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Fisherman's knot

The fisherman's knot is a bend with a symmetrical structure consisting of two overhand knots, each tied around the standing part of the other. Other names for the fisherman's knot include: angler's knot, English knot, halibut knot, waterman's knot. Though the fisherman's knot is associated with fishing, it can slip when tied in nylon monofilament and other slippery lines, it is compact, jamming when tightened and the working ends can be cropped close to the knot. It can be tied with cold, wet hands. Though these properties are well suited to fishing, there are other knots which may provide superior performance, such as the blood knot. In knitting, the knot is used to join two strands of yarn. In this context, it is known as "the magic knot". True lovers' knot List of bend knots List of knots

List of current reigning monarchs by length of reign

This is a list of enthroned monarchs sorted by length of service. It includes monarchs who do not reign over entire nations, such as Muhammad V of Kelantan, but does not include former monarchs and pretenders, such as Simeon II of Bulgaria, ex officio monarchs such as Emmanuel Macron who in his capacity as President of France is Co-Prince of Andorra, monarchs without physical territory such as Giacomo dalla Torre del Tempio di Sanguinetto, the Prince and Grand Master of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, constituent monarchs such as the traditional African rulers, or monarchs whose position is unofficial, such as Tenzin Gyatso, 14th Dalai Lama. Elizabeth II is the current longest-reigning monarch, having been Queen of the United Kingdom, Canada and New Zealand since 6 February 1952, she is the monarch of 12 other Commonwealth realms which have become independent states since 1952 and is therefore listed multiple times in the table below. List of longest-reigning monarchs List of shortest-reigning monarchs List of current state leaders by date of assumption of office List of oldest living state leaders

James Lindsay, 5th Earl of Balcarres

James Lindsay, 5th Earl of Balcarres was a Scottish peer, the son of Colin Lindsay, 3rd Earl of Balcarres and Lady Margaret Campbell, daughter of the Earl of Loudoun. He became the 5th Earl of Balcarres on 25 July 1736 on the death of his brother Alexander Lindsay, 4th Earl of Balcarres, he served in it for 12 years. On his return to Scotland he was persuaded to join his father in the 1715 Jacobite rising and took part in the inconclusive Battle of Sheriffmuir. After the suppression of the uprising he was forced to hide for some time in a secret chamber at the nearby castle of Newark until his aunt secured him a pardon, he joined the army of George I and fought in the War of the Austrian Succession, being present at the Battle of Dettingen in 1743, the Battle of Fontenoy in 1745. After he left the army, his prospects limited by his past allegiances, he concentrated on improving the house and estate farms at Balcarres. On 24 October 1749, at the age of 58, he married in Edinburgh the 22-year-old Anne Dalrymple, daughter of Sir Robert Dalrymple, with whom he had eight sons and three daughters: Lady Anne Lindsay, married Andrew Barnard, without issue.

Alexander Lindsay, 6th Earl of Balcarres, married Elizabeth Dalrymple, had issue. Lady Margaret Lindsay, married firstly Alexander Fordyce, without issue. Married secondly Sir James Lamb, 1st Baronet, without issue. Hon. Robert Lindsay, married Elizabeth Dick, had issue. Hon. Colin Lindsay, an Army Officer, died in action in Grenada. Hon. James Stair Lindsay, an Army officer, killed at Cuddalore. Unmarried. Hon. William Lindsay, drowned in St Helena. Rt. Rev. Hon. Charles Dalrymple Lindsay, married firstly Elizabeth Fudell, had issue. Married secondly Catherine Coussmaker, had issue. Lt-Col. Hon. John Lindsay, married Lady Charlotte North, daughter of Frederick North, 2nd Earl of Guilford, without issue. Lady Elizabeth Lindsay, married Philip Yorke, 3rd Earl of Hardwicke, had issue. Hon. Hugh Lindsay, married Jane Duff-Gordon, daughter of Hon. Alexander Gordon, Lord Rockville,and had issue. Lady Balcarres was a famously severe mother, her descendant Lady Waterford told how:"...when one of her little boys disobeyed her, ordered the servants to fling him into the pond in front of the house.

He managed to scramble out again. He died on 20 February 1768 at age 76 at Balcarres, Scotland, where he was buried, his title was inherited by 6th Earl of Balcarres. Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages The Balcarres history

8th Wisconsin Legislature

The Eighth Wisconsin Legislature convened from January 10, 1855, to April 2, 1855, in regular session. This was the first Wisconsin legislature seated after the establishment of the Republican Party of Wisconsin. Senators representing odd-numbered districts were newly elected for this session and were serving the first year of a two-year term. Assemblymembers were elected to a one-year term. Assemblymembers and odd-numbered senators were elected in the general election of November 7, 1854. Senators representing even-numbered districts were serving the second year of their two-year term, having been elected in the general election held on November 8, 1853. February 1, 1855: Charles Durkee elected United States Senator by the Wisconsin Legislature in Joint Session. November 6, 1855: In the 1855 Wisconsin gubernatorial election, incumbent William A. Barstow was declared the winner; the election results were contested and Coles Bashford, the Republican candidate and became the next Governor of Wisconsin.

