Bristol East (UK Parliament constituency)
Bristol East is a constituency recreated in 1983 covering the eastern part of the City of Bristol, represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2005 by Kerry McCarthy of the Labour Party. An earlier guise of the seat existed between 1885 and 1950; the seat was first created in 1885. Boundaries were altered in 1918 and Bristol East was abolished in a comprehensive review of the local seats for the 1950 general election. Political historyThe most powerful representative of Bristol East in Parliament and H. M. Government was Sir Stafford Cripps, MP 1931-1950, Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1947-1950; the seat shifted from Liberal Party representation through to the Labour Party with the 1918-1923 period seeing a more centrist Liberal splinter group candidate elected. The seat was recreated in 1983 on much larger boundaries than before 1950, reflecting the lower occupation levels of the city centre and allocation of new seats elsewhere to reflect population expansion in former rural and lightly-populated suburban areas.
Political historyThe 1983 election, the first in the recreated East seat, was a landslide victory for Margaret Thatcher's Conservatives following retention of the Falkland Islands in the Falklands War. Bristol East returned a Conservative MP, as Jonathan Sayeed defeated Tony Benn, the outgoing MP for Bristol South East and the leader of a large faction on the left-wing of the Labour Party. In 1992 Labour's Jean Corston gained the seat from Sayeed, retained by Labour candidates at each general election since, whilst every election since except 2005, when the Liberal Democrats came second; the 2015 result gave the seat the 42nd-smallest majority of Labour's 232 seats by percentage of majority. TurnoutTurnout has ranged between 80.3% in 1992 to 57.4% in 2001. Other partiesFive parties' candidates achieved more than deposit-retaining threshold of 5% of the vote in 2015. Liberal Democrat candidate Philip James won the largest third-party share of the vote to date, in the 2005 election — 25.2% of the vote.
1885-1918: The Municipal Borough of Bristol ward of South, part of North ward, the local government district of St George. 1918-1950: The County Borough of Bristol wards of St George East and St George West, parts of Easton, Somerset wards. 1983-1997: The City of Bristol wards of Brislington East, Brislington West, Eastville, Lawrence Hill, Stockwood. 1997-2010: The City of Bristol wards of Brislington East, Brislington West, Eastville, Lawrence Hill, St George East, St George West, Stockwood. 2010–present: The City of Bristol wards of Brislington East, Brislington West, Frome Vale, Hillfields, St George East, St George West, Stockwood. The constituency covers the eastern part of the city of Bristol, from neighbourhoods of the City Centre to outer neighbourhoods. General Election 1914/15: Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915; the political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by July 1914, the following candidates had been selected.
W. S. Craig nomis Constituency Profile for Bristol East — presenting data from the ONS annual population survey and other official statistics. Interviews with the 2005 parliamentary candidates
Staple Hill, Gloucestershire
Staple Hill is a suburb of Bristol, lying outside the city boundary in South Gloucestershire. It is directly east of west of Mangotsfield and north of Soundwell. Staple is a rendering of the Anglo-Saxon/Old English word stapol or staypole which meant a post in the sense of an old boundary marker; the settlement of Staple Hill developed in the 19th century. It was a hamlet in the ancient parish of Mangotsfield. Staple Hill was once within the ancient forest of Kingswood; this prevented by law of royal privilege anyone settling within the Royal Forest of Kingswood. The modern settlement of Staple Hill originated in the 18th century by when forest law had become anachronistic and the wild boar and wolves which once made the forest dangerous were long since extinct. Expansion of the settlement was facilitated after 1888 when the Midland Railway opened Staple Hill railway station, giving direct access to Bristol and Gloucester, to Bath by the Mangotsfield and Bath branch line; the Bath line of the Midland Railway involved the construction of a beautifully engineered tunnel deep under the hill at Staple Hill.
After this investment, Staple Hill grew beyond a small hamlet and gained tram and bus links with Bristol that allowed it to become a residence for commuters to Bristol or Bath. The station closed in 1966. In the 20th century, Staple Hill benefited from the construction of Bristol's ring-road and the M4 and M5 motorways. Staple Hill briefly became a centre for engineering, with Wilson and Sons Engineering designing and assembling Quasar s; this was a recumbent motorcycle built in small numbers, today recognised as the first modern feet-forward motorcycle design. Staple Hill has a wide-ranging high street and the architecture is Victorian with ornate roof ridges and eaves, attractive decorative brickwork and architectural features in stonemasonry; the High Street is broad as trams ran along its length. Page Park, improved by volunteers from the community in recent years and celebrated its 100-year anniversary in 2010. An event known as "Christmas on the Hill" takes place on the first Saturday in December during which entertainments along the main street take place with music, stall holders, treasure hunts and performances.
