The ISON Airbike and Tandem Airbike are a family of American high-wing, tractor configuration ultralight aircraft, that were available in kit form. The single-seat Airbike was introduced in 1994 and the two-seat Tandem Airbike was unveiled in 1996. Produced by TEAM Aircraft of Bradyville, manufacturing passed to ISON Aircraft of Bradyville, before the end of kit production. Starting circa 2009 kits became once again available once again from Jordan Lake Aero; the single seat Airbike was designed to meet the requirements of the United States FAR 103 Ultralight Vehicles, including the maximum 254 lb empty weight. The tandem-seat model was intended to be licensed as an ultralight trainer or an amateur-built aircraft; the single-seater can achieve an empty weight as low as 251 lb with the use of a light-weight engine, such as the 28 hp Rotax 277 or the 22 hp Zenoah G-25. The name Airbike was chosen for the aircraft because it has a narrow fuselage and the pilot's feet rest on rudder pedals that are on the outside of the aircraft, in a similar manner to a motorcycle.
The Tandem Airbike retains all of the single-seater's features and has a stretched fuselage to accommodate the second seat. It uses a wing of 33.8 ft span with an area of 152 sq ft. Both variants feature a parasol wing constructed from wood and covered with aircraft fabric; the wing has full-span ailerons or, in the case of the two-seater, optional electrically-actuated flaperons. All controls are cable-operated; the elevator and rudder are conventional. The fuselage is made from welded 4130 steel tube and the aircraft has conventional landing gear with tail wheel steering connected to the rudder pedals; the main landing gear utilises sprung-tubes for suspension and absorbing landing loads. The Airbike was sold as an assembly kit; the kit included a pre-welded fuselage and tail, pre-built main wing spars and ribs, all brackets and fittings, landing gear, propeller, instruments and a five gallon fuel tank. The company estimated the time to complete the aircraft at 150 hours for the single-seater.
The price in 2001 for the single-seat Airbike was US$7195The Tandem Airbike had a factory estimated construction time of 200–300 hours or 100–150 hours if the quick-built kit option was purchased. In 2001 the kits price was US$8000 without propeller. In December 1998 the company reported that 127 single-seaters were flying, the majority as US unregistered ultralights and 23 tandem-seaters. In July 2009 there were 45 Airbikes registered as experimental amateur-builts or light sport aircraft in the USA. Airbike Single seat aircraft designed for the US ultralight category. Engine options were the 28 hp Rotax 277, 40 hp Rotax 447 or 22 hp Zenoah G-25. Tandem Airbike Two-seat aircraft designed as amateur-built. Standard engine was the 50 hp Rotax 503. Data from KitPlanes & ClicheGeneral characteristics Crew: one Capacity: no passengers Length: 16 ft 0 in Wingspan: 26 ft 0 in Height: 5 ft 6 in Wing area: 118 sq ft Empty weight: 257 lb Useful load: 303 lb Max. Takeoff weight: 560 lb Powerplant: 1 × Rotax 447 fixed pitch, 40 hp Propellers: 1 propeller, 1 per enginePerformance Maximum speed: 80 mph Cruise speed: 63 mph Stall speed: 30 mph Range: 150 nautical miles Rate of climb: 1000 ft/min Wing loading: 4.75 lb/sq ft Power/mass: 14 lb/hp Aircraft of comparable role and era Aero-Works Aerolite 103 Avid Champion Beaujon Enduro Birdman Chinook Capella Javelin Freebird I Kolb Firefly Kolb Firestar Lockwood Drifter Milholland Legal Eagle RagWing RW9 Motor Bipe Spectrum Beaver Wings of Freedom Flitplane
Conventional landing gear
Conventional landing gear, or tailwheel-type landing gear, is an aircraft undercarriage consisting of two main wheels forward of the center of gravity and a small wheel or skid to support the tail. The term taildragger is used, although some claim it should apply only to those aircraft with a tailskid rather than a wheel; the term "conventional" persists for historical reasons, but all modern jet aircraft and most modern propeller aircraft use tricycle gear. In early aircraft, a tailskid made of metal or wood was used to support the tail on the ground. In most modern aircraft with conventional landing gear, a small articulated wheel assembly is attached to the rearmost part of the airframe in place of the skid; this wheel may be steered by the pilot through a connection to the rudder pedals, allowing the rudder and tailwheel to move together. Before aircraft used tailwheels, many aircraft were equipped with steerable tailskids, which operate similar to a tailwheel; when the pilot pressed the right rudder pedal — or the right footrest of a "rudder bar" in World War I — the skid pivoted to the right, creating more drag on that side of the plane and causing it to turn to the right.
While less effective than a steerable wheel, it gave the pilot some control of the direction the craft was moving while taxiing or beginning the takeoff run, before there was enough airflow over the rudder for it to become effective. Another form of control, less common now than it once was, is to steer using "differential braking", in which the tailwheel is a simple castering mechanism, the aircraft is steered by applying brakes to one of the mainwheels in order to turn in that direction; this is used on some tricycle gear aircraft, with the nosewheel being the castering wheel instead. Like the steerable tailwheel/skid, it is integrated with the rudder pedals on the craft to allow an easy transition between wheeled and aerodynamic control; the tailwheel configuration offers several advantages over the tricycle landing gear arrangement, which make tailwheel aircraft less expensive to manufacture and maintain. Due to its position much further from the center of gravity, a tailwheel supports a smaller part of the aircraft's weight allowing it to be made much smaller and lighter than a nosewheel.
As a result, the smaller wheel causes less parasitic drag. Because of the way airframe loads are distributed while operating on rough ground, tailwheel aircraft are better able to sustain this type of use over a long period of time, without cumulative airframe damage occurring. If a tailwheel fails on landing, the damage to the aircraft will be minimal; this is not the case in the event of a nosewheel failure, which results in a prop strike. Due to the increased propeller clearance on tailwheel aircraft less stone chip damage will result from operating a conventional geared aircraft on rough or gravel airstrips, making them well suited to bush flying. Tailwheel aircraft are more suitable for operation on skis. Tailwheel aircraft are easier to maneuver inside some hangars; the conventional landing gear arrangement has disadvantages compared to nosewheel aircraft. Tailwheel aircraft are more subject to "nose-over" accidents due to injudicious application of brakes by the pilot. Conventional geared aircraft are much more susceptible to ground looping.
A ground loop occurs when directional control is lost on the ground and the tail of the aircraft passes the nose, swapping ends, in some cases completing a full circle. This event can result in damage to the aircraft's undercarriage, wingtips and engine. Ground-looping occurs because, whereas a nosewheel aircraft is steered from ahead of the center of gravity, a taildragger is steered from behind, so that on the ground a taildragger is inherently unstable, whereas a nosewheel aircraft will self-center if it swerves on landing. In addition, some tailwheel aircraft must transition from using the rudder to steer to using the tailwheel while passing through a speed range when neither is wholly effective due to the nose high angle of the aircraft and lack of airflow over the rudder. Avoiding ground loops requires more pilot skill. Tailwheel aircraft suffer from poorer forward visibility on the ground, compared to nose wheel aircraft; this requires continuous "S" turns on the ground to allow the pilot to see where they are taxiing.
Tailwheel aircraft are more difficult to taxi during high wind conditions, due to the higher angle of attack on the wings which can develop more lift on one side, making control difficult or impossible. They suffer from lower crosswind capability and in some wind conditions may be unable to use crosswind runways or single-runway airports. Due to the nose-high attitude on the ground, propeller-powered taildraggers are more adversely affected by P-factor – asymmetrical thrust caused by the propeller's disk being angled to the direction of travel, which causes the blades to produce more lift when going down than when going up due to the difference in angle the blade experiences when passing through the air; the aircraft will pull to the side of the upward blade. Some aircraft lack sufficient rudder authority in some flight regimes and the pilot must compensate before the aircraft starts to yaw; some aircraft older, higher powered aircraft such as the P-51 Mustang, cannot use full power on takeoff and still safely control their direction of travel.
On landing this is less of a factor, however opening the throttle to abort a landing can induce severe uncontrollable yaw unless the pilot is prepared for it. Jet aircraft gene
The Spectrum Beaver is a family of single- and two-place, pusher configuration, high-wing ultralight aircraft that were first introduced by Spectrum Aircraft of Surrey, British Columbia, Canada, in 1983. Beaver ultralights have evolved as designs over time, have been produced by several companies and remain in production in the 21st century; the first model Beaver was the RX-28, a simple lightweight single-seat aircraft, intended to comply with the US FAR 103 Ultralight Vehicles category, including the category's maximum 254 lb empty weight. The model designation indicated that it was Rotax-28 hp as it was powered by the 28 hp Rotax 277 single-cylinder, two-stroke powerplant. With this engine the RX-28 had an empty weight of 232 lb; the availability of the 35 hp Rotax 377 engine lead to a higher-powered version of the RX-28, designated the RX-35. This Beaver model was fitted with floats and continued in production by Spectrum Aircraft until they ceased business in 1992. Building on the success of the single-seat Beaver models, Spectrum Aircraft introduced the two-place Beaver RX 550 in 1986 and it became the most popular ultralight trainer in Canada.
The combination of its predictable and docile handling, along with the reliable Rotax 503 50 hp engine, ensured its success. Intending to improve on the RX 550, Spectrum introduced the Beaver RX 650 in 1991, intending to place it in the Advanced Ultra-light Aeroplane category in Canada; the RX 650 has doors. The cockpit cage was changed to welded steel tube, from the used aluminum and a sprung tailwheel was added. In service the 650 proved to have structural issues and its acceptance in the AULA category was rescinded by Transport Canada until the issues could be rectified. Most customer 650s were kept flying by operating them in the Basic Ultra-light Aeroplane category. Spectrum Aircraft went out of business in 1992, prior to rectifying the issues with the 650. A new company, Beaver RX Enterprises acquired the design and commenced production of the RX 550, placing it in the AULA category, they did not produce the single-seaters or the RX 650. Despite demand for the Beaver, the company soon went out of business.
Fun Flight Inc of Alexandria, United States produced the RX550 model in the late 1990s. In 1995 Aircraft Sales and Parts of Vernon, British Columbia purchased the Beaver tooling and redesigned the RX 550; the new version, designated the RX 550 Plus incorporated a new wing with a greater number of wing ribs and standard aircraft fabric replacing the Dacron covering. The ASAP RX 550 Plus available in kit form, it can be registered in the Canadian Basic and Advanced ultralight categories as well as in the US and Canadian amateur-built aircraft categories. By the end of 2007 a total of 2000 RX 550s had been produced by all manufacturers. In 1996 a new company, Freedom Lite of Walton, Ontario reintroduced the Beaver RX 650, first displaying it at Sun'n Fun that year; the improved RX 650 incorporated 186 changes over the previous RX 650 design and the company renamed it the Freedom Lite SS-11 Skywatch. The wings use conventional aircraft fabric instead of Dacron, giving build times of about 250 hours.
The company placed the aircraft in the Canadian AULA category. Freedom Lite soon went out of business and the design was acquired by Legend Lite of New Hamburg, Ontario; this new company closed its doors in the early 2000s. In 2000 the manufacturer of RX 550 Plus kits, ASAP, reintroduced a single-seat version of the Beaver, designated the Beaver SS; this is similar to the original RX-28, but powered by a 40 hp Rotax 447 engine and with a wing derived from the RX 550 Plus design, with additional ribs. The new wing is covered in standard aircraft fabric and incorporates drag tubes in place of the original drag wires; the empty weight has increased somewhat to 340 lb, putting it above the maximum empty weight for the US FAR 103 category. In Canada it can be flown in amateur-built. By the end of 2007 ten had been flown; the Beaver family of aircraft all have similar construction, with the frame fuselage constructed around a single longitudinal 6061-T6 aluminum tube that supports the tail, landing gear and seats.
The wings and engine mount are of 6061-T6 aluminum tube and attached to the main tube by connecting struts. The wing features aluminum tube ribs. All Beavers prior to the RX 550 Plus and the SS had pre-sewn Dacron envelopes, which enabled builders to complete the kits in as little as 100 hours; the models use conventional fabric methods and this makes the factory-claimed build times 150–200 hours for the SS and 180–200 hours to the RX 550 Plus. All Beaver wings have elliptical tips; the Plus wing differs from the earlier Beaver wings in that it replaces the internal drag wires with tubes and uses many more ribs to maintain a better airfoil shape, at the cost of additional weight and complexity. The SS and RX 550 Plus wings have 3/4 span ailerons. All models have conventional three-axis controls; the landing gear is of tricycle configuration. Earlier models did not have a steerable nosewheel. Most models have independent hydraulic brakes; the cockpit pod enclosure incorporates a windshield. The Beaver has proven popular in service, both with flight schools and private owners, due to its ruggedness and pleasant handling characteristics.
ASAP owner Brent Holomis says that "The RX-550 is used as a trainer because it's so easy to fly."The early single seat RX-28 suffered from a problem of main tube cracking in operational service, due to t
The Fisher Celebrity is a Canadian two-seat, conventional landing gear, single engined, biplane kit aircraft designed for construction by amateur builders. Fisher Flying Products was based in Edgeley, North Dakota, USA but the company is now located in Dorchester, Canada; the Celebrity was designed by Fisher Aircraft in the United States in 1989 and was intended to comply with the US Experimental - Amateur-built category, although it qualifies as an ultralight aircraft in some countries, such as Canada. It qualifies as a US Experimental Light Sport Aircraft; the Celebrity's standard empty weight is 600 lb when equipped with a four-stroke 100 hp Continental O-200 engine and it has a gross weight of 1,230 lb. The construction of the Celebrity is of wood, with the wings and fuselage covered with doped aircraft fabric. An alternate welded 4130 steel fuselage was available, but is no longer offered by the manufacturer; the aircraft features inverted "V" cabane struts. Like most biplanes, the Celebrity has no flaps.
The Celebrity's main landing gear is bungee suspended. Cockpit access is via the lower wing; the company claims. Specified engines for the Celebrity include the 65 hp Continental A-65, 85 hp Continental C-85, the 100 hp Continental O-200 and the 115 hp Lycoming O-235. By late 2011 more than 55 Celebrities were flying. In reviewing the Celebrity, John W. Conrad wrote in the July 1992 issue of Sport Pilot Hot Kits and Homebuilts Magazine: Data from Company website, AeroCrafter & KitplanesGeneral characteristics Crew: one Capacity: one passenger Length: 17 ft 6 in Wingspan: 22 ft 0 in Height: 6 ft 0 in Wing area: 176 sq ft Empty weight: 600 lbs Useful load: 630 lb Max. Takeoff weight: 1230 lbs Powerplant: 1 × Continental O-200 Four cylinder, four-stroke piston aircraft engine, 100 hp Performance Never exceed speed: 120 mph Maximum speed: 95 mph Cruise speed: 85 mph Stall speed: 40 mph Rate of climb: 800 fpm Wing loading: 7.0 lb/sq ft Power/mass: 12.3 lb/hp Aircraft of comparable role and era Fisher FP-404 Fisher Classic Murphy Renegade Sorrell Hiperlight Stolp Starduster Too Official website
In aeronautics, bracing comprises additional structural members which stiffen the functional airframe to give it rigidity and strength under load. Bracing may be applied both internally and externally, may take the form of strut, which act in compression or tension as the need arises, and/or wires, which act only in tension. In general, bracing allows a stronger, lighter structure than one, unbraced, but external bracing in particular adds drag which slows down the aircraft and raises more design issues than internal bracing. Another disadvantage of bracing wires is that they require routine checking and adjustment, or rigging when located internally. During the early years of aviation, bracing was a universal feature of all forms of aeroplane, including the monoplanes and biplanes which were equally common. Today, bracing in the form of lift struts is still used for some light commercial designs where a high wing and light weight are more important than ultimate performance. Bracing works by creating a triangulated truss structure which resists twisting.
By comparison, an unbraced cantilever structure bends unless it carries a lot of heavy reinforcement. Making the structure deeper allows it to be much lighter and stiffer. To reduce weight and air resistance, the structure may be made hollow, with bracing connecting the main parts of the airframe. For example, a high-wing monoplane may be given a diagonal lifting strut running from the bottom of the fuselage to a position far out towards the wingtip; this increases the effective depth of the wing root to the height of the fuselage, making it much stiffer for little increase in weight. The ends of bracing struts are joined to the main internal structural components such as a wing spar or a fuselage bulkhead, bracing wires are attached close by. Bracing may be used to resist all the various forces which occur in an airframe, including lift, weight and twisting or torsion. A strut is a bracing component stiff enough to resist these forces whether they place it under compression or tension. A wire is a bracing component able only to resist tension, going slack under compression, is nearly always used in conjunction with struts.
A square frame made of solid bars tends to bend at the corners. Bracing it with an extra diagonal bar would be heavy. A wire would stop it collapsing only one way. To hold it rigid, two cross-bracing wires are needed; this method of cross-bracing can be seen on early biplanes, where the wings and interplane struts form a rectangle, cross-braced by wires. Another way of arranging a rigid structure is to make the cross pieces solid enough to act in compression and to connect their ends with an outer diamond acting in tension; this method was once common on monoplanes, where the wing and a central cabane or a pylon form the cross members while wire bracing forms the outer diamond. Most found on biplane and other multiplane aircraft, wire bracing was common on early monoplanes. Unlike struts, bracing wires always act in tension The thickness and profile of a wire affect the drag it causes at higher speeds. Wires may be made of multi-stranded cable, a single strand of piano wire, or aerofoil sectioned steel.
Bracing wires divide into flying wires which hold the wings down when flying and landing wires which hold the wings up when they are not generating lift. Thinner incidence wires are sometimes run diagonally between fore and aft interplane struts to stop the wing twisting and changing its angle of incidence to the fuselage. In some pioneer aircraft, wing bracing wires were run diagonally fore and aft to prevent distortion under side loads such as when turning. Besides the basic loads imposed by lift and gravity, bracing wires must carry powerful inertial loads generated during manoeuvres, such as the increased load on the landing wires at the moment of touchdown. Bracing wires must be rigged to maintain the correct length and tension. In flight the wires tend to stretch under load and on landing some may become slack. Regular rigging checks are required and any necessary adjustments made before every flight. Rigging adjustments may be used to set and maintain wing dihedral and angle of incidence with the help of a clinometer and plumb-bob.
Individual wires are fitted with turnbuckles or threaded end fittings so that they can be adjusted. Once set, the adjuster is locked in place. Internal bracing was most significant during the early days of aeronautics when airframes were frames, at best covered in doped fabric which had no strength of its own. Wire cross-bracing was extensively used to stiffen such airframes, both in the fabric-covered wings and in the fuselage, left bare. Routine rigging of the wires was needed to maintain structural stiffness against bending and torsion. A particular problem for internal wires is access in the cramped interior of the fuselage. Providing sufficient internal bracing would make a design too heavy, so in order to make the airframe both light and strong the bracing is fitted externally; this was common in early aircraft due to the limited engine power available and the need for light weight in order to fly at all. As engine powers rose through the 1920s and 30s, much heavier airframes became practicable and most designers abandoned external bracing in order to allow for increased speed.
Nearly all biplane aircraft have their upper and lower planes connected by interplane struts, with the upper wing running across above the fuselage and connected to it by shorter cabane struts. These struts divide the wings into bays which are brace
Piper J-3 Cub
The Piper J-3 Cub is an American light aircraft, built between 1937 and 1947 by Piper Aircraft. The aircraft has a simple, lightweight design which gives it good low-speed handling properties and short-field performance; the Cub is Piper Aircraft's most-produced model, with nearly 20,000 built in the United States. Its simplicity and popularity invokes comparisons to the Ford Model T automobile; the aircraft is a strut-braced monoplane with a large-area rectangular wing. It is most powered by an air-cooled, flat-4 piston engine driving a fixed-pitch propeller, its fuselage is a welded steel frame covered in seating two people in tandem. The Cub was intended as a trainer and had great popularity in this role and as a general aviation aircraft. Due to its performance, it was well suited for a variety of military uses such as reconnaissance and ground control, it was produced in large numbers during World War II as the L-4 Grasshopper. Many Cubs are still flying today. Notably, Cubs are prized as bush aircraft.
The aircraft's standard chrome yellow paint has come to be known as "Cub Yellow" or "Lock Haven Yellow". The Taylor E-2 Cub first appeared in 1930, built by Taylor Aircraft in Pennsylvania. Sponsored by William T. Piper, a Bradford industrialist and investor, the affordable E-2 was meant to encourage greater interest in aviation. In 1930, the company went bankrupt, with Piper buying the assets, but keeping founder C. Gilbert Taylor on as president. In 1936, an earlier Cub was altered by employee Walter Jamouneau to become the J-2 while Taylor was on sick leave.. When he saw the redesign, Taylor was so incensed. Piper, had encouraged Jamouneau's changes and hired him back. Piper bought Taylor's share in the company, paying him $250 per month for three years. Although sales were slow, about 1,200 J-2s were produced before a fire in the Piper factory, a former silk mill in Bradford, ended its production in 1938. After Piper moved his company from Bradford to Lock Haven, PA; the changes amounted to integrating the vertical fin of the tail into the rear fuselage structure and covering it with each of the fuselage's sides, changing the rearmost side window's shape to a smoothly curved half-oval outline and placing a true steerable tailwheel at the rear end of the J-2's leaf spring-style tailskid, linked for its steering function to the lower end of the rudder with springs and lightweight chains to either end of a double-ended rudder control horn.
Powered by a 40 hp engine, in 1938, it sold for just over $1,000. A number of different air-cooled engines, most of flat-four configuration, were used to power J-3 Cubs, resulting in differing model designations for each type: the J3C models used the Continental A series, the J3F used the Franklin 4AC, the J3L used the Lycoming O-145. A few examples, designated J3P, were equipped with Lenape Papoose 3-cylinder radial engines; the outbreak of hostilities in Europe in 1939, along with the growing realization that the United States might soon be drawn into World War II, resulted in the formation of the Civilian Pilot Training Program. The Piper J-3 Cub became the primary trainer aircraft of the CPTP and played an integral role in its success, achieving legendary status. About 75% of all new pilots in the CPTP were trained in Cubs. By war's end, 80% of all United States military pilots had received their initial flight training in Piper Cubs; the need for new pilots created an insatiable appetite for the Cub.
In 1940, the year before the United States' entry into the war, 3,016 Cubs had been built. Prior to the United States entering World War II, J-3s were part of a fund-raising program to support the United Kingdom. Billed as a Flitfire, a Piper Cub J3 bearing Royal Air Force insignia was donated by W. T. Piper and Franklin Motors to the RAF Benevolent Fund to be raffled off. Piper distributors nationwide were encouraged to do the same. On April 29, 1941, all 48 Flitfire aircraft, one for each of the 48 states that made up the country at that time, flew into La Guardia Field for a dedication and fundraising event which included Royal Navy officers from the battleship HMS Malaya, in New York for repairs, as honored guests. At least three of the original Flitfires have been restored to their original silver-doped finish; the Piper Cub became a familiar sight. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt took a flight in a J-3 Cub, posing for a series of publicity photos to help promote the CPTP. Newsreels and newspapers of the era featured images of wartime leaders, such as Generals Dwight Eisenhower, George Patton and George Marshall, flying around European battlefields in Piper Cubs.
Civilian-owned Cubs joined the war effort as part of the newly formed Civil Air Patrol, patrolling the Eastern Seaboard and Gulf Coast in a constant search for German U-boats and survivors of U-boat attacks. Piper developed a military variant, variously designated as the O-59, L-4 and NE; the L-4 Grasshopper was mechanically identical to the J-3 civilian Cub, but was distinguishable by the use of a Plexiglas greenhouse skylight and rear windows for improved visibility, much like the Taylo
The Rotax 503 is a 37 kW, inline 2-cylinder, two-stroke aircraft engine, built by BRP-Rotax GmbH & Co. KG of Austria for use in ultralight aircraft; as of 2011 the Rotax 503 is no longer in production. The Rotax 503 is piston ported with air-cooled cylinders and heads, utilizing either an engine driven fan and cowl, or free air cooling. Lubrication is either by use of pre-mixed fuel and oil or oil injection from an externally mounted oil tank; the 503 has magneto capacitor-discharge ignition systems. It can be equipped with either two piston-type carburetors, it uses. An optional High Altitude Compensation kit is available; the engine's propeller drive is via C, or E style gearbox. The standard engine includes; the standard starter is a recoil start type, with an electric starter optional. An integral alternating current generator producing 170 watts at 12 volts with external rectifier-regulator is optional; the engine can be fitted with an intake silencer system. The manufacturer acknowledges the design limitations of this engine, warning pilots: "This engine, by its design, is subject to sudden stoppage.
Engine stoppage can result in forced landings or no power landings. Such crash landings can lead to serious bodily injury or death... This is not a certificated aircraft engine, it has not received any safety or durability testing, conforms to no aircraft standards. It is for use in experimental, uncertificated aircraft and vehicles only in which an engine failure will not compromise safety. User assumes all risk of use, acknowledges by his use that he knows this engine is subject to sudden stoppage... Never fly the aircraft equipped with this engine at locations, altitudes, or other circumstances from which a successful no-power landing cannot be made, after sudden engine stoppage. Aircraft equipped with this engine must only fly in DAYLIGHT VFR conditions." Data from OPERATORS MANUAL FOR ENGINE TYPES 447, 503 & 582 Type: two-stroke air-cooled aeroengine Bore: 72 mm Stroke: 61 mm Displacement: 496.7 cc Dry weight: 31.4 kg Valvetrain: piston ports Fuel system: pneumatic pump pressurized Fuel type: regular autofuel Oil system: premixed in the fuel at 50:1 or oil injection Cooling system: fan or free air Reduction gear: Rotax'B' gearbox: 2.00, 2.24 or 2.58 ratios.