Passo Oscuro is a small town and beach resort situated in the comune of Fiumicino in the Lazio region of Italy, west of Rome, at the Tyrrhenian Sea, 5 km north of Fregene. The name Passo Oscuro, Italian for dark step, is said to derive from a hunting path; the name is mentioned in a note from pope Benedict XIII in 1724. The area was donated to the hospital Pio Istituto di Santo Spirito in Rome by the Peretti family, owners of the nearby castle Torre in Pietra; the modern town was populated during the 1920s by fishermen, development continued after World War II. Tourism has developed, with day visitors from Rome as well as camping sites, it is the northernmost of all the bathing locations in Fiumicino, its less central location offers unspoilt beaches and sand dunes. The ending scene of Federico Fellini's La Dolce Vita was filmed on the beach of Passo Oscuro. Fregenae
The Rome–Fiumicino railway is an urban railway line in Rome. The railway link between Rome and Fiumicino was opened on 6 May 1878, when a branch of the Livorno–Rome railway, completed in 1859, it ran from Ponte Galeria station to Fiumicino, where a station was located for passenger traffic and there was a connection for freight traffic to the river port, ending at Fiumicino Porto Canale goods yard. Electrification with overhead line at 3000 V DC was activated on 14 November 1938. Goods traffic began to decline from the 1960s, due to the decline of the Fiumicino river port. In 1990, rail traffic ended on the link to the river port, but it was another ten years before it was closed. However, the line began to assume a certain importance for passenger traffic with the opening of Fiumicino Airport. A study was carried out in September 1960 into the possible doubling of the line and the building of a branch from Porto station running directly to the airport; the project was shelved, but it was resumed in the mid-eighties.
A variation was built that branches off a few metres before the entry to Porto station, running on a viaduct to a station called Fiumicino Aeroporto. The new line was opened on 27 May 1990. At the same time, the former Porto station was closed. Direct Rome–Airport services were established operating from Roma Ostiense station. Services were extended to Roma Termini station. With the establishment of these services, the freight trains on the Livorno–Rome railway were diverted to run on the Roma Trastevere–Roma San Pietro–Maccarese route. In 1994, the FR1 suburban services operated to/from Fara Sabina, with four services an hour to Fiumicino Airport and one to Fiumicino Città. On 30 January 2000; the Porto junction–Fiumicino Città services were abolished. After a few years of neglect, the railway infrastructure was removed and dismantled from 2007 as part of a redevelopment plan aimed at building a new district, including the new headquarters of the municipality of Fiumicino. Departing from Roma Termini, the railway reaches Roma Trastevere station where it leaves the completed part of the ring railway, with a curve to the left.
Subsequently the line touches the Tiber for a few metres and runs through the Magliana district, where the stations of Villa Bonelli and Magliana are located. At this point the railway runs next to the Via della Magliana, passes under the Grande Raccordo Anulare and runs between the Via della Magliana and the A91 motorway. At Ponte Galeria, the line reaches the station of the same name, where a line branches off to Fiumicino and Pisa. Turning left, the line passes under the A91; the line subsequently continues parallel with the motorway to the airport, until 2001 there was an operating point called Porto junction where the line branched to Fiumicino Airport station and to Fiumicino station. The Airport branch continues on a viaduct for a few kilometres to the first floor of the international airport building, where the station is located; the old branch continued straight through the town of Porto, passing under the SS 296 road and reached Fiumicino at Coccia di Morto, where the only level crossing on the line was located.
Fiumicino station, which had three tracks, one of, used for goods traffic, was located at the end of Via Portuensis. This goods track crossed the Via degli Orti and passed, with a curve to the left, to the right bank of the navigable canal where Fiumicino Porto Canale goods yard was located. Fascicolo linea 112. Rete Ferroviaria Italiana. "Fiumicino = aereo + treno". Voci della Rotaia. Anno III: 6–7. March 1960. Caielli, Piergiorgio. "Una ferrovia per l'aeroporto di Fiumicino". I Treni Oggi. CS1 maint: Date format Cruciani, Marcello. "La ferrovia per Fiumicino". I Treni Oggi
A roundabout is a type of circular intersection or junction in which road traffic is permitted to flow in one direction around a central island, priority is given to traffic in the junction. Modern roundabouts observe various design rules to increase safety. Compared to stop signs, traffic signals, earlier forms of roundabouts, modern roundabouts reduce the likelihood and severity of collisions by reducing traffic speeds and minimizing T-bone and head-on collisions. Variations on the basic concept include integration with tram and/or train lines, two-way flow, higher speeds and many others. Traffic exiting the roundabout comes from one direction, rather than three, simplifying the pedestrian's visual environment. Traffic moves enough to allow visual engagement with pedestrians, encouraging deference towards them. Other benefits include reduced driver confusion associated with perpendicular junctions and reduced queuing associated with traffic lights, they allow U-turns within the normal flow of traffic, which are not possible at other forms of junction.
