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Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period

The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period was an era of political upheaval and division in 10th-century Imperial China. Five states succeeded one another in the Central Plain, more than a dozen concurrent states were established elsewhere in South China, it was the last prolonged period of multiple political division in Chinese imperial history. Traditionally, the era started with the fall of the Tang dynasty in 907 and reached its climax with the founding of the dominant Song dynasty in 960. In the remaining 19 years Song subdued all the remaining states. Many states had been de facto independent kingdoms long before 907, as Tang dynasty's ability to control its vassals waned, but have now been recognized as such by foreign powers. After the Tang had collapsed, the kings who controlled the Central Plain crowned themselves as emperors. During the 70-year-long period, there was near constant warfare between all the emerged kingdoms and alliances they formed. All of them had the control of the Central Plain as their ultimate goal as that would have granted them the legitimacy over all their territories and rest of China as the legitimate successor to Tang.

The last of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms regimes, the Northern Han, held out until 979, when Song had conquered it, thereby reclaiming all of the territory of the former Tang dynasty. Towards the end of the Tang dynasty, the imperial government granted increased powers to the jiedushi, the regional military governors; the An Lushan and Huang Chao rebellions weakened the imperial government, by the early 10th century the jiedushi commanded de facto independence from its authority. In the last decades of the Tang dynasty, they were not appointed by the central court any more, but developed hereditary systems, from father to son or from patron to protégé, they had their own armies rivalling the "palace armies" and amassed huge wealth, as testified by their sumptuous tombs. After the collapse of the Tang dynasty in 907, the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period thus ensued. Due to the decline of Tang central authority after the An Lushan Rebellion, there was growing tendency to superimpose large regional administrations over the old districts and prefectures, used since the Qin dynasty.

These administrations, known as circuit commissions, would become the boundaries of the Southern regimes. The administrations of the Five Dynasties and the early Song dynasty shared a pattern of being disproportionately drawn from the families of military governors in northern and northwestern China, their personal staff, the bureaucrats who served in the capitals of the Five dynasties; these families had risen to prominence due to the unraveling of central authority after the An Lushan Rebellion, despite lacking esteemed ancestry. The historian Deng Xiaonan argued that many of these military families, including the Song imperial family, were of mixed Han Chinese-Turkic-Kumo Xi ancestry; the term "Five Dynasties" was coined by Song dynasty historians and reflects the view that the successive regimes based in Kaifeng possessed the Mandate of Heaven. Yet three of these dynasties were founded by barbarian Shatuo Turks, the Southern regimes had more stable and effective government during this period.

The Qing historian Wang Fuzhi wrote that this period can be compared to the earlier Warring States period of ancient China, remarking that none of the rulers could be described as "Son of Heaven". These rulers, despite claiming the status of emperor, sometimes dealt with each other on terms of diplomatic equality out of pragmatic concern; this concept of "sharing the Mandate of Heaven" as "sibling states" was the result of the brief balance of power. After the reunification of China by the Song dynasty, the Song embarked on a special effort to denounce such arrangements; the historian Hugh Clark proposed a three-stage model of broad political trends during this time period. The first stage consists of the period between the Huang Chao Rebellion and the formal end of the Tang dynasty, which saw chaotic fighting between warlords who controlled one or two prefectures each; the second stage saw the various warlords stabilise and gain enough legitimacy to proclaim new dynasties. The third stage saw the forceful reunification of China by the Later Zhou dynasty and its successor the Song dynasty, the demilitarisation of the provinces.

Southern China, divided into several independent dynastic kingdoms, was more stable than the North which saw constant regime change. The Southern kingdoms were able to embark on trade, land reclamation and infrastructure projects, laying the groundwork for the Song dynasty economic boom; this economic shift to the south led to a vast southward migration. Several Northern dynasties originated in the northeast, centralisation of the north led to a migration of provincial elites into the capital northeasterners, creating a new metropolitan culture. North China Zhu Wen at Bianzhou, precursor to Later Liang Li Keyong and Li Cunxu at Taiyuan, precursor to Later Tang Liu Rengong and Liu Shouguang at Youzhou, precursor to Yan Li Maozhen at Fengxiang, precursor to Qi Luo Shaowei at Weibo Wang Rong at Zhenzhou Wang Chuzhi at Dingzhou South China Yang Xingmi at Yangzhou, precursor to Wu Qian Liu at Hangzhou, precursor to Wuyue Ma Yin at Tanzhou (modern Changsha, Hun

Falangism

Falangism was the political ideology of the Falange Española de las JONS and afterwards, of the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista as well as derivatives of it in other countries. Under the leadership of Francisco Franco, it became an authoritarian, conservative ideology connected with Francoist Spain. Opponents to the 1937 Unification Decree enacted by Franco that fused the FE de las JONS into FET y de las JONS included former Falange leader Manuel Hedilla. Falangism places a strong emphasis on Catholic religious identity, though it has held some secular views on the Church's direct influence in society as it believed that the state should have the supreme authority over the nation. Falangism emphasized the need for total authority and order in society. Like fascism, Falangism is anti-democratic and anti-liberal; the Falange's original manifesto, the "Twenty-Seven Points", declared Falangism to support the unity of Spain and the elimination of regional separatism, the establishment of a dictatorship led by the Falange, utilizing violence to regenerate Spain, promoting the revival and development of the Spanish Empire, all attributes that it had in common with fascism.

The manifesto supported a social revolution to create a national syndicalist economy that creates national syndicates of both employees and employers to mutually organize and control the economic activity, agrarian reform, industrial expansion and respect for private property with the exception of nationalizing credit facilities to prevent capitalist usury. It supports criminalization of strikes by lockouts by employers as illegal acts. Falangism mirrors socialist policies in that it supports the state to have jurisdiction of setting wages; the Franco-era Falange supported the development of cooperatives such as the Mondragon Corporation because it bolstered the Francoist claim of the nonexistence of social classes in Spain during his rule. The Spanish Falange and its affiliates in Hispanic states across the world promoted a form of panhispanism known as hispanidad that advocated both cultural and economic union of Hispanic societies around the world. Falangism has attacked both the political left and the right as its "enemies", declaring itself to be neither left nor right, but a syncretic third position.

Scholarly sources reviewing Falangism place it on the far right. During the Spanish Civil War, the Falange and the Carlists prior to the two parties' unification in 1937 both promoted the incorporation of Portugal into Spain. Both prior to and after its merger with the Carlists, the Falange supported the unification of Gibraltar and Portugal into Spain. During its early years of existence, the Falange produced maps of Spain that included Portugal as a province of Spain; the Carlists stated that a Carlist Spain would retake Portugal. After the civil war, some radical members of the Falange called for a reunification with Portugal and annexation of former Spanish territories in the French Pyrenees. During World War II, Franco in a communiqué with Germany on 26 May 1942 declared that Portugal should be made a part of Spain; some of the Falangists in Spain had supported racialism and racialist policies, viewing races as both real and existing with differing strengths and accompanying cultures inextricably obtained with them.

However, unlike other racialists such as the National Socialists, Falangism is unconcerned about racial purity and does not denounce other races for being inferior, claiming "that every race has a particular cultural significance" and claiming that the intermixing of the Spanish race and other races has produced a "Hispanic supercaste", "ethically improved, morally robust, spiritually vigorous". It was less concerned about biological Spanish racial regeneration than it was in advocating the necessity of Spanish Catholic spiritual regeneration; some have nonetheless promoted eugenics designed to eliminate physical and psychological damage caused by pathogenic agents. Falangism did and still does support natality policies to stimulate increased fertility rate among ideal physically and morally fit citizens. Franco praised Spain's Visigothic heritage, saying that the Germanic tribe of the Visigoths gave Spaniards their "national love for law and order". During early years of the Falangist regime of Franco, the regime admired Nazi Germany and had Spanish archaeologists seek to demonstrate that Spaniards were part of the Aryan race through their Visigothic heritage.

Founder of the Falange Española, José Antonio Primo de Rivera, had little interest in addressing the Jewish problem outside areas of political issues. The Falange's position was influenced by the fact of the small size of the Jewish community in Spain at the time that did not favour the development of strong antisemitism. Primo de Rivera saw the solution to the Jewish problem in Spain as simple: the conversion of Jews to Catholicism. However, on the issue of perceived political tendencies amongst Jews he warned about Jewish-Marxist influences over the working classes; the Falangist daily newspaper Arriba claimed that "the Judeo-Masonic International is the creator of two great evils that have afflicted humanity: capitalism and Marxism". Primo de Rivera approved of attacks by Falangists on the Jewish-owned SEPU department stores in 1935; the Spanish Falange and its Hispanic affiliates have promoted the cultural and racial unity of Hispanic peoples across the world in "hispanidad". It has sought to unite Hispanic peoples through proposals to create a commonwealth or federation of Spanish-speaking states hea

Timeline of Praia

The following is a timeline of the city of Praia, capital of Cape Verde. 1460 - The island of Santiago was discovered by António de Noli on behalf of the Portuguese. 1516 - First mention of the village of Praia de Santa Maria 1520s - Praia became a town 1585 - Capture of Santiago, Praia razed by English corsair Sir Francis Drake 1712 - Cassard expedition, Praia razed by French Navy 1770 - Seat of civil and military government transferred from Ribeira Grande to Praia 1781 - April 16: As part of the Anglo-French War, the marine Battle of Porto Praya took place off Praia 1821 - May: Riots in Praia instigated by Manuel António Martins who overthrew António Pusich as colonial governor 1826 - Quartel Jaime Mota barracks built 1832 - As part of his voyage aboard HMS Beagle, Charles Darwin visited the island of Santiago and Praia 1858 - Praia became a city 1876 - Complete abolition of slavery in Cape Verde 1902 - Church of Nossa Senhora da Graça completed 1940 - Population: 18,208 1950 - Population: 17,179 1960s - Construction of a new port east of the city centre 1960: Population: 24,872 Liceu Nacional da Praia established 1961 - Praia Airport opened 1970 - Population: 39,911 1971 - Two northern parishes of the municipality of Praia were separated to form the new municipality of Santa Cruz 1974 - April: the Carnation Revolution took place in Portugal, the Estado Novo regime collapsed, Cape Verde became an autonomous province 1975 - July 5: Cape Verde declared independence from Portugal and became an independent nation, Praia became the national capital 1979 - July 28: The first institute of higher education in Cape Verde, Curso de Formação de Professores do Ensino Secundário was established in Praia.

It is part of the University of Cape Verde since 2006. 1980 - Population: 57,748 1988 - December 31: The National Historic Archives of Cape Verde were established 1990 - Population: 71,276 1996 - Two northern parishes of the municipality of Praia were separated to form the new municipality of São Domingos 1997 - November: Museu Etnográfico established 1998 - May: Bolsa de Valores de Cabo Verde established 1999 - National Library of Cape Verde established 2000 - Population 106,052 2001 - Jean Piaget University of Cape Verde established 2005 Two western parishes of the municipality of Praia were separated to form the new municipality of Ribeira Grande de Santiago October: New Praia Airport opened 2006 - November: University of Cape Verde established 2010 - Population: 131,719 2012 - The Universidade de Santiago opened a campus in Praia 2015 - National Auditorium of Cape Verde completed Timeline of Portuguese Cape Verde