Flag of Hungary

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Hungary
Flag of Hungary.svg
Use Civil and state flag
Proportion 1:2
Adopted May 23, 1957[1] (as state flag)
June 19, 1990[2] (reaffirmed)
Design A horizontal triband of red, white and green
Civil Ensign of Hungary.svg
Variant flag of Hungary
Use Civil flag and ensign
Proportion 2:3
Adopted August 18, 1957[3] (as civil ensign)
Design A horizontal tricolour of red, white, and green
Flag of Hungary with arms (state).svg
Variant flag of Hungary
Use Unofficial state flag[note 1]
Proportion 1:2
Adopted October 10, 1995[4]
Design A horizontal tricolor of red, white and green with the state coat of arms in the center.
War Flag of Hungary.svg
Variant flag of Hungary
Use Unit colour
Proportion 3:4
Adopted March 15, 1991[5]
Naval Ensign of Hungary.svg
Variant flag of Hungary
Use Naval ensign
Proportion 3:4
Adopted 1991[5]

The flag of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyarország zászlaja) is a horizontal tricolour of red, white and green. In this exact form, it has been the official flag of Hungary since May 23, 1957, the flag's form originates from national republican movements of the 18th and 19th centuries, while its colours are from the Middle Ages. The current Hungarian tricolour flag is the same as the republican movement flag of the United Kingdom (used since 1816).

Current flag[edit]

The nation of Hungary originated from the national freedom movement from before 1848, which culminated in the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, the revolution was not only in opposition against the monarchy but also the Habsburg Empire, as well as to form an independent republic. Accordingly, the Hungarian flag features a tricolour element, which is based upon the French flag, as a reflection of the ideas of the French revolution; while red, white, and green are colours derived from the historical Hungarian coat of arms, which have essentially remained in the same form since the mid-15th century, with exception to some minor differences, and were marshalled from arms that first appeared in the late 12th and early 13th century as arms of the Árpáds, Hungary's founding dynasty. The stripes are horizontal rather than vertical to prevent confusion with the Italian flag, which had also been designed after the French flag. According to other data, the recent form of the Hungarian tricolour had been already used from 1608 at the coronation of Mathias II of Hungary.[citation needed]

Folklore of the romantic period attributed the colours to virtues: red for strength, white for faithfulness and green for hope. Alternatively, red for the blood spilled for the fatherland, white for freedom and green for the land, for the pastures of Hungary, the new constitution, which took effect on 1 January 2012, makes the ex-post interpretation mentioned first official (in the semi-official translation: strength (erő), fidelity (hűség) and hope (remény)).

Evolution[edit]

Hungarian national colors on the wall, Hungarian coronation of Leopold II in Bratislava in 1790, 58 years before the Hungarian revolution

As described above, the red-white-green tricolour emerged as a sign of national sovereignty during the 1848–1849 revolution against the Habsburgs, after the revolution was defeated, the tricolour flag was prohibited by the Austrian Emperor; after the Compromise of 1867, however, the tricolour became not only legal, but also the official flag of Hungary. The flag had the so-called minor arms (also known as the Kossuth coat of arms) of Hungary with archangels as supporters were used as a badge on the flag. This configuration was used until the end of the Habsburg Empire in 1918.

After the fall of the Habsburg Empire, the years 1918 to 1920 were highly turbulent, and several hard-to-trace minor changes took place, the red-green-white tricolour stayed the same, but small differences emerged in terms of the badge. A short interlude and exception was the 1919 Hungarian Soviet Republic, which lasted for four-and-a-half months; it used a solid red banner.

It seems that from 1920–1944 or 1945 the tricolour displayed the minor arms of Hungary, but the version without them was also used.

Between 1946 and 1949 the crown was removed from the top of the arms serving as the badge.

With the onset of Communist rule in 1949, a new coat of arms featuring a Communist red star was placed on the flag as the badge.

During the anti-Soviet uprising in 1956, revolutionaries cut out the Hammer and Sickle emblem and used the resulting tricolour with a hole in the middle as the symbol of the revolution, for some months the new government changed the flag to bear the minor arms without the crown as the badge again.

In 1957, during the Stalinist restoration after the revolution was defeated by the Soviet Red Army, the new government created a "new" coat of arms, which however was never officially put onto the flag. Therefore, the official flag of Hungary has been a pure red-white-green tricolour since 1957.

After the fall of communism in 1989 there was no need to change the flag, as it did not bear any communist insignia.

There was a recommendation of the Committee of Symbols in the 2000s, that the coat of arms should be part of the state flag, while the national flag should remain plain (as is the status quo),[6] this has not been implemented in law, though in case of most state use the arms are legally permitted on the flag (see below).