Moreover, since vehicles on average spend less time idling at roundabouts than at signalled intersections, using a roundabout leads to less pollution. When entering vehicles only need to give way, they do not always perform a full stop. Research has shown that slow moving traffic in roundabouts makes less noise than traffic that must stop and start, speed up and brake. Modern roundabouts were first standardised in the UK in 1966 and were found to be a significant improvement over previous traffic circle and rotaries. Since they have spread and modern roundabouts are commonplace throughout the world. Half of the world's roundabouts are in France, although the United Kingdom has more as a proportion of the road than any other country. Circular junctions existed before roundabouts, including the Circus in the city of Bath, England, completed in 1768, part of a world heritage site. C; the operating and entry characteristics of these circles differ from modern roundabouts. French architect Eugène Hénard was designing one-way circular intersections as early as 1877.
American architect William Phelps Eno favored small traffic circles. He designed New York City's famous Columbus Circle, built in 1905. In 1907, architect John McLaren designed one of the first American roundabouts for both autos and streetcars in the Hanchett Residence Park in what is now San Jose, California; the first British circular junction was built in Letchworth Garden City in 1909. Its centre was intended as a traffic island for pedestrians, it was featured in the film The World's End. In the early 20th century, numerous traffic circles were constructed in the United States in the northeast. Examples include a circle in California. Other circular intersections were subsequently built in the United States, though many were large diameter'rotaries' that enabled high speed merge and weave maneuvers, they may control entering traffic by stop signs or traffic lights. Many older traffic circles allow entry at higher speeds without deflection, or require a stop and a 90-degree turn to enter; these designs were doomed to failure for two primary reasons: It takes a large diameter circle to provide enough room for merging at speed.
Although some of these circles were huge, they were not large enough for high-speed merging. Giving priority to entering traffic means that more vehicles can enter the circulatory roadway than it can handle; the result is congestion within the circle. The experience with traffic circles and rotaries in the US was entirely negative, characterised by high accident rates and congestion problems. By the mid 1950s, construction of traffic circles and rotaries had ceased entirely; the experience with traffic circles in other countries was not much better until the development of the modern roundabout in the United Kingdom during the 1960s. Starting in the 1990s the US saw a revival of smaller traffic circles, termed "roundabouts"; the modern roundabout arrived in the United States in 1990 in Summerlin, a major Las Vegas residential subdivision. As of December 2015 there are about 4800 of these modern roundabouts in the United States; as an example, Washington State contains about 120 roundabouts as of October 2016, all having been built since 1997 with more planned.
Widespread use of the modern roundabout began when the UK's Transport Research Laboratory engineers re-engineered and standardised circular intersections during the 1960s. Frank Blackmore led the development of the "Priority Rule" and subsequently invented the mini-roundabout to overcome capacity and safety limitations; the priority rule was found to improve traffic flow by up to 10%. The design became mandatory in the United Kingdom for all new roundabouts in November 1966; this give-way requirement has been the law in New York state since the 1920s. In the United States modern roundabouts emerged in the 1990s. Municipalities introducing new roundabouts are met with some degree of public resistance, just as in the United Kingdom in the 1960s. Surveys show. American confusion at how to enter and ho
Roma Termini railway station
Roma Termini is the main railway station of Rome, Italy. It is named after the district of the same name, which in turn took its name from ancient Baths of Diocletian, which lie across the street from the main entrance; the station has regular train services to all major Italian cities, as well as daily international services to Munich and Vienna. With 33 platforms and over 150 million passengers each year, Roma Termini is the second largest railway station in Europe after Paris Gare du Nord. Termini is the main hub for public transport inside Rome. Two Rome Metro lines intersect at Termini metro station, a major bus station is located at Piazza dei Cinquecento, the square in front of the station. However, the main tram lines of the city cross at Porta Maggiore, some 1,500 metres east of the station. On 23 December 2006, the station was dedicated to Pope John Paul II. On 25 February 1863, Pope Pius IX opened the first, temporary Termini Station as the terminus of the Rome–Frascati, Rome–Civitavecchia and Rome-Ceprano lines.
The first two lines had separate stations elsewhere in the city, and, as the third line was under development, the city chose to build one central station, as opposed to the Paris model of having separate terminus stations for each line or each direction. The dilapidated Villa Montalto-Peretti, erected in the 16th Century by Pope Sixtus V, was chosen as the site for this new station, to be called the "Stazione Centrale delle Ferrovie Romane". Construction of the permanent station began in 1868, in the last years of the Papal Temporal Power over the city of Rome, was completed in 1874 after the Capture of Rome and installing of government of United Italy, it was laid out according to a plan by the architect Salvatore Bianchi. The front of this station reached Via Cavour, which means it extended some 200 metres deeper into the city than the current station. In 1937, it was decided to replace the old station, as part of the planning for the 1942 World's Fair, never held because of the outbreak of World War II.
The old station was demolished, part of the new station was constructed, but works were halted in 1943 as the Italian fascist government collapsed. The side structures of the design by Angiolo Mazzoni del Grande are still part of the current-day station; the current building was designed by the two teams selected through a competition in 1947: Leo Calini and Eugenio Montuori. It was inaugurated in 1950; the building is characterized by a tall space of monumental dimensions. This great hall is fronted by full height glass walls, is covered with a concrete roof that consists of a flattened and segmented arch, a modernist version of a barrel vault from a Roman bath; the vault is structurally integrated with a cantilevered canopy that extends over the entrance drive. The end result is a gravity-defying modernist structure that recalls a similar achievement of Roman architecture; the back of the hall leads to a transition space of ticketing functions before reaching the train shed, is topped by an longer building block that houses a 10-story hotel, clad with travertine.
Architecturally, the building punctuates the sense of arrival in Rome, communicates a sense of the Eternal City as both modern and traditional, looking forward to the future as well as remembering its history. Its bold presence in the urban fabric expresses the diversity of the City's history, speaks of the dramatic new scale of the modern industrial economy of Italy; the anodized aluminium frieze panels set in sequence along the length of the glass wall are the work of artist Amerigo Tot. The composition is about capturing the dynamics in speed of a train. A length of the early Roman Servian Wall is preserved outside the station. Ticket office Automatic Ticket Machine Waiting Room Luggage storage Toilet Polizia Ferroviaria Offices Postal Office Bar Restaurant Supermarket Shops Parking Termini interchange station for Line B and Line A on the Rome Metro. Roma Laziali station on the Rome–Giardinetti railway. 5 - 14 - H - 38 - 40 Express - 50 Express - 64 - 66 - 75 - 82 - 90 Express - 92 - 105 - 150F - 223 - 310 - 590 - 714 - N1 - N2 - N2L - N5 - N7 - N8 - N9 - N12 - N13 - N15 - N18 - C3 The station is served by the following services: High speed services Turin - Milan - Bologna - Florence - Rome - Naples - Salerno High speed services Turin - Milan - Bologna - Florence - Rome - Naples - Salerno High speed services Venice - Padua - Bologna - Florence - Rome - Naples - Salerno High speed services Venice - Padua - Bologna - Florence - Rome High speed services Trieste - Venice - Padua - Bologna - Florence - Rome High speed services Venice - Padua - Bologna - Florence - Rome High speed services Venice - Padua - Bologna - Florence - Rome - Fiumicino Airport High speed services Udine - Treviso - Venice - Padua - Bologna - Florence - Rome High speed services Bolzano/Bozen - Verona - Bologna - Florence - Rome High speed services Brescia - Verona - Bologna - Florence - Rome High speed services Brescia - Verona - Bologna - Florence - Rome - Naples High speed services Rome - Foggia - Bari - Brindisi - Lecce High speed services Rome - Naples - Salerno - Lamezia Terme - Reggio di Calabria High speed services Turin - Genoa - La Spezia - Pisa - Livorno - Rome High speed services Milan - Genoa - La Spezia - Pisa - Florence - Rome High speed services Ravenna - Rimini - F
The Leonardo Express is an airport rail service linking the city of Rome with its largest airport, Leonardo da Vinci-Fiumicino Airport, in the region of Lazio, central Italy. The service is operated by Trenitalia, takes 32 minutes to travel the 37 kilometres between its two termini; the service was scheduled to stop services available. Malpensa Express Roma Express History of rail transport in Italy Rail transport in Italy Aeroporti Di Roma - Fiumicino Services Trenitalia - Connections between Roma and Leonardo da Vinci airport Orari Leonardo Express - Leonardo Express' Timetables
Anguillara Sabazia is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome, central Italy, around 30 kilometres northwest of Rome. It nestles on a small cape on the coast of Lake Bracciano. Anguillara is served by a local train. About 3 kilometres east of the town lies the small, volcanic Lake Martignano popular with tourists; the two lakes and the surrounding area have been declared a Regional Park and are under a strict naturalistic control. A two-part episode of the American sitcom Everybody Loves. Official website
Hippolytus of Rome
Hippolytus was one of the most important second-third century Christian theologians, whose provenance and corpus remain elusive to scholars and historians. Suggested communities include Palestine, Anatolia and regions of the mideast; the best historians of literature in the ancient church, including Eusebius of Caesarea and Jerome confess they cannot name where Hippolytus the biblical commentator and theologian served in leadership. They did not possess evidence of his community. Photios I of Constantinople describes him in his Bibliotheca as a disciple of Irenaeus, said to be a disciple of Polycarp, from the context of this passage it is supposed that he suggested that Hippolytus so styled himself; this assertion is doubtful. One older theory asserts he came into conflict with the popes of his time and seems to have headed a schismatic group as a rival to the Bishop of Rome, thus becoming an Antipope. In this view, he opposed the Roman Popes who softened the penitential system to accommodate the large number of new pagan converts.
However, he was reconciled to the Church. Starting in the fourth century, various legends arose about him, identifying him as a priest of the Novatianist schism or as a soldier converted by Saint Lawrence, he has been confused with another martyr of the same name. Pope Pius IV identifies him as "Saint Hippolytus, Bishop of Pontus", martyred in the reign of Severus Alexander through his inscription on a statue found at the Church of Saint Lawrence in Rome and kept at the Vatican as photographed and published in Brunsen. Little is known for certain about his community of origin. One Victorian theory suggested that as a presbyter of the church at Rome under Pope Zephyrinus, Hippolytus was distinguished for his learning and eloquence, it was at this time that Origen a young man, heard him preach. In this view, Hippolytus accused Pope Zephyrinus of modalism, the heresy which held that the names Father and Son are different names for the same subject. Hippolytus championed the Logos doctrine of the Greek apologists, most notably Justin Martyr, which distinguished the Father from the Logos.
An ethical conservative, he was scandalized when Pope Callixtus I extended absolution to Christians who had committed grave sins, such as adultery. Some suggest Hippolytus. At this time, he seems to have allowed himself to be elected as a rival Bishop of Rome, continued to attack Pope Urban I and Pope Pontian. G. Salmon suggests. Allen Brent sees the development of Roman house-churches into something akin to Greek philosophical schools gathered around a compelling teacher. Under this view: during the persecution at the time of Emperor Maximinus Thrax and Pontian were exiled together in 235 to Sardinia dying in the mines, it is quite probable that, before his death there, he was reconciled to the other party at Rome, under Pope Fabian, his body and that of Pontian were brought to Rome. The so-called Chronography of 354 reports that on August 13 in 236, the two bodies were interred in Rome, that of Hippolytus in a cemetery on the Via Tiburtina, his funeral being conducted by Justin the Confessor.
This document indicates that, by about 255, Hippolytus was considered a martyr and gives him the rank of a priest, not of a bishop, an indication that before his death the schismatic was received again into the Church. The name Hippolytus appears in various hagiographical and martyrological sources of the early churches; the facts about the life of the writer Hippolytus, as opposed to other celebrated Christians who bore the name Hippolytus, were lost in the West partly because he wrote in Hellenic Greek. Pope Damasus I dedicated to a Hippolytus one of his famous epigrams, referring to a priest of the Novatianist schism, a view forwarded by Prudentius in the 5th century in his "Passion of St Hippolytus". In the Passionals of the 7th and 8th centuries he is represented as a soldier converted by Saint Lawrence, a legend that long survived in the Roman Breviary, he was confused with a martyr of the same name, buried in Portus, of which city he was believed to have been a bishop, put to death by drowning in a deep well.
According to Prudentius' account, a martyr Hippolytus was dragged to death by wild horses, a striking parallel to the story of the mythological Hippolytus, dragged to death by wild horses at Athens. He described the subterranean tomb of the saint and states that he saw there a picture representing Hippolytus' execution, he confirms August 13 as the date on which a Hippolytus was celebrated but this again refers to the convert of Lawrence, as preserved in the Menaion of the Eastern Orthodox Church. The latter account led to a Hippolytus being considered the patron saint of horses. During the Middle Ages, sick horses were brought to St Ippolyts, England, where a church is dedicated to him. Controversy surrounds the corpus of the writer Hippolytus. In the Victorian Era, scholars claimed his principal work to be the Refutation of all Heresies. Of its ten books, Book I was the most important, it was printed among the works of Origen. Books II and III are lost, Books IV–X were found, without the name of the author, in a monastery of Mount Athos in 1842.
E. Miller published them in 1851 under the title Philosophumena, attributing them to Origen of Alexandria. Recent scholarship prefers to treat the text as the work of an unknown author of Roman o