A keychain, key fob or key ring is a small chain, usually made from metal or plastic, that connects a small item to a keyring. The length of a keychain allows an item to be used more easily than if connected directly to a keyring, some keychains allow one or both ends the ability to rotate, keeping the keychain from becoming twisted, while the item is being used. A keychain can be a link between a keyring and the belt of an individual. It is usually employed by personnel whose job demands frequent use of keys, such as a security guard, prison officer, the chain is often retractable, and therefore may be a nylon rope, instead of an actual metal chain. The chain ensures that the keys attached to the individual using them, makes accidental loss less likely. Keychains are one of the most common souvenir and advertising items, keychains are commonly used to promote businesses. A standard advertising keychain will carry the name and contact information. In the 1950s and 1960s, with the improvement of manufacturing techniques.
Businesses could place their names on promotional keychains that were three-dimensional for less cost than the standard metal keychains, keychains are small and inexpensive enough to become promotional items for larger national companies that might give them out by the millions. For example, with the launch of a new movie or television show, keychains that currently hold keys are an item that is never long misplaced by the owner. People sometimes attach their keychain to their belt to avoid loss or to allow access to it. Many keychains offer functions that the owner wants easily accessible as well and these include an army knife, bottle opener, an electronic organizer, address book, family photos, nail clipper, pill case and even pepper spray. Modern cars often include a keychain that serves as a remote to lock/unlock the car or even start the engine, an electronic key finder is a useful item found on many keys that will beep when summoned for quick finding when misplaced. A keyring or split ring is a ring that holds keys and other small items, other types of keyrings are made of leather and rubber.
Keyring was invented in the 19th century by Alexander Parkes, the most common form of the keyring is a single piece of metal in a double loop. Either end of the loop can be pried open to allow a key to be inserted, novelty carabiners are commonly used as keyrings for ease of access and exchange. Often the keyring is adorned with a key fob for self-identification, other forms of rings may use a single loop of metal or plastic with a mechanism to open and securely close the loop. The word fob may be linked to the low German dialect for the word Fuppe, meaning pocket, fob pockets were pockets meant to deter thieves
It is distinguished from wakefulness by a decreased ability to react to stimuli, but is more easily reversed than the state of being comatose. Sleep occurs in repeating periods, in which the body alternates between two distinct modes known as non-REM and REM sleep. Although REM stands for rapid eye movement, sleep affects other brain-body functions, during sleep, most systems are in an anabolic state, helping to restore the immune, nervous and muscular systems. The internal circadian clock promotes sleep daily at night, sleep patterns vary among individuals. In the last century, artificial light has substantially altered sleep timing in industrialized countries, the diverse purposes and mechanisms of sleep are the subject of substantial ongoing research. Sleep seems to assist with improvements in the body and mind, Research in the 21st century is investigating whether sleep is a period of maintenance for removing metabolic waste compounds from the brain. Sleep is sometimes confused with unconsciousness, but is different in terms of the thought process. REM and non-REM sleep are so different that physiologists classify them as distinct behavioral states, REM sleep is associated with desynchronized and fast brain waves, loss of muscle tone, and suspension of homeostasis. NREM is considered to be sleep, it shows no prominent eye movement or muscle paralysis.
Sleep occurs in cycles of approximately 90 minutes and this rhythm is called the ultradian sleep cycle. Sleep proceeds in cycles of NREM and REM, normally in that order, the American Academy of Sleep Medicine divides NREM into three stages, N1, N2, and N3, the last of which is called delta sleep or slow-wave sleep. The whole period normally proceeds in the order, N1 → N2 → N3 → N2 → REM, REM sleep occurs as a person returns to stage 2 or 1 from a deep sleep. An adult reaches REM approximately every 90 minutes, REM sleep usually lasts for longer during latter half of sleep than in the part of the sleep episode. There is an amount of deep sleep earlier in the night. Key physiological indicators in sleep include EEG of brain waves, electrooculography of eye movements, simultaneous collection of these measurements is called polysomnography, and can be performed in a specialized sleep laboratory. In other words, sleeping persons perceive fewer stimuli, they can generally still respond to loud noises and other salient sensory events.