Exact description and legislature[edit]

The Hungarian Constitution does not explicitly state anything about the width:length ratio of the flag;[7][8][9] but, there is a law from 1957 that is in force stating that seagoing merchant vessels shall hoist the red–white–green tricolour in 2:3 ratio.[citation needed]

By a government decree from 2000, the ratio (which is neither defined in the Constitution nor in 1995[10] or 2000[11] legislation) of flags used on government building is 1:2.

Summarized, this would mean:[10]

  • FIAV 100000.svg A red–white–green tricolour. Actually many variations might be used though according to 1995/LXXXIII §11 (3) "(3) In cases specified in paragraphs (1) and (2), the arms and the flag can be used also in their historical forms.", as (1) reads as: 1995/LXXXIII §11 (1) "(1) For the purpose of declaring their belonging to the nation, private persons can use the arms and the flag, subject to the limitations in this law."
  • FIAV 010000.svg red–white–green tricolour, ratio 1:2 (by decree from 2000). According to 1995/LXXXIII §11 (4), the official coat of arms of Hungary might be placed onto it as a badge.
  • FIAV 001000.svg White background with green red alternated flammulette ("flame tongues", triangles with wavy edge) border, coat of arms in the center, embraced by oak branches from the left, olive branches from the right. Ratio not defined. ( 1995/LXXXIII §8 (1) )
  • FIAV 000100.svg 2:3 (ratio defined by 1957 law) red-white-green tricolour (there is a merchant fleet)[12]
  • FIAV 000010.svg Unknown or unspecified;
  • FIAV 000001.svg White background with green red alternated triangle border, coat of arms at 1/3 of the flag, nearer to the pole. Ratio not defined. ( 1995/LXXXIII §8 (2) )

Gallery[edit]

Unofficial civil flag of Hungary
Unofficial civil flag of Hungary
Unofficial state flag of Hungary
Unofficial state flag of Hungary
State flag of Hungary (vertical version)
State flag of Hungary (vertical version)
Unofficial state flag of Hungary (vertical version)
Unofficial state flag of Hungary (vertical version)

Historical flags[edit]

Standard of the Grand Prince of the Principality of Hungary between 895–1000.
Standard of the Grand Prince of the Principality of Hungary between 895–1000.
Royal Standard of the Kingdom of Hungary under the rule of Stephen I (1000–1038).
Royal Standard of the Kingdom of Hungary under the rule of Stephen I (1000–1038).
Royal Standard of Hungary from 1046 to 1172.
Royal Standard of Hungary from 1046 to 1172.
Rectangular variant of the royal standard of Hungary used from 1046 to 1172.
Rectangular variant of the royal standard of Hungary used from 1046 to 1172.
Royal Standard of Hungary under the rule of Béla III (1172–1196).
Royal Standard of Hungary under the rule of Béla III (1172–1196).
Royal Standard of the Kingdom of Hungary in the 13th century.
Royal Standard of the Kingdom of Hungary in the 13th century.
Standard of the Árpád dynasty in the 13th century.
Standard of the Árpád dynasty in the 13th century.
Royal Standard of the Kingdom of Hungary under the Angevin dynasty from 1301–1382.
Royal Standard of the Kingdom of Hungary under the Angevin dynasty from 1301–1382.
Royal Standard of Hungary under the rule of Sigismund (1387–1437).
Royal Standard of Hungary under the rule of Sigismund (1387–1437).
Royal Standard of Hungary under the rule of Vladislaus I (1440–1444).
Royal Standard of Hungary under the rule of Vladislaus I (1440–1444).
Royal Standard of Hungary under the rule of Matthias I (1458–1490).
Royal Standard of Hungary under the rule of Matthias I (1458–1490).
Royal Standard of Hungary under the rule of Matthias I (1458–1490).
Royal Standard of Hungary under the rule of Matthias I (1458–1490).
Royal Standard of Hungary under the rule of Vladislaus II (1490–1516).
Royal Standard of Hungary under the rule of Vladislaus II (1490–1516).
Royal Standard of Hungary under the rule of Louis II (1516–1526).
Royal Standard of Hungary under the rule of Louis II (1516–1526).
Flag of the Kingdom of Hungary, used from the 18th century to 1848 and between 1849–1867.
Flag of the Kingdom of Hungary, used from the 18th century to 1848 and between 1849–1867.
Flag of the Kingdom of Hungary, used between 1848–1849 and 1867–1869.
Flag of the Kingdom of Hungary, used between 1848–1849 and 1867–1869.
Flag of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1869 to 1874 with the Hungarian small coat of arms.
Flag of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1869 to 1874 with the Hungarian small coat of arms.
Flag of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1874 to 1896.
Flag of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1874 to 1896.
Flag of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1896 to 1915.
Flag of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1896 to 1915.
A variant of the flag of Hungary, used between 1896–1915, while part of Austria-Hungary.
A variant of the flag of Hungary, used between 1896–1915, while part of Austria-Hungary.
Flag of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1915 to 1918.
Flag of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1915 to 1918.
A variant of the flag of Hungary used between 1915–1918.
A variant of the flag of Hungary used between 1915–1918.
Flag of the short-lived Hungarian People's Republic, used between 1918–1919 under the rule of Károlyi.
Flag of the short-lived Hungarian People's Republic, used between 1918–1919 under the rule of Károlyi.
Flag of the Hungarian Soviet Republic, used briefly in 1919.
Flag of the Hungarian Soviet Republic, used briefly in 1919.
Flag of Hungary, used between 1919–1946 with the Hungarian small coat of arms.
Flag of Hungary, used between 1919–1946 with the Hungarian small coat of arms.
Flag of Hungary, used between 1946–1949 and 1956–1957 with the Kossuth coat of arms.
Flag of Hungary, used between 1946–1949 and 1956–1957 with the Kossuth coat of arms.
Flag of the Hungarian People's Republic, used between 1949–1956, bearing the Communist Rákosi coat of arms.
Flag of the Hungarian People's Republic, used between 1949–1956, bearing the Communist Rákosi coat of arms.
This flag, from which the Rákosi era coat of arms has been cut out, became the symbol of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956.
This flag, from which the Rákosi era coat of arms has been cut out, became the symbol of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956.
Government ensign of Hungary, used between 1957–1990.
Government ensign of Hungary, used between 1957–1990.
Flag of Hungary, used from 1957.
Flag of Hungary, used from 1957.

