolphins have the word "whale" in their name, collectively known as blackfish: the killer whale, the melon-headed whale, the pygmy killer whale, the false killer whale, the two species of pilot whales, all of which are classified under the family Delphinidae.
Each species has a different reason for it, for example, the killer whale was named "Ballena asesina"'killer whale' by Spanish sailors. The term "Great Whales" covers those regulated by the International Whaling Commission: the Odontoceti family Physeteridae; the whales are part of the terrestrial mammalian clade Laurasiatheria. Whales do not form a order.
The New Zealand Herald
The New Zealand Herald is a daily newspaper published in Auckland, New Zealand, owned by New Zealand Media and Entertainment. It has the largest newspaper circulation of all newspapers in New Zealand, peaking at over 200,000 copies in 2006, although circulation of the daily Herald had declined to 115,213 copies on average by December 2017, its main circulation area is the Auckland region. It is delivered to much of the north of the North Island including Northland and King Country; the New Zealand Herald was founded by William Chisholm Wilson, first published on 13 November 1863. Wilson had been a partner with John Williamson in the New Zealander, but left to start a rival daily newspaper as he saw a business opportunity with Auckland's growing population, he had split with Williamson because Wilson supported the war against the Māori while Williamson opposed it. The Herald promoted a more constructive relationship between the North and South Islands. After the New Zealander closed in 1866 The Daily Southern Cross provided competition after Julius Vogel took a majority shareholding in 1868.
The Daily Southern Cross was first published in 1843 by William Brown as The Southern Cross and had been a daily since 1862. Vogel sold out of the paper in 1873 and Alfred Horton bought it in 1876. In 1876 the Wilson family and Horton joined in partnership and The New Zealand Herald absorbed The Daily Southern Cross. In 1879 the United Press Association was formed so that the main daily papers could share news stories; the organisation became the New Zealand Press Association in 1942. In 1892, the New Zealand Herald, Otago Daily Times, Press agreed to share the costs of a London correspondent and advertising salesman; the New Zealand Press Association closed in 2011. The Wilson and Horton families were both represented in the company, known as Wilson & Horton, until 1996 when Tony O'Reilly's Independent News & Media Group of Dublin purchased the Horton family's interest in the company; the Herald is now owned by Entertainment. That company is owned by Sydney-based APN News & Media and the Radio Network, owned by the Australian Radio Network.
Dita de Boni was a columnist for the newspaper, writing her first columns for the NZ Herald in 1995. From 2012 - 2015 she wrote a business and politics column until – after a series of articles critical of the Key government – the Herald discontinued her column for financial reasons. Gordon Minhinnick was a staff cartoonist from the 1930s until his retirement in the 1980s. Malcolm Evans was fired from his position as staff cartoonist in 2003 after the newspaper received complaints about his cartoons on the conflict between Israel and Palestine. Laurence Clark was the daily political cartoonist from 1987 to 1996, continued to publish cartoons weekly in the Herald until 2000. On 10 September 2012, the Herald moved to a compact format for weekday editions, after 150 years publishing in broadsheet format; the broadsheet format was retained for the Saturday edition. In April 2007, APN NZ announced it was outsourcing the bulk of the Herald's copy editing to an Australian-owned company, Pagemasters.
In November 2012, two months after the launch of its new compact format, APN News and Media announced it would be restructuring its workforce, cutting eight senior roles from across the Herald's range of titles. The Herald is traditionally a centre-right newspaper, was given the nickname "Granny Herald" into the 1990s; this changed with the acquisition of the paper by Independent News & Media in 1996, today, despite remaining free enterprise oriented on economic matters such as trade and foreign investment, the Herald is editorially progressive on international geopolitics and military matters, printing material from British newspapers such as The Independent and The Observer but more conservative newspapers such as The Daily Telegraph. It regularly reprints syndicated material from the and politically conservative, right-wing British tabloid the Daily Mail; the Herald's stance on the Middle East is supportive of Israel, as seen most in its 2003 censorship and dismissal of cartoonist Malcolm Evans following his submission of cartoons critical of Israel.
