SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Flag of Hungary

The flag of Hungary is a horizontal tricolour of red and green. In this exact form, it has been the official flag of Hungary since 23 May 1957; the flag's form originates from national republican movements of the 18th and 19th centuries, while its colours are from the Middle Ages. The current Hungarian tricolour flag is the same as the republican movement flag of the United Kingdom and the colours in that form were used at least since the coronation of Leopold II in 1790, predating the first use of the Italian Tricolour in 1797; the modern flag of Hungary originated from the national freedom movement from before 1848, which culminated in the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. The revolution was not only in opposition against the monarchy but the Habsburg Empire, as well as to form an independent republic. Accordingly, the Hungarian flag features a tricolour element, based upon the French flag, as a reflection of the ideas of the French revolution; the stripes are horizontal rather than vertical to prevent confusion with the Italian flag despite the banner in that form predating the Italian tricolour by at least 7 years, designed after the French flag.

According to other data, the recent form of the Hungarian tricolour had been used from 1608 at the coronation of Mathias II of Hungary and following coronations. Folklore of the romantic period attributed the colours to virtues: red for strength, white for faithfulness and green for hope. Alternatively, red for the blood spilled for the fatherland, white for freedom and green for the land, for the pastures of Hungary; the new constitution, which took effect on 1 January 2012, makes the ex-post interpretation mentioned first official. As described above, the red-white-green tricolour emerged as a sign of national sovereignty during the 1848–1849 revolution against the Habsburgs. Hungarian volunteers and Émigrés fought for the social movement and wars of Italian unification under the banner for Garibaldi. After the revolution in Hungary was defeated, the tricolour flag was prohibited by the Austrian Emperor; the flag had the so-called minor arms of Hungary with archangels as supporters were used as a badge on the flag.

This configuration was used until the end of the Habsburg Empire in 1918. After the fall of the Habsburg Empire, the years 1918 to 1920 were turbulent, several hard-to-trace minor changes took place; the red-green-white tricolour stayed the same. A short interlude and exception was the 1919 Hungarian Soviet Republic, which lasted for four-and-a-half months, it seems that from 1920 to 1944–1945 the tricolour displayed the minor arms of Hungary, but the version without them was used. Between 1946 and 1949 the crown was removed from the top of the arms serving as the badge. With the onset of Communist rule in 1949, a new coat of arms featuring a Communist red star was placed on the flag as the badge. During the anti-Soviet uprising in 1956, revolutionaries cut out the Hammer and Sickle emblem and used the resulting tricolour with a hole in the middle as the symbol of the revolution. For some months the new government changed the flag to bear the minor arms without the crown as the badge again. In 1957, after the revolution was defeated by the Soviet Red Army, the new government created a "new" coat of arms, which however was never put onto the flag.

Therefore, the official flag of Hungary has been a pure red-white-green tricolour since 1957. After the fall of communism in 1989 there was no need to change the flag, as it did not bear any communist insignia. There was a recommendation of the Committee of Symbols in the 2000s, that the coat of arms should be part of the state flag, while the national flag should remain plain; this has not been implemented in law, though in case of most state use the arms are permitted on the flag. The Hungarian Constitution does not explicitly state anything about the width:length ratio of the flag. By a government decree from 2000, the ratio of flags used on government building is 1:2. Summarized, this would mean: A red–white–green tricolour. Many variations might be used though according to 1995/LXXXIII §11 " In cases specified in paragraphs and, the arms and the flag can be used in their historical forms.", as reads as: 1995/LXXXIII §11 " For the purpose of declaring their belonging to the nation, private persons can use the arms and the flag, subject to the limitations in this law."