Head of state standards[edit]

Ensign of the Regent, used between 1921–1939.
Ensign of the Regent, used between 1921–1939.
Standard of the Regent as supreme warlord of the Royal Hungarian Army, used between 1939–1944.
Standard of the Regent as supreme warlord of the Royal Hungarian Army, used between 1939–1944.
Ensign of the President, used between 1948–1950.
Ensign of the President, used between 1948–1950.
Standard of the President, used between 1990–2012.
Standard of the President, used between 1990–2012.
Standard of the President, used from 2012.
Standard of the President, used from 2012.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The official Hungarian state flag does not contain the Hungarian coat of arms, but the variant defaced with the coat of arms is often used during solemn occasions.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "1957. évi II. törvény a Magyar Népköztársaság Alkotmányának módosításáról" [Act II of 1957 on the Amendment of the Constitution of the Hungarian People's Republic]. hu.wikisource.org (in Hungarian). Retrieved 23 February 2017. 
  2. ^ "1990. évi XL. törvény a Magyar Köztársaság Alkotmányának módosításáról" [Act XL of 1990 on the Amendment of the Constitution of the Hungarian Republic]. Törvények és országgyűlési határozatok (in Hungarian). Retrieved 14 March 2018. 
  3. ^ "51/1957. (VIII. 18.) Korm. számú rendelet a magyar tengeri kereskedelmi hajók lobogójáról" [Decree of the Government No. 51/1957. (VIII. 18.) on the Ensign of the Hungarian Maritime Merchant Vessels]. hu.wikisource.org (in Hungarian). Retrieved 23 February 2017. 
  4. ^ "1995. évi LXXXIII. törvény a Magyar Köztársaság nemzeti jelképeinek és a Magyar Köztársaságra utaló elnevezésnek a használatáról" [Act LXXXIII of 1995 on the usage of the national symbols and name of the Hungarian Republic]. Törvények és országgyűlési határozatok (in Hungarian). Retrieved 14 March 2018. 
  5. ^ a b "A Magyar Honvédség új felségjelzése és hadilobogói" [The new insignia and war ensigns of the Hungarian Defence Forces]. Haditechnika. 25 (3): 3–4. 1991. 
  6. ^ Halasz, Ivan; Schweitzer, Gabor (16 March 2011). "National and State Symbols in the Hungarian Legal System (Excerpts)" (PDF). Legal Compass: 3. 
  7. ^ The Fundamental Law of Hungary
  8. ^ Magyarország Alaptörvénye
  9. ^ The Constitution of the Hungarian Republic
  10. ^ a b Law 1995/LXXXIII
  11. ^ Law 2000/XXXVIII
  12. ^ Volker Preuß. "Flagge Ungarns" (in German). Retrieved 2002-12-10. 

External links[edit]