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Five Barbarians

The Five Barbarians, or Wu Hu, is a Chinese historical exonym for ancient non-Chinese peoples who immigrated to northern China in the Eastern Han dynasty, overthrew the Western Jin dynasty and established their own kingdoms in the 4th–5th centuries. The peoples categorized as the Five Barbarians were the Xiongnu, Xianbei, Di, Qiang. Of these five tribal ethnic groups, the Xiongnu and Xianbei were nomadic peoples from the northern steppes; the ethnic identity of the Xiongnu is uncertain. The Jie, another pastoral people, may have been a branch of the Xiongnu, who may have been Yeniseian; the Di and Qiang were from the highlands of western China. The Qiang were predominantly herdsmen and spoke Sino-Tibetan languages, while the Di were farmers who may have spoken a Sino-Tibetan or Turkic language; the term "Five Hu" was first used in the Spring and Autumn Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms, which recorded the history of the late Western Jin dynasty and the Sixteen Kingdoms during which rebellions and warfare by and among non-Han Chinese ethnic minorities ravaged Northern China.

The term Hu in earlier texts had been used to describe the Xiongnu, but became a collective term for ethnic minorities who had settled in North China and took up arms during Uprising of the Five Barbarians. This term included the Xianbei, Di, Qiang and Jie. Historians determined that more than five nomadic tribes took part, the Five Barbarians has become a collective term for all nomadic people residing in northern parts of the previous empires of China, they were a mix of tribes from various stocks, such as proto-Mongolic, Turkic and Yeniseian. Others divide them into two Turkic tribes, one Tungusic tribe, two Tibetan tribes, yet others into Tibetan and Altaic; the Xiongnu were a people who had migrated in and out of China proper during times of turmoil at least since the days of the Qin dynasty. The Chanyu Huhanye signed a heqin agreement with Han China in 53 BCE. In 48 CE, after a dynastic conflict within the Xiongnu confederacy, an unnamed Shanyu brought eight tribes of the Western Wing to China under a renewed heqin treaty, creating a polity of Southern Xiongnu in vassalage to China and a polity of Northern Xiongnu who maintained their independence.

As the Northern Xiongnu declined under internal and external conflicts, the Southern Xiongnu received waves of new migrants, by the end of the first century CE a majority of the Xiongnu resided in China proper and along its northern borders. In the 190s CE the Southern Xiongnu revolted against attempts of the Chinese Court to appoint a puppet Southern Shanyu against their will: "Dong Xian, boastful of his victories, forsook the rules which could keep peace, was unfair and greedy, seized the right to frighten and pardon, again installed Shanyu for Northern Hu, returned him to the old court, began favoring both Shanyus, thus, for his own prosperity, violated the principles of justice and have sown seeds of great evil"; the Southern Xiongnu elected a Shanyu from the Xubu in 188 CE and Chizhishizhuhou Chanyu fled back to the Chinese court. After the death of the new Shanyu in 196 CE, most of the Southern Xiongnu left to join the Northern Xiongnu and only five tribes remained in China; the War of the Eight Princes during the Jin dynasty triggered a large-scale Southern Xiongnu uprising after 304, which resulted in the sacking of the Chinese capitals at Luoyang and Chang'an.

The Xiongnu Kingdom of Han Zhao captured and executed the last two Jin emperors as the Western Jin dynasty collapsed in 317. Many Chinese fled south of the Yangtze as numerous tribesmen of the Xiongnu and remnants of the Jin wreaked havoc in the north. Fu Jian temporarily unified the north but his achievement was destroyed after the Battle of Fei River; the Northern Wei unified North China again in 439 and ushered in the period of the Northern Dynasties. In the first century the Eastern Han dynasty brought the Northern Xiongnu into submission by military measures. Hordes of herdsmen and the Southern Xiongnu subdued by the Northern Xiongnu, began trading without having heavy tribute imposed on them. Horses and animal products were traded for agricultural tools, such as the harrow and the plough, clothing of which silk was most popular. In return those herdsmen helped defend the Han dynasty against any remaining Xiongnu; the more they engaged in commerce with the Chinese, the more they preferred to stay near China's border, to facilitate trade, instead of residing on the steppes of Manchuria and Mongolia.