The railway line and the station site has been converted to the Bristol & Bath Railway cycle route, one of the Sustrans National Cycle routes. For a minor section in the central part of the ward, the path runs through Staple Hill tunnel as the land rises in this section, allowing for the hill above. Between 1927 and 1974 Staple Hill was part of Mangotsfield Urban District. Between 1974 and 1996 it was part of Kingswood Borough in the county of Avon, it is now an unparished area in the unitary authority of South Gloucestershire; the area forms the Staple Hill ward of South Gloucestershire. The elections on 7 May 2015 returned two Labour Party Councillors, Shirley Potts and Ian Boulton
Snuff Mills is a park in the Stapleton area of north Bristol known as Whitwood Mill. There are pleasant walks along the steep wooded banks of the River Frome, for example to Oldbury Court; the park was purchased in 1926 by the Corporation of Bristol as "a pleasure walk for citizens of Bristol" and restored in the 1980s by the Fishponds Local History Society. The park's name originates from one of the millers, his nickname was ` Snuffy Jack'. The park includes a stone mill; the old mill within the park was used for cutting and crushing stone from the many quarries along the Frome Valley during the late 19th century. It contains a waterwheel, egg-ended boiler in its setting and the remains of a vertical steam engine. Despite the name, tobacco snuff was never ground in this mill. Today, Snuff Mills is still a popular site for locals and visitors who come to enjoy the tranquility and natural surroundings; this stretch of the River Frome is home to some of Bristol's otters. Gallery
Aldi is the common brand of two German family owned discount supermarket chains with over 10,000 stores in 20 countries, an estimated combined turnover of more than €50 billion. Based in Germany, the chain was founded by brothers Karl and Theo Albrecht in 1946 when they took over their mother's store in Essen, in operation since 1913; the business was split into two separate groups in 1960, that became Aldi Nord, headquartered in Essen, Aldi Süd, headquartered in Mülheim. In 1962, they introduced the name Aldi, pronounced. In Germany, Aldi Nord and Aldi Süd have been financially and separate since 1966, although both divisions' names may appear as if they were a single enterprise with certain store brands or when negotiating with contractor companies; the formal business name is Aldi Einkauf GmbH & Compagnie, oHG. Aldi's German operations consist of Aldi Nord's 35 individual regional companies with about 2,500 stores in western and eastern Germany, Aldi Süd's 32 regional companies with 1,600 stores in western and southern Germany.
Internationally, Aldi Nord operates in Denmark, the Benelux countries, Portugal and Poland, while Aldi Süd operates in Ireland, Great Britain, Switzerland, China, Italy and Slovenia. Both Aldi Nord and Aldi Süd operate in the United States with 1,600 stores as of 2017; the earliest roots of the company trace back to 1913, when the mother of Karl and Theo Albrecht opened a small store in a suburb of Essen. Their father was employed as a miner and as a baker's assistant. Karl Albrecht was born in 1920, Theo Albrecht in 1922. Theo Albrecht completed an apprenticeship in his mother's store, while Karl Albrecht worked in a delicatessen. Karl Albrecht took over a food shop run by F. W. Judt who advertised that they were the "cheapest food source". Karl Albrecht served in the German Army during World War II. In 1946, the brothers took over their mother's business and soon opened another retail outlet nearby. By 1950, the Albrecht brothers owned 13 stores in the Ruhr Valley; the brothers' idea, new at the time, was to subtract the legal maximum rebate of 3% before sale.
The market leaders at the time, which were co-operatives, required their customers to collect rebate stamps, to send them at regular intervals to reclaim their money. The Albrecht brothers rigorously removed merchandise that did not sell from their shelves, cutting costs by neither advertising nor selling fresh produce, keeping the size of their retail outlets small; the brothers split the company in 1960 over a dispute. Karl believed. At the time, they jointly owned 300 shops with a cash flow of DM90 million yearly. In 1962, they introduced the name Aldi—short for Albrecht-Diskont. Aldi Nord and Aldi Süd have been financially and separate since 1966, although both divisions' names may appear as if they were a single enterprise with certain store brands or when negotiating with contractor companies; the individual groups were owned and managed jointly by the brothers. Karl Albrecht, who died in 2014, retained ownership of Aldi Süd with a personal wealth of €17.2 billion that made him the richest man in Germany.