March 8, 1855: Act to provide for the division of the County of Adams, to submit the question to a Vote of the people, 1855 Act 28. The referendum passed and resulted in the creation of Juneau County from the western half of Adams County. March 23, 1855: Act relative to the rights of married women, 1855 Act 49. Granted married women the rights to own property and conduct business in circumstances where the husband had been negligent or otherwise irresponsible. 1st Regular session: January 10, 1855 – April 2, 1855 President of the Senate: James T. Lewis, Lieutenant Governor President pro tempore: Eleazer Wakeley Speaker of the Assembly: Charles C. Sholes Members of the Wisconsin Senate for the Eighth Wisconsin Legislature: Members of the Assembly for the Eighth Wisconsin Legislature: Chief Clerk: Samuel G. Bugh Sergeant-at-Arms: William H. Gleason Chief Clerk: David Atwood Sergeant-at-Arms: William Blake

Dawn Fraser

Dawn Fraser, is an Australian freestyle champion swimmer and former politician. She is one of only three swimmers to have won the same Olympic individual event three times – in her case the women's 100-metre freestyle. Within Australia, she is known for her controversial behaviour and larrikin character as much as for her athletic ability. Fraser was born in the Sydney suburb of Balmain, New South Wales in 1937 into a poor working-class family, the youngest of eight children, her father, Kenneth Fraser, was from Scotland. She was spotted at the early age of 14 by Sydney coach Harry Gallagher swimming at the local sea baths. Fraser won eight Olympic medals, including four gold medals, six Commonwealth Games gold medals, she held 39 records. The 100 metres freestyle record was hers for 15 years from 1 December 1956 to 8 January 1972, she is the first of only three swimmers in Olympic history to have won individual gold medals for the same event at three successive Olympics. In October 1962, she became the first woman to swim 100 metres freestyle in less than one minute.

It was not until 1972, eight years after Fraser retired, that her 100m record of 58.9 secs was broken. Several weeks before the 1964 Olympics, Fraser was injured in a car crash that resulted in the death of her mother Rose, her sister and a friend were travelling in Fraser's car when it crashed, but they survived. This was a fresh tragedy for Fraser and her family following her older brother's death from leukemia in 1950, her father died after a long battle against cancer in 1960. During the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, Fraser angered swimming team sponsors and the Australian Swimming Union by marching in the opening ceremony against their wishes, wearing an older swimming costume in competition, as she found it more comfortable than the one supplied by the sponsors, she was accused of stealing an Olympic flag from a flagpole outside Emperor Hirohito's palace, the Kōkyo. She was released without charge. In the end she was given the flag as a souvenir. However, the Australian Swimming Union suspended her for 10 years.

They relented a few months before the 1968 Games but by it was too late for Fraser, at 31, to prepare. She denied having swum the moat to steal the flag, telling The Times in 1991: "There's no way I would have swum that moat. I was terrified of dirty water and that moat was filthy. There's no way I'd have dipped my toe in it." Fraser became a publican at the Riverview Hotel and took up swimming coaching. In 1988, she was elected as an independent to the New South Wales Legislative Assembly for the seat of Balmain; that electorate was abolished in 1991, after she failed to win the new seat of Port Jackson, she retired from politics. Fraser is a board director of the Wests Tigers NRL club, she was named the Australian of the Year in 1964, was inducted into the International Swimming Hall of Fame in 1965, was made a Member of the Order of the British Empire in 1967, appointed an Officer of the Order of Australia in 1998. In 1998, she was voted Australia's greatest female athlete in history, she was named Australian Female Athlete of the Century by the Sport Australia Hall of Fame, who had inducted her as their first female member in 1985.

In 1999 the International Olympic Committee named her the World's Greatest Living Female Water Sports Champion. On 14 July 2000, Fraser was awarded the Australian Sports Medal for "outstanding contribution as a swimming competitor", she was one of the bearers of the Olympic Torch at the opening ceremony of the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney. She carried the Olympic Torch at the stadium, as one of the bearers for the final segment, before the lighting of the Olympic Flame; the Australian Sport Awards includes an award presented by Fraser. The sea baths in Balmain where she swam were named the Dawn Fraser Swimming Pool in her honour in 1964, in 1992, the State Transit Authority named a RiverCat ferry after Fraser; as part of the 2018 Queen's Birthday Honours she was advanced to a Companion of the Order of Australia. In 1979, a movie called Dawn! was made about Fraser's life and career. It starred Bronwyn Mackay-Payne as Fraser. Fraser was played by Melissa Thomas in the 2003 film Swimming Upstream.

Fraser herself is credited in the film as Dawn Fraser's coach. On 1 September 2015, Dawn Fraser featured on Season 7, Episode 5 of the SBS genealogy television series Who Do You Think You Are?, which traced her heritage back to South America. Fraser married Gary Ware on 30 January 1965 at Macquarie Street, Sydney; the marriage was short-lived. She has one daughter from Dawn-Lorraine, who has a son, Jackson. Dawn Fraser suffered from severe asthma. Fraser has drawn negative criticism for public comments in 1997 when she said "I'm sick and tired of the immigrants that are coming into my country" and in 2015 when she told Australian tennis players Nick Kyrgios and Bernard Tomic to "go back to where their fathers or parents came from”. "I've always spoken the truth," Fraser said. "It was the way I was brought up, to be honest and to tell the truth." These views have been described as racist. She subsequently apologised. 1962 Perth Commonwealth Games 110 yards freestyle – gold medal 440 yards freestyle – gold medal 4 x 110 yards freestyle relay – gold medal 4 x 110 yards medley relay – gold medal List of members of the International Swimming Hall of Fame List of multiple Olympic gold medalists List of multiple Olympic gold medalists in one event List of Olympic medalists in swimming World record progr


Kenyasaurus is an extinct genus of basal neodiapsid tangasaurid, known from the Early Triassic period of Coast Province, southeastern Kenya. It contains a single species, Kenyasaurus mariakaniensis. Kenyasaurus is known only from the holotype specimen, KNM-MA1, a well preserved and complete postcranial skeleton, lacking much of the neck, pectoral girdle and forelimb, hosted at the Kenya National Museum, it was found at the Mariakani locality, located 25 miles from Mombasa, southeastern Kenya. It was collected from the upper part of the Maji ya Chumvi Beds; these beds form the lower part of the Middle Duruma Sandstone Series and on the basis of lithological similarities with beds in Tanzania and Madagascar were dated to the Induan and Olenekian stages of the Early Triassic period, about 251.0-245 million years ago. This specimen represents the only reptilian fossils known from these beds. Kenyasaurus is a small built, general lizard-like form. In Kenyasaurus original description and Carroll assigned it to the "Eosuchia" on the basis of its well developed sternum and that the fifth distal tarsal is not a separate element, but the fifth metatarsal is not hooked.

It was considered to be most related to the aquatic eosuchians Tangasaurus and Hovasaurus based on its small size and general body proportions. Harris and Carroll noted that its tail is not specialized as a swimming organ as it is in tangasaurids. Philip J. Currie redescribed Tangasaurus and its relationships with other "eosuchians", he diagnosed Kenyasaurus on the basis of five autapomorphies: It possesses low but anteroposteriorly elongate neural spines in the dorsal region, 56 caudal vertebrae and 28 pairs of caudal ribs and transverse processes. Its astragalus is triangular rather than primitive L-shape and it has pronounced process on fifth metatarsal for insertion of peroneus brevis. Currie united two subfamilies within the Tangasauridae: Kenyasaurinae and Tangasaurinae, he allied Youngina together within superfamily Younginoidea which he named. Currie named Acerosodontosaurus, allied it with Younginoidea in the clade Younginiformes. Currie's classification of the Younginiformes had been accepted by many scientists before they could perform large and computerized analyses.

More recent works that use phylogenetic analyses suggest that neither Younginoidea nor Younginiformes are monophyletic. Constanze Bickelmann, Johannes Müller and Robert R. Reisz redescribed Acerosodontosaurus and suggested an aquatic lifestyle for it, their analysis is figured below, it found support for two distinct families within "Younginiformes": the aquatic Tangasauridae, the terrestrial Younginidae. However, they found no support for the inclusion of Kenyasaurus within any of those families. More resolved results were obtained by al. in their description of Orovenator. However, those results required the exclusion of the fragmentary taxa Galesphyrus, Kenyasaurus and Saurosternon from their analysis. Kenyasaurus was first described and named by John M. Harris and Robert L. Carroll in 1977 and the type species is Kenyasaurus mariakaniensis; the generic name is derived from the name of the Kenya in which the only known specimen was found, Greek sauros, meaning "lizard". The specific name is derived from the name of the type locality of the genus, Mariakani