Awakening can mean the end of sleep, or simply a moment to survey the environment, sleepers typically awaken from slow-wave sleep, soon after the end of a REM phase or sometimes in the middle of REM. Internal circadian indicators, along with reduction of homeostatic sleep need, typically bring about awakening
Physical fitness is a general state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports and daily activities. Physical fitness is generally achieved through proper nutrition, moderate-vigorous physical exercise, before the industrial revolution, fitness was defined as the capacity to carry out the day’s activities without undue fatigue. Fitness is defined as the quality or state of being fit, around 1950, perhaps consistent with the Industrial Revolution and the treatise of World War II, the term fitness increased in western vernacular by a factor of ten. Modern definition of fitness describe either a person or machines ability to perform a function or a holistic definition of human adaptability to cope with various situations. This has led to an interrelation of human fitness and attractiveness which has mobilized global fitness and fitness equipment industries, regarding specific function, fitness is attributed to person who possess significant aerobic or anaerobic ability, i. e. strength or endurance. A well rounded fitness program will improve a person in all aspects of fitness, rather than one, a comprehensive fitness program tailored to an individual typically focuses on one or more specific skills, and on age- or health-related needs such as bone health.
Many sources cite mental and emotional health as an important part of overall fitness and this is often presented in textbooks as a triangle made up of three points, which represent physical and mental fitness. Physical fitness can prevent or treat many chronic health conditions brought on by unhealthy lifestyle or aging, working out can help some people sleep better and possibly alleviate some mood disorders in certain individuals. Developing research has demonstrated many of the benefits of exercise are mediated through the role of skeletal muscle as an endocrine organ. The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans was created by the Office of Disease Prevention and this publication suggests that all adults should avoid inactivity to promote good health mentally and physically. Aerobic activity should be performed in episodes of at least 10 minutes, additional health benefits are gained by engaging in physical activity beyond this amount. Specific or task-oriented fitness is an ability to perform in a specific activity with a reasonable efficiency, for example.
Specific training prepares athletes to perform well in their sport, examples are,100 m sprint, in a sprint the athlete must be trained to work anaerobically throughout the race, an example of how to do this would be interval training. Middle distance running, athletes require both speed and endurance to gain out of this training. The hard working muscles are at their peak for a period of time as they are being used at that level for longer period of time. Marathon, in case the athlete must be trained to work aerobically. Many fire fighters and police officers undergo regular fitness testing to determine if they are capable of the demanding tasks required of the job. Members of armed forces will often be required to pass a fitness test – for example soldiers of the US Army must be able to pass the Army Physical Fitness Test
Windows 10 Mobile
Windows 10 Mobile is a mobile operating system developed by Microsoft. Microsoft has built tools for developers to port some iOS apps with minimal modifications. Windows Phone 8.1 smartphones are eligible for upgrade to Windows 10 Mobile, some features may vary depending on hardware compatibility. Windows 10 Mobile is designed for use on smartphones and phablets running on ARM processor architectures, Windows 10 Mobile entered public beta for selected Lumia brand smartphones on February 12,2015. At Build 2014, Microsoft unveiled the concept of universal Windows apps, user data and licenses for an app could be shared between multiple platforms. However, Nadella stated that internal changes would not have any effect on how the operating systems are marketed. Microsofts previous attempt at a system for ARM-based tablets, Windows RT was commercially unsuccessful. An early build of Windows Bridge for iOS was released as open source software under the MIT License on August 6,2015, Visual Studio 2015 can convert Xcode projects into Visual Studio projects.
Microsoft announced plans for a toolkit codenamed Centennial, which would allow desktop Windows software using Win32 APIs to be ported to Windows 10 Mobile. Google Mobile Services and certain core APIs would not be available, on February 25,2016, after already having delayed it in November 2015, Microsoft announced that Astoria would be shelved. Microsoft argued that an Android emulator was ultimately redundant to the native, Objective-C toolchain, the company encouraged use of products from Xamarin for multi-platform app development using C# programming language instead. The Windows Subsystem for Linux was developed from Project Astoria, in accordance with Microsofts branding strategy, this operating system will be branded primarily as an edition of Windows 10, rather than Windows Phone 10. Internally, the Microsoft Edge user agent on Windows 10 Mobile still contains a reference to Windows Phone 10, on May 13,2015, Microsoft officially confirmed the platform would be known as Windows 10 Mobile.
Windows 10 Mobile shares user interface elements with its PC counterpart, such as the updated Action Center, notifications can be synced between devices, dismissing a notification on, for example, a laptop, will dismiss it from a phone. Certain types of notifications now allow inline replies, the start screen now has the option to display wallpapers as a background of the screen behind translucent tiles, rather than within the tiles. The messaging app adds support for internet-based Skype messaging alongside SMS, similarly to iMessage, devices can connect directly to external displays wirelessly using Miracast, via USB Type-C, or via docking station accessories with USB ports, as well as HDMI and DisplayPort outputs. A new iteration of the Office Mobile suite, Office for Windows 10, is bundled. Based upon the Android and iOS versions of Office Mobile, they introduce a new interface with a variation of the ribbon toolbar used by the desktop version
Misfit is an American consumer electronics company founded in 14 October 2011 by Sonny Vu, Kevin Pham and John Sculley, owned by Fossil Group. It specializes in technology that utilizes sensors and home automation products. Misfits wearable activity trackers are unique in design, and count sleep, calories, Vu and Iyengar previously co-founded AgaMatrix, a company that made the iBGStar, the first FDA approved iPhone medical device. In November 2015, Misfit was acquired for $260 million by Fossil Group, Misfit was founded in 14 October 2011. Its name honors Steve Jobs, who died 9 days before the company was founded and it was inspired by the 1997 commercial which debuted Apples Think Different slogan, Here’s to the crazy ones. The round pegs in the square holes, Misfits first product, launched via an Indiegogo campaign in 2012. The campaign reached its goal of $100,000 within ten hours, the co-founders used the crowdsourcing campaign to get feedback about the product and the market for activity trackers and wearable technology.
In April 2012, Misfit raised $7.6 million in its Series A funding, in December 2013, Misfit secured $15.2 million in Series B funding for research and development of products that are expected to be released in 2014. The Series B funding round was headed by Li Ka-shings Horizons Ventures and joined by Translink Capital, previous investors including Founders Fund, Khosla Ventures, Norwest Venture Partners, O’Reilly AlphaTech Ventures, Max Levchin and IncTank participated in the company’s series B round. The company released Flash, a water resistant fitness band with battery life of about 6 months and it lacks a heart rate monitor. Later that year, an insurance company offered discounts to customers who reach exercise goals set by the company. In January 2015, Misfit announced they are moving beyond fitness to home automation, users of Misfits Flash and Shine wearable will be able to control light bulbs, door locks and home entertainment centers from their wearable device. In November 2015, Misfit was acquired by Fossil Group for $260 million, following the acquisition, Misfit announced the release of Ray, a jewelry-like activity tracker, and Specter Bluetooth earbuds—the companys first headphones product.
Misfit partnered with Coca-Cola to launch Coca-Cola Red Shine activity trackers for the company’s North American rewards program. They were behind the Coca-Cola summer 2013 campaign “Get the Ball Rolling. ”In 2014, Misfit partnered with Coke’s hospitality program for the 2014 Olympic Games by distributing Shines to Olympians, VIP guests, and fans along the Olympic Torch Relay. After Victoria’s Secret launched its VS Sport line, the women’s clothing, in 2015, Misfit announced a partnership with Swarovski to launch a Swarovski Shine Collection that combines Swarovski’s crystal jewelry with Misfit’s Shine. The line has two products, one of which is the first solar-powered activity tracker produced by Misfit. The wearables are both waterproof and the line has nine additional accessories all jointly designed by both companies
Within the market of desktop and home computers, and by web usage, it is the second most widely used desktop OS after Microsoft Windows. Launched in 2001 as Mac OS X, the series is the latest in the family of Macintosh operating systems, Mac OS X succeeded classic Mac OS, which was introduced in 1984, and the final release of which was Mac OS9 in 1999. An initial, early version of the system, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was released in 1999, the first desktop version, Mac OS X10.0, followed in March 2001. In 2012, Apple rebranded Mac OS X to OS X. Releases were code named after big cats from the release up until OS X10.8 Mountain Lion. Beginning in 2013 with OS X10.9 Mavericks, releases have been named after landmarks in California, in 2016, Apple rebranded OS X to macOS, adopting the nomenclature that it uses for their other operating systems, iOS, watchOS, and tvOS. The latest version of macOS is macOS10.12 Sierra, macOS is based on technologies developed at NeXT between 1985 and 1997, when Apple acquired the company.