The co-owners of Aldi Nord and Theo Albrecht Jr. came close behind at €16 billion. After Berthold's death, Aldi Nord continues to be controlled by the Albrecht family through its Markus and Jakobus foundations, which hold a combined 80.5 per cent of the company's issued capital. Aldi started to expand internationally in 1967, when Aldi Süd acquired the grocery chain Hofer in Austria. In 1976, Aldi opened its first store in the United States in Iowa, and, in 1979, Aldi Nord acquired Trader Joe's. After German reunification and the fall of the Iron Curtain, Aldi experienced a rapid expansion; the brothers retired as CEOs in 1993. The Aldi Nord group consists of 35 independent regional branches with 2,500 stores. Aldi Süd is made up of 31 companies with 1,600 stores; the border between their territories is known as ″Aldi-Äquator″ and runs from the Rhine via Mülheim an der Ruhr, Marburg and Gießen east to just north of Fulda. The former East Germany is served by Aldi Nord, except for one Aldi Süd in Sonneberg, whose regional office is in Bavaria.
The regional branches are organised as limited partnerships with a regional manager for each branch who reports directly to the head office in Essen or Mülheim an der Ruhr. In December 2002, a survey conducted by the German market research institute Forsa found 95% of blue-collar workers, 88% of white-collar workers, 84% of public servants, 80% of self-employed Germans shop at Aldi. One of Aldi's direct competitors internationally is Lidl; the Aldi group operates over 10,000 stores worldwide. Aldi Nord is responsible for its stores in Belgium, the Netherlands, France, Spain and Portugal, operates the Trader Joe's markets in the United States. Aldi Süd's responsibilities are in the United States, Austria and Italy, Great Britain, Ireland and Switzerland. Aldi Süd's first Switzerland store opened in 2005, while it has operated in Hungary since 2007. Aldi Süd had invested an estimated €800m in
Mayfield Park, Bristol
Mayfield Park is a residential area in East Bristol, with a large adjoining park known as the Ridgeway Rd Playing Fields. The area is located on the outskirts of the outer urban area of Fishponds and consists of three roads: Mayfield Park, Mayfield Park North and Mayfield Park South, it is near the main road of Berkeley Road and the outer urban area with the name of Speedwell, adjacent to Chester Park. The area has a population of 1,730. Part of the Royal Forest of Kingswood, the area around Mayfield Park started to be cleared for agriculture from the 13th century. By 1839, the area was part of the Parish of Stapleton and was known as the'Crooked Lane Inclosures' where the park is today and the'Reeves Ground' where the houses were built. In the 1880s, the Provincial Land Company let land in allotments for building purposes, a large number of semi-detached villas and other houses were built and the area became known as Mayfield Park; until the Hillfields Housing estate was built in the 1920s, Mayfield Park encompassed an area which extended across Lodge Causeway to the north-east.
In 1934 a Roman coin dating from the time of Vespasian, Roman Emperor between 69-79 AD, was found in a neighbours garden in Mayfield Park South, but no other Roman evidence has been found. Ridgeway Rd Playing Fields is a large park, extending about 850 yards in length and 250 yards across, with access to the Bristol to Bath Cycle Path at the western end. At the centre of the park are the pitches of Whitehall Rugby Football Club, founded in 1931, with a clubhouse on Foundry Lane. At the eastern end of the park in the Harry Crook Youth Activities Centre with basketball hoops and a small children's playground. Coombe Brook Valley Nature Park extends for about 450 yards to the south east towards Chester Park, known locally as the'Gosey' as it lies within the medieval Gosthills Gully. Managed by Avon Wildlife Trust, the 1.6 hectare valley is a haven for wildlife including hazel and sycamore trees, mature scrub of hawthorn and elder. It provides habitat for birds such as the wren and spotted flycatcher, butterflies including small tortoiseshell and speckled wood.
A number of churches serve the area including St John's Church of England Church, built in 1911, St Joseph's Roman Catholic Church, built in 1925, both on Lodge Causeway. Near the park is the more modern Abingdon Road Gospel Hall, a Evangelical Church of the Noncomformist Christian Brethren built in 1937, with a large church hall backing onto the playing fields; the Morley Congregational Church built between Ivy Lane and Mayfield Avenue in 1889 was demolished in 1970 after it encountered structural problems, now sites a block of modern flats. There are three schools near the Mayfield park area: the primary schools of Chester Park School, St Josephs School and Bristol Brunel Academy; the closest pubs are The Spotted Cow and The Greyhound, built in 1883, on Lodge Causeway, whose shops serve the area along with those on Ridgeway Road. John Bartlett, Images of England, Fishponds Harry Crook Youth Activities Centre St Johns Church of England Church Fishponds Local History Society Whitehall Rugby Football Club
Bristol Tramways operated in the city of Bristol, England from 1875, when the Bristol Tramways Company was formed by Sir George White, until 1941 when a Luftwaffe bomb destroyed the main power supply cables. The first trams in Bristol were introduced in 1875. Electric trams were introduced in the first city to do so in the United Kingdom. At the system's peak there were 17 routes and 237 tramcars in use. In 1887 the Bristol Tramways Company merged with the Bristol Cab Company to form the Bristol Tramways and Carriage Company; the new company developed a fleet of omnibuses to serve the rest of the country areas. In 1912 it bought the Clifton Rocks Railway. In 1929 the White family sold its controlling interest in the company to the Great Western Railway, but by 1932 control had passed to the Thomas Tilling Group. William Verdon Smith remained as chairman but was replaced in 1935 by J. F. Heaton of Thomas Tilling, so he could concentrate on the Bristol Aeroplane Company. In 1937 control of Bristol's tramways passed to a joint committee of the Bristol Tramways company and Bristol Corporation.
Abandonment of the tramways began in 1938, but this was halted at the outbreak of World War II. Tram operations ceased in 1941 with the Luftwaffe's Good Friday raid, which set central Bristol on fire. A bomb hit Counterslip bridge, St Philips, next to the Tramways generating centre, severed the tram power supply; the final tram from Old Market to Kingswood was given a push by passers-by and freewheeled its way into the depot. All Bristol's trams were scrapped. Another memorial to the system is a length of tram track still embedded in St Mary Redcliffe churchyard, where it was blown by a bomb. Two lengths of intact track can be seen at the car park of the Gloucester Road Medical Centre, a short section of track still exists on the approach to Bristol Temple Meads railway station. Another section of track used to be still in place near Castle Park, but this was lost when the area was redeveloped as part of the Cabot Circus development; the Bristol Tramways company continued as a bus operator, but the name was not changed to Bristol Omnibus Company until 1957.
The electric tram routes were not numbered until November 1913. They were numbered as follows: 1. Tramways Centre – Whiteladies Road – Durdham Downs 2. Tramways Centre – Whiteladies Road – Durdham Downs – Westbury 3. Eastville – Old Market – Whiteladies Road – Durdham Downs 4. Tramways Centre – Zetland Road – Durdham Downs 5. Tramways Centre – Ashley Down Road – Horfield Barracks 6. Tramways Centre – Ashley Down Road – Horfield Barracks – Filton Park – Filton 7. Tramways Centre – Warwick Road – Eastville – Fishponds 8. Tramways Centre – Temple Meads Station 9. Hotwells – Tramways Centre – Temple Meads Station – Arno's Vale – Depot – Brislington 10. Bristol Bridge – Knowle 11. Bristol Bridge – Ashton Road 12. Bristol Bridge – Bedminster Depot – Bedminster Down 13. Tramways Centre – Old Market – St. George – Whiteway Rd – Kingswood 14. Zetland Road – Old Market – Eastville – Fishponds – Staple Hill 15. Knowle – Bushy Park – Old Market – St. George – Marling Road – Nags Head Hill – Hanham 16. Old Market – St George 17.
Hotwells – Tramways Centre – Temple Meads StationNote that: Route 1 was withdrawn and absorbed into 2. Route 8 was withdrawn and absorbed into 9. Route 13 for a while terminated at Old Market. Route 16 was a busy-period route only and was absorbed into 13 and 15. Route 17 ran to meet the P and A Campbell steamers and was withdrawn at the same time as Route 8. Trams did not run along Ashley Down Rd. Marling Rd. or Whiteway Road, route 14 did not enter Zetland Rd. From 1902 to 1905, the route from Hanham, having reached Old Market, was extended to the Tramways Centre. History of Bristol Tramways "BT&CC tram map, 1911". Bristol Vintage Bus Group. Archived from the original on 23 July 2012. Retrieved 2 March 2011; the Tramways of Gloucestershire: A Brief History, by A. E. Fielder Potted history of attempts to resurrect trams in Bristol History of LTRA development and closure Tram routes plotted on Google Maps Bristol Tramways at British Tramway Company Badges and Buttons
Filton Abbey Wood railway station
Filton Abbey Wood railway station serves the town of Filton in South Gloucestershire, inside the Bristol conurbation. It is 4.4 miles from Bristol Temple Meads. Its three letter station code is FIT. There are four platforms but minimal facilities; the station is managed by Great Western Railway, the seventh company to be responsible for the station, the third franchise since privatisation in 1997. They provide most train services at the station, with two trains per day operated by CrossCountry; the general service level is eight trains per hour - two to South Wales, two to Bristol Parkway, two toward Weston-super-Mare and two toward Westbury. Filton Abbey Wood is the third station on the site; the first station, was opened in 1863 by the Bristol and South Wales Union Railway. The station had a single platform, with a second added in 1886 to cope with traffic from the Severn Tunnel; the station was closed in 1903, replaced by a new station, Filton Junction, 0.15 miles further north, built at the junction with the newly constructed Badminton Line from Wootton Bassett.