On domestic matters, editorial opinion is centrist supporting conservative values. In 2007, an editorial disapproved of some legislation introduced by the Labour-led government, the Electoral Finance Act, to the point of overtly campaigning against the legislation. In July 2015, the New Zealand Press Council ruled that Herald columnist Rachel Glucina had failed to properly represent herself as a journalist when seeking comment from Amanda Bailey on a complaint she had made about Prime Minister John Key pulling her hair when he was a customer at the cafe in which she worked; the Herald published Bailey's name and comments after she had retracted permission for Glucina to do so. The council said there was an “element of subterfuge” in Glucina's actions and that there was not enough public interest to justify her behaviour. In its ruling the council said that, “The NZ Herald has fallen sadly short of those standards in this case.” The Herald's editor denied the accusations of subterfuge. Glucina subsequently resigned from the newspaper.
In 1998 the Weekend Herald was set up as a separate title and the newspaper's website was launched. A compact-sized Sunday edition, the Herald on Sunday, was first published on 3 October 2004 under the editorship of Suzanne Chetwin and for five years, by Shayne Currie, it won Newspaper of the Year for the calendar years 2007 and 2009 and is New Zealand's second-highest-circulating weekly newspaper after the more established and conservative broadshee
The Waihou River is located in the northern North Island of New Zealand. Its former name, Thames River, was bestowed by Captain James Cook in November 1769, when he explored 14 mi of the river from the mouth. An older Māori name was "Wai Kahou Rounga". A 1947 Geographic Board enquiry ruled; the river flows north for 150 kilometres from the Mamaku Ranges past the towns of Putaruru, Te Aroha, Paeroa, before reaching the Firth of Thames at the south end of the Hauraki Gulf near the town of Thames. In its lower reaches, the river and the nearby Piako River form the wide alluvial Hauraki Plains. Just before the river reaches the ocean, State Highway 25 crosses the river over the Kopu Bridge, the longest single lane bridge in the country at 463 metres and the only remaining swing bridge on a New Zealand state highway; the bridge was infamous for the queues of vehicles travelling to and from the Coromandel Peninsula until a new two lane bridge was opened in December 2011. Tributaries include Waiomou Stream, Oraka Stream and the Ohinemuri River.
In 1879 the Falls of Awotonga were destroyed by 200 pounds of dynamite to free the navigation of the river for shipping. There was a water column of 150 m. Other parts of the river had been cleared in the same manner in previous years; the crystal-clear waters of the Waihou River provide ideal fishing. The river supports large populations of rainbow and brown trout. A survey conducted in 2009 showed that the upper section of the river supported over 700 fish per kilometre. Media related to Waihou River at Wikimedia Commons 1:50,000 map of source of Waihou River South Waikato District Council: Te Waihou Walkway to Blue Spring - with link to youtube video
The Hauraki Plains are a geographical feature and non-administrative area located in the northern North Island of New Zealand, at the lower end of the Thames Valley. They are located 75 kilometres south-east of Auckland, at the foot of the Coromandel Peninsula and occupy the southern portion of a rift valley bounded on the north-west by the Hunua Ranges, to the east by the Coromandel and Kaimai Ranges and the west by a series of undulating hills which separate the plains from the much larger plains of the Waikato River. Broadly, the northern and southern parts of the Hauraki Plains are administered by the Hauraki District and the Matamata-Piako District respectively; the alluvial plains have been built up by sediment deposited by the Piako and Waihou Rivers, which flow north to reach the sea at the Firth of Thames, earlier by the ancestral Waikato River. The resulting land is flat, peat-heavy, swampy, converted into excellent land for dairy farming. Economically, the dairy farming is the leading primary industry, supported by other grassland farming.
More tourism in the Hauraki Plains region has been growing and the Hauraki Rail Trail, part of the New Zealand Cycle Trail, has been constructed in the Hauraki Plains. The largest town within the Plains is Ngatea, with a smaller settlement of Turua; the larger town of Paeroa is located on the eastern edge of the Hauraki Plains. While there is no defined geographical southern boundary to the Hauraki Plains, this is taken as been a line between the towns of Te Aroha and Morrinsville following State Highway 26. Hauraki Plains area unit covers the north-western part of the geographical area and had these census results - Around 2–3 million years ago, a large block of the crust slumped down 500–2000 metres, forming the Hauraki graben; the ancestral Waikato River flowed through the resulting valley into the Hauraki Gulf, most through the Hinuera Valley some 20,000 years ago. Over time, the Hauraki Basin filled up with pumice and gravel. After the last shift of the Waikato River back to the west coast, the Waihou and Piako Rivers were formed.
These two rivers carried silt out into the Firth of Tikapa. The plains was a dense forest of kahikatea. Most of the land was varying in depth from a metre to more than twenty metres, it was the home of wild ducks and eels. The rich flora and fauna of the plains amply provided the staples of the Maori people who lived in the region; the early European colonists were attracted not by the land but by the dense forest of kahikatea. The colonists, or Pakeha, were timber millers such as the George and Martha Bagnall family who settled at Turua in 1875; as the kahikatea was felled, farmers followed onto the newly cleared land. But, once a year the Waihou and Piako Rivers would overflow, making agricultural settlement of the area difficult because of the poor drainage; the people who lived around Hauraki wanted permission from the Government to drain the land but the Government said it could never be done, as parts of the Hauraki Plains were two meters below sea level. However, in 1908 an act was passed to give the people permission to drain the land.
The Government paid the workers to dig a process that took ten years to complete. In 1910 the Government decided to open an area of 16,299 acres for settlement on the Hauraki Plains. Ballots were held for the blocks, which attracted the interests of future settlers and businessmen in the Thames Valley. Miners in the South Island were keen to settle in the area if sections were drawn up by the Government; the first applications for land blocks were made at the Miner's Union Hall in Thames on 18 May 1910. Prices ranged from $10–$15 an acre, depending on how much land was being bought and the location of the block; some of the most sought-after blocks had up to 99 applicants. Work started after the passing of the Hauraki Plains Act. Controlling the flooding of the Piako River which overflowed at least once a year was crucial; this was achieved through the construction of stop-banks to prevent tidal overflow. Farmers were required to dig drains, ranging from one to two metres wide, through their land.
These drains connected to the main drains, which brought the water into the canals. Floodgates were installed to prevent the ingress of water into the canals, while allowing floodwaters to flow out of the system. Once the draining was completed over 75% of the wetlands of the Hauraki Plains was lost because of the draining. However, as a result of the drainage system the size of the wetlands declined to less than 25% of their original area. Once the land was drained, scrub and tree stumps had to be cleared, the earth leveled, to convert it to pasture; the scrub and peat waste was burnt off. River transport was the most effective method to transport goods and animals to the Hauraki Plains, as an effective roading system had not yet been established. Ships of all sizes plied the rivers of the Hauraki Plains, from tiny row boats to huge barques although, most of the boats were steamers and the engines were made at A & G Price in Thames; as industries progressed bigger ships were required to carry the bigger loads.
The majority of the boats were steamers. Larger passenger ships had luxurious lounges for men and women decorated with velvet upholstery and paintings on the walls. There were brass bands on some boats and room for dancing on the decks. There was room for horses and general cargo; some cargo boats and punts were designed with drop sides to assi
Firth is a word in the Scots and English languages used to denote various coastal waters in Scotland and a strait. In the Northern Isles, it more refers to a smaller inlet, it is linguistically cognate to fjord. Bodies of water named "firths" tend to be more common on the east coast, or in the southwest of the country, although the Firth of Lorn is an exception to this; the Highland coast contains numerous estuaries and inlets of a similar kind, but not called "firth". Before about 1850, the spelling "Frith" was more common. A firth is the result of ice age glaciation and is often associated with a large river, where erosion caused by the tidal effects of incoming sea water passing upriver has widened the riverbed into an estuary. Demarcation can be rather vague; the Firth of Clyde is sometimes thought to include the estuary as far upriver as Dumbarton, but the Ordnance Survey map shows the change from river to firth occurring off Port Glasgow, while locally the change is held to be at the Tail of the Bank where the river crosses a sandbar off Greenock at the junction to the Gare Loch, or further west at Gourock point.
However, some firths are exceptions. The Cromarty Firth on the east coast of Scotland, for example, resembles a large loch with only a small outlet to the sea and the Solway Firth and the Moray Firth are more like large bays; the Pentland Firth is a strait rather than an inlet. Firth of Lorn (northernmost, connects with the Moray Firth via the Great Glen lochs, the Caledonian Canal and Loch Ness at Inverness. Lochs adjoining the Firth: Loch Lochy, Loch Linnhe, Loch Leven, Loch Oich. Places: Oban, Fort William. Islands: Isle of Mull and Kerrera. Firth of Clyde Sea lochs adjoining the Firth of Clyde: Gare Loch, Loch Long, Holy Loch, Loch Striven, Loch Riddon off the Kyles of Bute, Loch Fyne and Campbeltown Loch. Places: Helensburgh, Port Glasgow, Gourock, Rothesay, Wemyss Bay, Brodick, Troon, Ayr and Campbeltown. Note that Glasgow is at the tidal limit of the River Clyde, Clydebank, the Erskine Bridge and Dumbarton are on the river estuary as it widens out towards Port Glasgow. Islands: Bute, Arran In Scottish Gaelic, the Firth of Clyde is treated as two bodies, with the landward end being called Linne Chluaidh, while the area around the south of Arran and Ayrshire/Galloway is An Linne Ghlas.
Solway Firth. The Firth is off the Solway Coast. Rough Firth Places: Carlisle, England on the River Eden and Gretna, both in Scotland. Luce Bay, Wigtown, St Bees, Aspatria These are connected to, or form part of, the North Sea. Dornoch Firth Places: Dornoch, Dornoch Bridge, Bonar Bridge, Kyle of Sutherland, Portmahomack on Tarbat Ness. Rivers: Oykel, Cassley and Carron Headland: Tarbat Ness. Cromarty Firth; the Firth runs out into the Moray Firth. Places: Cromarty, Invergordon. Rivers: Conon, Rusdale, Alness. Moray Firth and Beauly Firth connected with the Firth of Inverness; the Firth of Inverness is identified on modern maps, but forms a connection via the River Ness, Loch Ness and the other lochs of the Great Glen and stretches of the Caledonian Canal with the Firth of Lorne on the west coast of Scotland. Places on the Moray Firth: Inverness, Fortrose, Fort George. Headlands: Whiteness Head, Chanonry Point, Alturlie Point. Places on the Beauly Firth: Beauly. Firth of Tay. Places: Perth, Monifieth, Newport on Tay, Fife.
Rivers: Tay, Earn. Headland: Buddon Ness. Islands: Mugdrum Island Firth of Forth Places: Edinburgh, Kirkcaldy, Stirling, Rosyth, North Queensferry, South Queensferry, Crail, Anstruther, Pittenweem, St Monans, Earlsferry, Aberlady, Dirleton, North Berwick, it is spanned by the Forth Road Bridge, 2,512 m long, the Forth Bridge, 2,498m long. Rivers: Forth, River Avon, Water of Leith, River Almond, River Esk, River Leven Islands: Bass Rock, Eyebroughy, Inchcolm, Inchkeith, Isle of May, The Lamb The Pentland Firth; this is a strait between the Scottish mainland and the Orkney Islands, forms a link between the Atlantic Ocean and North Sea. Places: John o' Groats, Gills Bay, Rattar Headlands: Brims Ness, Brough Ness, Duncansby Head, Dunnet Head Islands: Hoy, Pentland Skerries, South Ronaldsay, South Walls. In Shetland in particular, "firth" can refer to smaller inlets, although geo and wick are as common. In Orkney, "wick" is common. Orkney Islands Bay of Firth North Ronaldsay Firth Stronsay Firth Westray Firth Wide Firth Shetland Islands Lax Firth & Cat Firth near Nesting & Whiteness Collafirth/Colla Firth Firths Voe, Firth Gon Firth Olna Firth Olnes Firth Quey Firth Unie Firth Ura Firth Burra Firth/Burrafirth Effirth Shetland North Isles: Yell, Unst Whale Firth Burrafirth In the Scottish Gaelic language, linne is
Bryde's whale or the Bryde's whale complex putatively comprises two species of rorqual and maybe three. The "complex" means the number and classification remains unclear because of a lack of definitive information and research; the common Bryde's whale is a larger form that occurs worldwide in warm temperate and tropical waters, the Sittang or Eden's whale is a smaller form that may be restricted to the Indo-Pacific. A smaller, coastal form of B. brydei is found off southern Africa, another form in the Indo-Pacific differs in skull morphology, tentatively referred to as the Indo-Pacific Bryde's whale. The described Omura's whale, was considered a "pygmy" form of Bryde's, but is now recognized as a distinct species. B. brydei gets its specific and common name from Johan Bryde, Norwegian consul to South Africa, who helped establish the first modern whaling station in the country, while B. edeni gets its specific and common names from Sir Ashley Eden, former High Commissioner of Burma. Sittang whale refers to the type locality of the species.