Some groups of non-Xiongnu herdsmen settled permanently within the Chinese borders, first of, the Wuhuan, who migrated to the area of today's Province of Liaoning during the era of Jiangwu. Note that the Southern Xiongnu migrated before the Wuhuan but not for commercial reasons. Liaison among the dynasty and groups of herdsmen relied on mutual military benefits; as the Northern Xiongnu, the masters of the Mongolian steppes and mortal enemy of the Han dynasty, were still potent enough during the reigns of Emperor Ming, Emperor Zhang and Emperor He to keep the volatile alliance intact, the Eastern Han dynasty enjoyed the most prosperous years of its 200 years of existence. Fragments of the Northern Xiongnu migrated well within the border to the Xihe plain, west of the Yellow River and south of the Ordos Desert); the picture drastically changed in the years of reign of Emperor He, son of Emperor Zhang. Dou Xian, brother-in-law of E

Shuowen tongxun dingsheng

The Shuowen tongxun dingsheng is an 18-volume study of the Shuowen Jiezi completed in 1833 by the Qing phonologist Zhu Junsheng and published in 1870. The bulk of the work is a phonetic study in which the 9000 characters of the Shuowen Jiezi and 7000 additional characters are grouped into 1137 series, each sharing a phonetic element; these phonetic series were further grouped into 18 Shijing rhyme groups, based on Duan Yucai's dictum that characters sharing a phonetic element belonged in the same rhyme group. The work thus anticipated the structure of Bernard Karlgren's Grammata Serica Recensa; the work includes detailed notes on rhyming and interchangeable characters. Boltz, William G.. "Shuo wen chieh tzu 說文解字". In Loewe, Michael. Early Chinese Texts: A Bibliographical Guide. Early China Special Monograph Series. 2. Berkeley: Society for the Study of Early China, the Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California. Pp. 429–442. ISBN 978-1-55729-043-4. P. 439. Wilkinson, Endymion. Chinese History: A New Manual.

Harvard-Yenching Institute Monograph Series. 84. Cambridge, MA: Harvard-Yenching Institute. P. 79. ISBN 978-0-674-06715-8. Yong, Heming. Chinese Lexicography: A History from 1046 BC to AD 1911: A History from 1046 BC to AD 1911. Oxford University Press. Pp. 284–286. ISBN 978-0-19-156167-2. Shuowen tongxun dingsheng at the Internet Archive Shuowen tongxun dingsheng at the Chinese Text Project

Fouad Elkoury

Fouad Elkoury is a Lebanese photographer and filmmaker. He is known internationally for his photographs of war in Lebanon. ElKoury was born in the son of Lebanese architect Pierre el-Khoury, he studied architecture in London before switching to photography. He began photographing daily life during the Lebanese Civil War, he documented the 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon and found himself on the Atlantis, the ship aboard of which Yasser Arafat had been evacuated, producing an unexpected nautical photo essay. In 1989, ElKoury spent one year in Egypt. In 1991, he was part of a collective photographic project in charge of capturing an ultimate image of Beirut city center's ruins, with Robert Frank, Raymond Depardon, René Burri, Josef Koudelka and Gabriele Basilico, he was one of the co founders of the Arab Image Foundation a non-profit organization whose mission is to collect and study photographs from the Middle East, North Africa and the Arab diaspora. In 2002, ElKoury was commissioned to produce a body of work to be exhibited at the Maison européenne de la photographie as Sombres.

Elkoury represented Lebanon in the 52nd Venice Biennale in 2007 with the series "On War and Love", 2006. In 2011, he presented Be... a comprehensive solo exhibition at the Beirut Art Center. Elkoury participated in Roundtable: The 9th Gwangju Biennale, which took place September 7 – November 11, 2012 in Gwangju, Korea. Jours tranquiles en Palestine The Wandering Myth Lettres à Francine Moving Out Welcome to Beirut Beyrouth aller-retour Palestine – L’envers du miroir Liban Provisoire Suite Egyptienne Sombres La sagesse du photographe On war and love What happened to my dreams? Be... Longing Lettres à mon fils, with Lamia Ziadé Passing Time, With Gregory Buchakjian and Manal Khader Prix Medicis Hors les murs World Press Photo, Honorable mention, General News stories Official website

Samina Malik

Samina Malik was the first person to be convicted under the UK's 2000 Terrorism Act. Malik a 23-year-old Heathrow Airport shop clerk from Southall, west London, was found guilty of "possessing a document or a record of information of a kind to be useful to a person committing or preparing an act of terrorism", but was earlier acquitted on the more serious charge of "possessing an article for terrorist purposes", her conviction was overturned on appeal. The documents in question include books on techniques of terrorism and heavy weapons and hand-to-hand combat. Many of these books and manuals are written for extremist Islamic groups. A large number of poems and personal writings were found, dealing with a wide range of subjects. In several poems, Malik expresses her admiration for the Mujahideen, her desire to be a martyr, her approval of beheadings, her contempt for non-Muslims. Deputy Assistant Commissioner Peter Clarke, Head of the Metropolitan Police Counter-Terrorism Command, has said that Malik associated on-line with other extremists and has accused her of being involved with "terrorist-related" groups.

He contends that in the past she has tried to donate money to a terrorist organization. Malik had been in e-mail contact with a man named Sohail Qureshi, she advised him on the levels of security at Heathrow Airport, shortly before he travelled to Heathrow with the purpose of flying to Pakistan and joining a terrorist group. This fact was kept from the jury during her trial, but it emerged when he pleaded guilty to offences under the UK's 2000 and 2006 Terrorism Acts; the name "Lyrical Terrorist" is Samina Malik's on-line handle, which she used to post poems on extremist websites. Malik picked the name, she said "because it sounded cool". At various times she called herself "Stranger Awaiting Martyrdom" and "Daughter of the Martyr"; the last was a tribute to her grandmother who had died in 2002, Malik said. That year, while attending Villiers High School, she began writing, starting with love poems, she turned to poetry inspired by the rap of 50 Cent and Tupac Shakur, writing under the name "Lyrical Babe".

In 2004 she became more religious, began wearing the hijab and changed her nom de plume to "Lyrical Terrorist". Although her defence counsel has compared her poems to the esteemed British poet Wilfred Owen, Malik herself has called her poetry "meaningless", she says that her words have been taken "too and out of context". She is quoted as saying "I am not a terrorist", blames her exposure to radical cleric Abu Hamza al-Masri on "the media's continuous spotlight and through his preaching, which the media continuously kept shedding light upon." Malik was held under house arrest prior to sentencing. The judge in this case, Peter Beaumont QC, has said that Malik is "in some respects a complete enigma to me", he warned that "all sentencing options" would be available on December 6, when the case was due to return to court. On 6 December, she was given a nine-month suspended jail sentence, she was the first woman to be convicted under the 2000 Terrorism Act. On 17 June 2008, the Crown Prosecution Service decided not to seek a re-trial following a successful appeal.

Rizwaan Sabir "Malik Arrested With Qureshi" Guardian "Lyrical Terrorist Found Guilty" BBC News "Terror Trial Poet'like Wilfred Owen' Telegraph UK "Lyrical Terrorist Convicted Over Hate Records" The Guardian Unlimited "Poetic Shop Assistant Guilty of Building Library of Terror" Times Online "London Woman Who Called Herself'Lyrical Terrorist' Convicted of Terror Charge" International Herald-Tribune "'Lyrical Terrorist' is sentenced"

Olivier Roumat

Olivier Roumat is a former French rugby union footballer. He played as a openside flanker and lock. Roumat first played at Villeneuve-de-Marsan, moving to US Dax, where he premiered at 1985/86, he had a brief stint at Sharks, in South Africa, in 1995. He was a member of the winning side of the Currie Cup, he was back at US Dax for the 1996/97 season. Roumat would play for Stade Français, for 1997/98, for Biarritz Olympique, from 1998/99 to 2002/03, he won the title of French Champion with Stade Français, in 1997/98, with Biarritz Olympique, in 2001/02. He won the South African Currie Cup in 1995. Roumat won 61 caps for France, from 1989 to 1996, scoring 5 tries, 23 points in aggregate, he captained the national team on 8 occasions, from 1993 to 1994. He played for France in five matches, scoring a try. France was knocked out of that World Cup by England at the quarter final stage. Roumat represented France at the 1995 Rugby World Cup, appearing once again in five matches and scoring another try; this time France would finish the tournament in 3rd place, triumphing over England in the 3rd/4th place playoff after both teams were defeated at the semi final stage.

Roumat played in the Five Nations, in 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995 and 1996. He was a member of the Championship winning team in 1993. Olivier Roumat International Statistics

Konnarock Training School

Konnarock Training School known as Konnarock Lutheran Girls School, is a historic school complex located at Konnarock, Smyth County, Virginia. The main building was built in 1925, is a 2 1/2-story, 14 bay, hipped roof, Rustic style wood frame building, it has an attached rear chapel. On the property are an American Craftsman-style chestnut bark-shingled bungalow used as the school's Health Center, a collapsed two-car garage, an arbor and a farm complex; the property was original developed by the Lutheran church as a mission to the southern Appalachians. The school closed in 1958, was acquired by the Forest Service, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1997. A Brief History of the Konnarock Training School