The X in Mac OS X and OS X is pronounced ten, macOS shares its Unix-based core, named Darwin, and many of its frameworks with iOS, tvOS and watchOS. A heavily modified version of Mac OS X10.4 Tiger was used for the first-generation Apple TV, Apple used to have a separate line of releases of Mac OS X designed for servers. Beginning with Mac OS X10.7 Lion, the functions were made available as a separate package on the Mac App Store. Releases of Mac OS X from 1999 to 2005 can run only on the PowerPC-based Macs from the time period, Mac OS X10.5 Leopard was released as a Universal binary, meaning the installer disc supported both Intel and PowerPC processors. In 2009, Apple released Mac OS X10.6 Snow Leopard, in 2011, Apple released Mac OS X10.7 Lion, which no longer supported 32-bit Intel processors and did not include Rosetta. All versions of the system released since run exclusively on 64-bit Intel CPUs, the heritage of what would become macOS had originated at NeXT, a company founded by Steve Jobs following his departure from Apple in 1985.
There, the Unix-like NeXTSTEP operating system was developed, and launched in 1989 and its graphical user interface was built on top of an object-oriented GUI toolkit using the Objective-C programming language. This led Apple to purchase NeXT in 1996, allowing NeXTSTEP, called OPENSTEP, previous Macintosh operating systems were named using Arabic numerals, e. g. Mac OS8 and Mac OS9. The letter X in Mac OS Xs name refers to the number 10 and it is therefore correctly pronounced ten /ˈtɛn/ in this context. However, a common mispronunciation is X /ˈɛks/, consumer releases of Mac OS X included more backward compatibility. Mac OS applications could be rewritten to run natively via the Carbon API, the consumer version of Mac OS X was launched in 2001 with Mac OS X10.0. Reviews were variable, with praise for its sophisticated, glossy Aqua interface
A ticker symbol or stock symbol is an abbreviation used to uniquely identify publicly traded shares of a particular stock on a particular stock market. A stock symbol may consist of letters, numbers or a combination of both, ticker symbol refers to the symbols that were printed on the ticker tape of a ticker tape machine. Stock symbols are unique identifiers assigned to each security traded on a particular market, for example, AAPL is for Apple Inc. OODH is for Orion DHC, Inc. and HD is for Home Depot, a stock symbol can consist of letters, numbers, or a combination of both, and is a way to uniquely identify that stock. The symbols were kept as short as possible to reduce the number of characters that had to be printed on the ticker tape, the allocation of symbols and formatting convention is specific to each stock exchange. In the US, for example, stock tickers are typically between 1 and 4 letters and represent the name where possible. In Europe, most exchanges use three-letter codes, for example Dutch consumer goods company Unilever traded on the Amsterdam Euronext exchange has the symbol UNA, while in Asia, numbers are often used as stock tickers to avoid issues for international investors when using non-Latin scripts.
For example, the bank HSBCs stock traded on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange has the ticker symbol 0005, symbols sometimes change to reflect mergers. Prior to the 1999 merger with Mobil Oil, Exxon used a spelling of the company XON as its ticker symbol. The symbol of the firm after the merger was XOM, symbols are sometimes reused, in the US the single-letter symbols are particularly sought after as vanity symbols. For example, since Mar 2008 Visa Inc. has used the symbol V that had previously used by Vivendi which had delisted. To fully qualify a stock, both the ticker and the exchange or country of listing needs to be known, on many systems both must be specified to uniquely identify the security. This is often done by appending the location or exchange code to the ticker, although stock tickers identify a security, they are exchange dependent, generally limited to stocks and can change. These limitations have led to the development of other codes in financial markets to identify securities for settlement purposes, the most prevalent of these is the International Securities Identifying Number.