Red–white–green tricolour, ratio 1:2. According to 1995/LXXXIII §11, the official coat of arms of Hungary might be placed onto it as a badge. White background with green red alternated flammulette border, coat of arms in the center, embraced by oak branches from the left, olive branches from the right. Ratio not defined. 2:3 (

1923 in radio

1923 in radio details the internationally significant events in radio broadcasting for the year 1923. 1 January – In the United States the well-known American Football Rose Bowl Game is broadcast for the first time, on Los Angeles station KHJ. 4 January – WEAF in New York City and WNAC in Boston broadcast a saxophone solo—the first network broadcast. 8 January – First outside broadcast by the British Broadcasting Company: a British National Opera Company production of The Magic Flute from the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. 18 January – The United Kingdom Postmaster General grants the BBC a licence to broadcast. 20 January – Inauguration of Paris PTT, a station organized by and broadcasting from the École supérieure des postes et télégraphes. 13 February – First BBC broadcast from Cardiff, Wales. 6 March – First BBC broadcast from Glasgow, Scotland. 13 March – Production of the first radio set incorporating a loudspeaker. All produced sets have required the use of headphones. 1 April – In Vienna the Czeija & Nissl electrical company begins test transmissions from its premises in co-operation with a technical high school, the Technisches Gewerbemusem.

This marks the start of radio broadcasting in Austria. 2 May – WCAE signs on as Pittsburgh's third radio station. 14 May – RCA purchases WJZ from the Westinghouse Electric Corporation. 18 May – The first regular radio broadcasts begin in Czechoslovakia. 1 June – The publicly owned Canadian National Railways establishes the CNR Radio network to supply programming on its fleet of passenger cars. 3 July – WSAR in Fall River, makes its first broadcast, having been licensed in the previous month. 21 July – The Dutch radio manufacturing company Nederlandsche Seintoestellen Fabriek begins regular radio broadcasting in the Netherlands. 26 September – In Cleveland, Ohio, S. E. Lawrence and Theodore Willard launch WTAM in the name of the Willard Storage Battery Company. 28 September – First publication of the BBC listings magazine, Radio Times, in Britain. 10 October – First BBC broadcast from Aberdeen in the north of Scotland. 17 October – first BBC broadcast from Bournemouth in the south of England. 29 October – Regular radio broadcasting in Germany begins with the first evening transmission from the Sendestelle Berlin installed at the Vox-Haus in Potsdamer Platz.

13 November – Australia's first licensed radio station, 2SB, begins transmission in Sydney. 23 November – In Belgium, French-speaking station Radio Bruxelles begins broadcasting. 31 December KDKA in Pittsburgh conducts the first transcontinental voice broadcast with a station in Manchester, England. The BBC broadcasts the chimes of Big Ben from London for the first time. 22 March – Hockey Night in Canada is first broadcast on the Toronto Star's private station CFCA. 26 January – Patricia Hughes, English continuity announcer 2 March – Jean Metcalfe, English radio broadcaster 9 May – Johnny Grant, American radio host and producer 10 October – Nicholas Parsons, British entertainer 21 November – Margaret Lyons, born Keiko Margaret Inouye, Canadian broadcast executive 22 December – John Ebdon, British radio broadcaster, Graecophile and director of the London Planetarium 25 December – Gordon Baxter, American radio personality and columnist

J. Bayard Clark

Jerome Bayard Clark was a U. S. Representative from North Carolina. Born on Phoebus Plantation near Elizabethtown, North Carolina, Clark attended Davidson College, where he was a member of the Pi Kappa Alpha fraternity, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he studied law. Clark commenced practice in Elizabethtown, North Carolina, he married Helen Purdie Robinson and they had four children: Martha Holton Clark, Jerome Bayard Clark Jr. Heman Robinson Clark, Helen Purdie Clark. From 1910-1920 Clark served as president of the Bank of Elizabethtown, in the state House of Representatives in 1915. Clark moved to Fayetteville, North Carolina in 1920 and continued the practice of law, serving as a member of the State Democratic committee from 1909-1919 and as a member of the North Carolina State Judicial Conference from 1924-1928. Clark was an avid sailor and noted short story writer. Many of his tales were published in The Blade Journal under Mr. Bide. A nature park is named in his honor in Fayetteville.

His portrait is displayed in the Bladen County Courthouse in Elizabethtown. Clark was elected as a Democrat to the nine succeeding Congresses. Clark served as chairman of the Committee on Elections No. 1. Clark was not a candidate for renomination in 1948 and he resumed the practice of law, he died in Fayetteville, North Carolina on August 26, 1959 and is interred in Cross Creek Cemetery No. 3. United States Congress. "J. Bayard Clark". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress