Fish migration

Many types of fish migrate on a regular basis, on time scales ranging from daily to annually or longer, over distances ranging from a few metres to thousands of kilometres. Fish migrate to feed or to reproduce, but in other cases the reasons are unclear. Migrations involve movements of the fish on a larger scale and duration than those arising during normal daily activities; some particular types of migration are anadromous, in which adult fish live in the sea and migrate into fresh water to spawn, catadromous, in which adult fish live in fresh water and migrate into salt water to spawn. Marine forage fish make large migrations between their spawning and nursery grounds. Movements are associated with ocean currents and with the availability of food in different areas at different times of year; the migratory movements may be linked to the fact that the fish cannot identify their own offspring and moving in this way prevents cannibalism. Some species have been described by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea as migratory species.

These are large pelagic fish that move in and out of the exclusive economic zones of different nations, these are covered differently in the treaty from other fish. Salmon and striped bass are well-known anadromous fish, freshwater eels are catadromous fish that make large migrations; the bull shark is a euryhaline species that moves at will from fresh to salt water, many marine fish make a diel vertical migration, rising to the surface to feed at night and sinking to lower layers of the ocean by day. Some fish such as tuna move to the north and south at different times of year following temperature gradients; the patterns of migration are of great interest to the fishing industry. Movements of fish in fresh water occur; as with various other aspects of fish life, zoologists have developed empirical classifications for fish migrations. Two terms in particular have been in long-standing wide usage: Anadromous fish migrate from the sea up into fresh water to spawn, such as salmon, striped bass, the sea lamprey Catadromous fish migrate from fresh water down into the sea to spawn, such as eels Diadromous, potamodromous, oceanodromous.

In a 1949 journal article, George S. Myers coined the inclusive term diadromous to refer to all fishes that migrate between the sea and fresh water. Like the two well known terms, it was formed from classical Greek. Diadromous proved a useful word, but terms proposed by Myers for other types of diadromous fishes did not catch on; these included amphidromous and oceanodromous. Although these classifications were originated for fishes, they are, in principle, applicable to any aquatic organism. Forage fish make great migrations between their spawning and nursery grounds. Schools of a particular stock travel in a triangle between these grounds. For example, one stock of herrings have their spawning ground in southern Norway, their feeding ground in Iceland, their nursery ground in northern Norway. Wide triangular journeys such as these may be important because forage fish, when feeding, cannot distinguish their own offspring. Capelin are a forage fish of the smelt family found in the Arctic oceans.

In summer, they graze on dense swarms of plankton at the edge of the ice shelf. Larger capelin eat krill and other crustaceans; the capelin move inshore in large schools to spawn and migrate in spring and summer to feed in plankton rich areas between Iceland and Jan Mayen. The migration is affected by ocean currents. Around Iceland maturing capelin make large northward feeding migrations in summer; the return migration takes place in September to November. The spawning migration starts north of Iceland in January; the diagram on the right shows the main spawning grounds and larval drift routes. Capelin on the way to feeding grounds is coloured green, capelin on the way back is blue, the breeding grounds are red. In a paper published in 2009, researchers from Iceland recount their application of an interacting particle model to the capelin stock around Iceland predicting the spawning migration route for 2008; the term migratory species has its origins in Article 64 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.

The Convention does not provide an operational definition of the term, but in an annex lists the species considered migratory by parties to the Convention. The list includes: tuna and tuna-like species, marlin, swordfish and oceangoing sharks and other cetaceans; these high trophic level oceanodromous species undertake migrations of significant but variable distances across oceans for feeding on forage fish, or reproduction, have wide geographic distributions. Thus, these species are found both inside the 200 mile exclusive economic zones and in the high seas outside these zones, they are pelagic species, which means they live in the open ocean and do not live near the sea floor, although they may spend part of their life cycle in nearshore waters. Migratory species can be compared with straddling stock and transboundary stock. Str