An ISIN uniquely identifies a security and its structure is defined in ISO6166, Securities for which ISINs are issued include bonds, commercial paper and warrants. The ISIN identifies the security, not the exchange on which it trades, for instance, Daimler AG stock trades on twenty-two different stock exchanges worldwide, and is priced in five different currencies, it has the same ISIN on each, though not the same ticker symbol. ISIN cannot specify a particular trade in this case, and another identifier, following the introduction of the Sequence trading platform in 1996, EPICs were renamed Tradable Instrument Display Mnemonics, but they are still widely referred to as EPICs. Stocks can be identified using their SEDOL number or their ISIN, in the United States, modern letter-only ticker symbols were developed by Standard & Poors to bring a national standard to investing
New York Stock Exchange
The New York Stock Exchange, is an American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street, Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York. It is by far the worlds largest stock exchange by market capitalization of its companies at US$19.3 trillion as of June 2016. The average daily trading value was approximately US$169 billion in 2013, the NYSE trading floor is located at 11 Wall Street and is composed of 21 rooms used for the facilitation of trading. A fifth trading room, located at 30 Broad Street, was closed in February 2007, the main building and the 11 Wall Street building were designated National Historic Landmarks in 1978. The NYSE is owned by Intercontinental Exchange, an American holding company that it lists, previously, it was part of NYSE Euronext, which was formed by the NYSEs 2007 merger with Euronext. NYSE and Euronext now operate as divisions of Intercontinental Exchange, the NYSE has been the subject of several lawsuits regarding fraud or breach of duty and in 2004 was sued by its former CEO for breach of contract and defamation.
The earliest recorded organization of securities trading in New York among brokers directly dealing with each other can be traced to the Buttonwood Agreement, previously securities exchange had been intermediated by the auctioneers who conducted more mundane auctions of commodities such as wheat and tobacco. In 1817 the stockbrokers of New York operating under the Buttonwood Agreement instituted new reforms, after sending a delegation to Philadelphia to observe the organization of their board of brokers, restrictions on manipulative trading were adopted as well as formal organs of governance. Several locations were used between 1817 and 1865, when the present location was adopted, the invention of the electrical telegraph consolidated markets, and New Yorks market rose to dominance over Philadelphia after weathering some market panics better than other alternatives. The Civil War greatly stimulated speculative securities trading in New York, by 1869 membership had to be capped, and has been sporadically increased since.
The latter half of the century saw rapid growth in securities trading. Securities trade in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was prone to panics. The Stock Exchange Luncheon Club was situated on the floor from 1898 until its closure in 2006. The main building, located at 18 Broad Street, between the corners of Wall Street and Exchange Place, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1978, as was the 11 Wall Street building. The NYSE announced its plans to merge with Archipelago on April 21,2005, NYSEs governing board voted to merge with rival Archipelago on December 6,2005, and became a for-profit, public company. It began trading under the name NYSE Group on March 8,2006, Wall Street is the leading US money center for international financial activities and the foremost US location for the conduct of wholesale financial services. It comprises a matrix of wholesale financial sectors, financial markets, financial institutions, the principal sectors are securities industry, commercial banking, asset management, and insurance.
Prior to the acquisition of NYSE Euronext by the ICE in 2013, Marsh Carter was the Chairman of the NYSE, the chairman is Jeffrey Sprecher
The hardware key is programmed with a product key or other cryptographic protection mechanism, it attaches via electrical connector to an external bus of the computer or appliance. Without the dongle, the software may run only in a restricted mode, when used as a device attached to a computer or TV or gaming console, dongles can enable functions that would not be present without it. For example, an attached to a TV may receive an encoded video stream, decode it in the dongle. In late 1970s/early 1980s, Wordcraft became the earliest program to use a software protection dongle, the dongle was passive using a 74LS165 8-bit shift register connected to one of the two tape cassette ports on the Commodore PET microcomputer. The tape cassette port supplied both power and bi-directional data I/O, the requirements for security were identified by the author of the Wordcraft word processor, Pete Dowson, and his colleague Mike Lake. The shift register contained only 8 bits but with lines tied to ground or 5V at random it could provide a number between 0 and 255 which was sufficient security for the software.
