SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Flag of England

The flag of England is derived from Saint George's Cross. The association of the red cross as an emblem of England can be traced back to the Middle Ages, it was used as a component in the design of the Union Flag in 1606. Since the 1990s it has been in wide use at national sporting events. In 1188 Henry II of England and Philip II of France agreed to go on a crusade, that Henry would use a white cross and Philip a red cross. 13th-century authorities are unanimous on the point that the English king adopted the white cross, the French king the red one. It is not clear. There was a historiographical tradition claiming that Richard the Lionheart himself adopted both the flag and the patron saint from Genoa at some point during his crusade; this idea can be traced to the Victorian era, Perrin refers to it as a "common belief", it is still popularly repeated today though it cannot be substantiated as historical. Red crosses seem to have been used as a distinguishing mark worn by English soldiers from the reign of Edward I, or slightly earlier, in the Battle of Evesham of 1265, using a red cross on their uniforms to distinguish themselves from the white crosses used by the rebel barons at the Battle of Lewes a year earlier.

Perrin notes a roll of accounts from 1277 where the purchase of cloth for the king's tailor is identified as destined for the manufacture of a large number of pennoncels and bracers "of the arms of Saint George" for the use by the king's foot soldiers. Perrin concludes from this that the introduction of the Cross of St George as a "national emblem" is due to Edward I. By 1300, there was a greater "banner of St George", but not yet in a prominent function. Saint George had become popular as a "warrior saint" during the crusades, but the saint most associated with England was Edward the Confessor until the time of Edward III, who in thanks for Saint George's supposed intervention in his favour at the Battle of Crécy gave him a special position as a patron saint of the Order of the Garter in 1348. From that time, his banner was used with increasing prominence alongside the Royal Banner and became a fixed element in the hoist of the Royal Standard; the flag shown for England in the Book of All Kingdoms of 1367 is solid red.

The Wilton Diptych from the late 1390s shows a swallow-tailed St George cross flag held by an angel in between King Richard II and a scene of the Virgin and Child flanked by angels wearing Richard's own heraldic devices. St George's Day was considered a "double major feast" from 1415, but George was still eclipsed by his "rivals" Saints Edward and Edmund, he rose to the position of the primary patron saint of England during the English Reformation, with the revised prayer book of 1552, when all religious flags, including all saints' banners except for his were abolished. John Cabot, commissioned by Henry VII to sail "under our banners and ensigns," took St George's banner to Newfoundland in 1497; the first recorded use of St George's Cross as a maritime flag, in conjunction with royal banners, dates to 1545. In 1606, after the Union of the Crowns in 1603, it was combined with the Scottish St Andrew's Cross to form the Union Jack, which James VI & I ordered be flown from the main tops of ships from both England and Scotland.

The "Red Crosse" continued to be flown from the fore-top by James' subjects in "South Britaine" - i.e. the St George cross was used together with the new union flag on English vessels. In the 19th century, it became desirable for all nations of Europe to identify a national flag. Since during that time, the terms Britain and England were used interchangeably, the Union Flag was used as national flag de facto though never adopted; the observation that the Cross of St George is the "national flag of England" was made in the context of Irish irredentism, as noted by G. K. Chesterton in 1933, "As a sensible Irishman said in a letter to a Dublin paper:'The Union Jack is not the national flag of England.' The national flag of England is the Cross of St. George; the flag of England is one of the key components of the Union Flag. The Union Flag has been used in a variety of forms since the proclamation by Orders in Council 1606, when the flags of Scotland and England were first merged to symbolise the Union of the Crowns..

In Scotland, in particular on Scottish vessels at sea, historical evidence suggests that a separate design of Union Flag was flown to that used in England. In the Acts of Union of 1707, which united the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England to become the Kingdom of Great Britain, it was declared that "the Crosses of St. George and St. Andrew be conjoined, in such Manner as her Majesty shall think fit, used in all Flags, Banners and Ensigns, both at Sea and Land."From 1801, to symbolise the union of the Kingdom of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland, a new design which included the St Patrick's Cross was adopted for the flag of the Unite

Jimmy Hibburt

James Anthony Hibburt is an English former professional footballer who played in the Football League, as a defender. Hibburt began his youth career at Crystal Palace and signed professional terms in 1998, he made his senior debut in a 1–0 away win against Norwich city, in April 1999. After one further appearance that season and four in 1999–2000, plus one in the UEFA Intertoto Cup, Hibburt was released by Palace in 2002, he trained with Brentford, under former Palace manager Steve Coppell, spent some time with FC Dallas, where he suffered an achilles tendon injury that badly affected his career, before signing with Woking. He subsequently played for Ashford Town; as of June 2019, he was part of the coaching staff at Bedfont Town. Hibburt at holmesdale.net

Balagachchy

Balagachchy is a rural locality, the administrative centre of and one of two settlements, in addition to Seyat, in Togussky Rural Okrug of Vilyuysky District in the Sakha Republic, Russia. It is located 110 kilometers from the administrative center of the district, its population as of the 2010 Census was 601, of whom 288 were male and 313 female, down from 668 as recorded during the 2002 Census. Official website of the Sakha Republic. Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Divisions of the Sakha Republic. Vilyuysky District. Государственное Собрание Республики Саха. Закон №173-З №353-III от 30 ноября 2004 г. «Об установлении границ и о наделении статусом городского и сельского поселений муниципальных образований Республики Саха », в ред. Закона №1058-З №1007-IV от 25 апреля 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Республики Саха "Об установлении границ и о наделении статусом городского и сельского поселений муниципальных образований Республики Саха"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования.

Опубликован: "Якутия", №245, 31 декабря 2004 г