Wally Westlake

Waldon Thomas Westlake was a utility player in Major League Baseball who had a ten-year career from 1947 to 1956. Born in Gridley, Westlake played for the Pittsburgh Pirates, St. Louis Cardinals, Cincinnati Reds and Philadelphia Phillies of the National League, the Cleveland Indians and Baltimore Orioles of the American League, he played as an outfielder, with some appearances as a third baseman. Westlake hit for the cycle twice in his career, coming a year apart, he was a member of the National League All-Star team in 1951, entering the game as a defensive replacement in the bottom of the 9th inning. Westlake was a member of the 1954 Cleveland Indians team, who were swept by the New York Giants in the 1954 World Series, he played in two games of the Series with one walk. Following the death of fellow teammate Hal Naragon, Westlake was the last surviving player to play with the Indians in the 1954 World Series. In 958 regular season games played, Westlake hit.272 with 539 RBIs. He played 738 games in the National League, 220 games in the American League.

He played 834 games in the outfield, 34 games at third base. On August 26, 1947, Westlake became the first white batter hit by a pitch from a black pitcher - Dan Bankhead of the Brooklyn Dodgers at Ebbets Field. Westlake graduated from Christian Brothers High School in Sacramento, his brother Jim Westlake was a major league player. Westlake served in the United States military during World War II, he died on September 5, 2019. He was the second-to-last last living player from the 1954 American League champion Indians (after Dick Tomanek, the last living member who played in the 1954 World Series. List of Major League Baseball players to hit for the cycle Attanasio, Ed. "They Were There: Wally Westlake". This Great Game. Retrieved November 17, 2017. Hill, Justice B.. "Where have you gone, Wally Westlake?". Retrieved November 17, 2017. Hurte, Bob. "How I became friends with Wally Westlake". Retrieved November 17, 2017. Hurte, Bob. "Wally Westlake". SABR. Career statistics and player information from MLB, or Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference, or Retrosheet Photo of Westlake with the Cleveland Indians

Russian State University of Tourism and Services Studies

Russian State University of Tourism and Services Studies is a public university in Russia and CIS countries which provides higher education in tourism and services studies. The university is based in Pushkino, Moscow Oblast, near Moscow, has campuses in Russian cities of Smolensk, Samara, Sochi, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Yakutsk, Yekaterinburg, Makhachkala and Yerevan, Armenia. A higher school of handicraft cooperation, it first opened in 1952. Department of Appliances Department of Information systems Department of Safety Technosector and Chemical Technology Department of Service Centers and Transportation Services Department of Public Relations Department of Restaurant and Hotel Services Organization and Technology Department of Tourism Activities Organization and Technology Department of Artistic Design of Object-Spatial Environment Department of Sewing and Knitting Products Design and Technology Department of Drawing and Painting Department of Materials and Product Expertise Department of Art and Interior Design Products and Technology Department of Accounting and Taxation Studies Department of Corporate Governance and E-Business Department of Economics and Business Studies Department of Finance Department of Labor Economics and HR Management Department of Management Department of Marketing and Commerce Department of State and Municipal Administration Department of Civil Law Department of Criminal Law Department of Psychology and Social Work Department of Social Technology Department of State and Legal Department of Economics Department of Engineering Mechanics Department of Foreign Languages Department of History and Political Studies Department of Mathematics and IT Department of Philosophy and Cultural Studies Department of Physical Culture and Sport Department of Russian Language and the Culture of Speech Department of Science Education Department of Sociology and Education Centre for Accelerated Learning Regional Department of Services Studies in Lubertsi Regional Department of Services Studies in Podolsk Regional Department of Services Studies in Dubna Regional Department of Services Studies in Odintsovo Institute of Services Studies Institute of Tourism and Hospitality Management Studies Regional Campus in Kazan Regional Campus in Kaliningrad Regional Campus in Kamchatka Regional Campus in Mahachkala Regional Campus in Kaluga Regional Campus in Perm Regional Campus in Pyatiogrsk Regional Campus in Samara Regional Campus in Smolensk Regional Campus in Sochi Regional Campus in Ural Regional Campus in Volgograd Regional Campus in Yakutsk Regional Campus in Yerevan Official website Yerevan Campus website Community