In Thailand, locals distinguished Sittang whales different from B.edeni, it is unclear whether Sittang whales were applied for classified Omura's whales by locals. In Japan, early whalers called it "anchovy" or "skipjack whale", it preys on the anchovy and it was associated with the skipjack. As modern whaling shifted to the Sanriku area, whalemen confused the sei whale with it. Incidentally, anchovies are dominant prey for both species off Japan, they are now called nitari-kujira, for their resemblance to the sei whale. The taxonomy is poorly characterised; the two genetically distinct, candidate species/subspecies/morphologies are Bryde's whale B. brydei and the Sittang or Eden's whale B. edeni, that differentiate by geographic distribution, inshore/offshore preferences, size. For both putative species, the scientific name B. edeni is used or they are referred to B. cf brydei/edeni. In 1878, the Scottish zoologist John Anderson, first curator of the Indian Museum in Calcutta, described Balaenoptera edeni, naming it after the former British High Commissioner in Burma, Sir Ashley Eden, who helped obtain the type specimen.
Eden's Deputy Commissioner, Major A. G. Duff, sent a Mr Duke, one of his assistants, to Thaybyoo Creek, between the Sittang and Beeling Rivers, on the Gulf of Martaban, where he found a 37-foot whale, which had stranded there in June 1871 after swimming more than 20 miles up the creek—it was said to have "exhausted itself by its furious struggles" to get free and "roared like an elephant" before expiring. Despite terrible weather, he was able to secure the entire skull and nearly all its vertebrae, along with other bones; these were sent to Anderson, who described the specimen, physically mature, as a new species. In 1913, the Norwegian scientist Ørjan Olsen, based on the examination of a dozen "sei whales" brought to the whaling stations at Durban and Saldanha, in South Africa, described Balaenoptera brydei, naming it after the Norwegian consul to South Africa Johan Bryde. In 1950, the Dutch scientist G. C. A. Junge, after comparing specimens of B. edeni and B. brydei with a 39-foot, physically mature specimen that had stranded on Pulau Sugi, an island between Singapore and Sumatra, in July 1936, synonymized the two species into B. edeni.
In the 1950s it was discovered that there were two types of "sei whale" off Japan, a northern form with longer, finer baleen and shorter ventral grooves and a southern form with shorter, coarser baleen and longer ventral grooves. They differed in the shape of the palate; the former was caught off northeastern Honshu and eastern Hokkaido, while the latter was taken off western Kyushu and southern Honshu. Both were at different seasons, it was realized that the northern form were indeed sei whales, but the southern form were Bryde's whale. A study revealed that Bryde's caught off Japan exhibited lateral ridges on their rostrum, whereas sei whales lacked this feature. In the 1960s it was discovered that some of the "sei whales" being caught off Brazil were Bryde's whales based on the same characters that distinguished the two species off Japan. Several differences in anatomy are seen between Eden's whales. Members of the Bryde's whale complex are moderately-sized rorquals, falling behind sei whales, but being larger than Omura's whale and the small minke whales.
The largest measured by Olsen was a 14.95 m female caught off Durban in November 1912, while the longest of each sex measured by Best at the Donkergat whaling station in Saldanha Bay, South Africa, were a 15.51 m female caught in October 1962 and a 14.56 m male caught in April 1963. At physical maturity, the coastal form off South Africa averages 13.1 m for males and 13.7 m for females, while the South Africa offshore form averages 13.7 and 14.4 m. The coastal form near Japan is smaller, with adult males averaging 12.9 m and adult females 13.3 m. At sexual maturity, males average females 12 m near Japan. Sexual maturity is reached at 8–11 years for both sexes in the offshore form off South Africa. At birth, they are 3.95–4.15 m. The body mass o