The prototype was on Veroboard which dangled from the port edge connector on wires - so dangle became dongle. Pete Dowson wrote special self-modifying 6502 machine code to drive the port directly, the first device used a commercial potting box with black or blue epoxy resin. Wordcrafts distributor at the time, Dataview Ltd. based in Colchester, UK, when Wordcraft International was formed in Derby, UK, responsibility for manufacture was transferred to Brian Edmundson who produced the plastic moulding for the enclosure. One of the greatest regrets of Graham and Mike was that they did not patent the idea when they came up with it, versions of the Wordcraft dongle were produced for Centronics parallel ports,25 pin serial ports and 9 pin serial ports. Among the computers supported, before the arrival of the IBM PC, were Chuck Peddles Sirius Systems Technology Victor 9000, the ACT Apricot Computers, dongles rapidly evolved into active devices that contained a serial transceiver and even a microprocessor to handle transactions with the host.
Later versions adopted the USB interface in preference to the serial or parallel interface, the USB interface is gradually becoming dominant. A1992 advertisement for Rainbow Technologies claimed the word dongle was derived from the name Don Gall, though untrue, this has given rise to an urban myth. Efforts to introduce dongle copy-protection in the software market have met stiff resistance from users. In cases such as prepress and printing software, the dongle is encoded with a specific, per-user license key and this is a form of tightly controlled licensing, which allows the vendor to engage in vendor lock-in and charge more than it would otherwise for the product. USB dongles are a big part of Steinbergs audio production and editing systems, such as Cubase, WaveLab, Hypersonic, HALion, the dongle used by Steinbergs products is known as a Steinberg Key. A developer can use the dongle to store user settings or even a complete portable version of the application. Not all flash drives are suitable for use, as not all manufacturers install unique serial numbers into their devices
Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic or digital equipment intended for everyday use, typically in private homes. Consumer electronics include devices used for entertainment and home-office activities, in British English, they are often called brown goods by producers and sellers, to distinguish them from white goods such as washing machines and refrigerators. Radio broadcasting in the early 20th century brought the first major consumer product, products included telephones, personal computers, MP3 players, audio equipment and calculators. In the 2010s, consumer electronics stores often sell GPS, automotive electronics, video game consoles, electronic instruments, karaoke machines, digital cameras. Stores sell digital cameras, cell phones, some consumer electronics stores, such as Best Buy have begun selling office and baby furniture. Consumer electronics stores may be bricks and mortar retail stores, online stores. The CEA estimated the value of 2015 consumer electronics sales at US$220 billion, for its first fifty years the phonograph turntable did not use electronics, the needle and soundhorn were purely mechanical technologies.
However, in the 1920s radio broadcasting became the basis of production of radio receivers. The vacuum tubes that had made radios practical were used with record players as well, television was soon invented, but remained insignificant in the consumer market until the 1950s. The transistor, invented in 1947 by Bell Laboratories, led to significant research in the field of semiconductors in the early 1950s. The transistors advantages revolutionized that industry along with other electronics, by 1959 Fairchild Semiconductor had introduced the first planar transistor from which come the origins of Moores Law. Integrated circuits followed when manufacturers built circuits on a substrate using electrical connections between circuits within the chip itself. One overriding characteristic of consumer products is the trend of ever-falling prices. This is driven by gains in manufacturing efficiency and automation, lower costs as manufacturing has moved to lower-wage countries. Semiconductor components benefit from Moores Law, a principle which states that, for a given price.
While consumer electronics continues in its trend of convergence, combining elements of many products, there is an ever increasing need to keep product information updated and comparable, for the consumer to make an informed choice. Style, price and performance are all relevant, there is a gradual shift towards e-commerce web-storefronts. Many products include Internet connectivity using technologies such as Wi-Fi, products not traditionally associated with computer use now provide options to connect to the Internet or to a computer using a home network to provide access to digital content