The new station had four platforms, each with large canopies. Services at Filton Junction declined in the second half of the twentieth century, with the station buildings and Badminton Line platforms demolished in 1976; the station was closed in September 1996, replaced by the current station, Filton Abbey Wood. This was built 0.3 miles south of the original station, adjacent to a new Ministry of Defence office development. The station was built with two platforms, but a third was added in 2004 and a fourth in 2018; the line through Filton Abbey Wood is not electrified. Platform 4 was completed in 2018 as part of the Filton Bank four-tracking project, allowing increased services between Bristol Parkway and Bristol Temple Meads. Filton Abbey Wood railway station is located in the Filton area of South Gloucestershire, within the Bristol conurbation; the area to the west of the station is residential, while to the east is a large commercial area, including MoD Abbey Wood, adjacent to the station.
The main access to the station is via a long footpath and bridge from Emma-Chris Way to the north, which has a small car park. There is foot access from MoD Abbey Wood to the east; the station is on the Cross Country Route between Bristol Temple Meads and Bristol Parkway, just off the South Wales Main Line south of Patchway and the eastern end of the Henbury Loop Line. It is 4 miles 30 chains from Bristol Temple Meads and 113 miles 21 chains from London Paddington; the station is just north of Filton South Junction, where the northbound line to South Wales and the westbound line to Avonmouth split from the line to Bristol Parkway, just south of Filton Junction No. 1, where the southbound lines from South Wales and Parkway converge. The next station south is Stapleton Road, the next station north is Patchway, the next station east is Bristol Parkway; the station is on an alignment of 032 degrees, curving towards the west. There are four active platforms: platform 1 is the easternmost, separated from platforms 2 and 3, which share an island, by two running lines two further running lines before platform 4 at the west.
Platform 1 has a speed limit of 70 miles per hour. Platform 2 is for northbound trains towards Bristol Parkway, but can be used by trains towards South Wales. Platform 3 is for southbound trains which have come from Filton West. Platform 4 is for northbound trains towards Filton West. Both platforms 2 and 3 have a speed limit of 60 miles per hour, all four platforms are approx 118 metres long. Facilities at the station are minimal - there are metal and glass shelters on each platform, some seating. A small ticket office operates on platform 1 on weekday afternoons, there is a machine for buying tickets but the station is unstaffed. There are customer help points, giving next train information for all platforms, as well as dot-matrix displays showing the next trains on each platform. A small pay and display car park with 30 spaces is to the north of the station, as are racks for eight bicycles. CCTV cameras are in operation at the station. There is a bus stop located in the station car park however only Rail Replacement buses serve it during Engineering work or severe service disruption.
The nearest bus stop is located on the A4174 Station Road by the McDonald's restaurant. Over the decade 2002–2012, passenger numbers at Filton Abbey Wood doubled, from 395,000 to 771,000. In the 2006/07 financial year, over 50,000 passengers used Filton Abbey Wood to travel to or from Bristol Temple Meads; the line through Filton Abbey Wood has a loading gauge of W8, the line handles over 15 million train tonnes per year. Filton Abbey Wood is managed by Great Western Railway; the basic service Monday to Friday is four trains per hour in each direction, split between four services. These are the hourly services each way between Bristol Weston-super-Mare; the Taunton service has occasional extensions to Exeter St Davids and beyond, while the Gloucester to Westbury has alternate hour extensions to Great Malvern in the north, to Weymouth in the south, one daily extension to Brighton. Combined, there are two trains per hour to Bristol Parkway, two trains per hour to Cardiff Central and four trains per hour to Bristol Temple Meads.
A single direct service from London Paddington calls at Filton Abbey Wood in the morning, continuing to Swansea, but the