Duchy of Limburg
The Duchy of Limburg or Limbourg was a state of the Holy Roman Empire. Its main territory including the capital Limbourg is today located within the Belgian province of Liège, with a small part in the neighbouring province of Belgian Limburg, within the east of Voeren. From about 1020, Limburg Castle served as the residence of the Counts of Limburg, who in 1100 adopted the ducal title as Dukes of Lower Lorraine, one of the most important and ancient titles in this part of the empire; the extinction of the line in 1283 sparked the War of the Limburg Succession, whereafter Limburg was ruled by the Dukes of Brabant in personal union being grouped together with the Brabantian "Overmaas" territories bordering it, to be one of the Seventeen Provinces of the Burgundian Netherlands. Unlike other parts of this province, the lands of the duchy stayed intact within the Southern Netherlands, under Habsburg control, after the divisions caused by the Eighty Years' War and the War of the Spanish Succession.
However after the failed Brabant Revolution in 1789, the duchy's history was terminated with the occupation by French Revolutionary troops in 1793. These lands were reunited within modern Belgium only after World War I; the duchy was multilingual, being the place where Dutch and German dialects border upon each other and coexist at their geographical extremes, both now and in medieval times. Its northern and eastern borders are the approximate boundaries of the modern state of Belgium with the Netherlands and Germany, at their "tripoint"; the eastern part, which includes Eupen, is the administrative capital and northernmost part of the modern Belgian German-speaking Ostkantonen. Of the various places known as Limburg, it is the Duchy of Limburg, the origin of the pungent-smelling soft cheese known as Limburger, today made in many places; the state's territory was situated in the Low Countries between the river Meuse in the west and the Imperial city of Aachen in the east. Its most important cities were Limbourg, the capital, Eupen.
The Limburg estates were divided into five legal districts: the original manor of Baelen in the southeast with the castle and city of Limburg and Welkenraedt. The territory of Limburg formed a complex patchwork with those of the Prince-Bishopric of Liège, based to the west, the Principality of Stavelot-Malmedy to the south, the County of Luxembourg, to the south. In the east the main neighbour was the Rhenish Duchy of Jülich. To the north were the smaller lordships such as Slenaken, Wittem and the lordships of Dalhem and Rolduc, today in the Dutch province of Limburg, which came under Brabant control and were referred to in that context as the "Overmaas" territory. In the northeast was the imperial city of Aachen. Linguistically Limburg was situated on the border of Germanic with Romance Europe. While in the northern and eastern districts Limburgish and Ripuarian dialects were spoken, the southwestern part around Herve was dominated by Walloon; the territory of the duchy of Limburg was formed in the 11th century around the town of Limbourg in present-day Wallonia.
About 1020, Duke Frederick of Lower Lorraine, a descendant of Count Palatine Wigeric of Lotharingia, had Limbourg Castle built on the banks of the Vesdre river. His estates comprised the districts of Baelen, Montzen and the southwestern exclave of Sprimont. Frederick's eventual successor was Henry, although between them was Count Udon, who about 1065 was called a "count of Limburg". Henry claimed Frederick's ducal title, acknowledged by Emperor Henry IV in 1101; the Duchy of Limburg, like most of modern Belgium, was within the Duchy of Lower Lorraine. For a while, Lower Lorraine had its own single Duke, it is from this Duchy. This meant that Lower Lorraine came to have two Duchies, that of Brabant, that of Limburg, the title of Duke of Lothier, still held by Brabant became ineffective; as the Lorrainian ducal dignity was contested the title "duke of Limburg" arose, achieving confirmation from Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in 1165. The rise of the Limburg dynasty continued, when Duke Waleran III in 1214 became Count of Luxembourg by marriage with the heiress Ermesinde and his son Henry IV in 1225 became Count of Berg as husband of heiress Irmgard.
However, upon the death of Henry's son Waleran IV in 1279, leaving only one heiress Irmgard, who had married Count Reginald I of Guelders but died childless in 1283, the War of the Limburg Succession broke out. The Duke of Brabant won the final Battle of Worringen in 1288, thereby gaining control of the Duchy of Limburg with the consent of King Rudolph I of Germany. Though it shared the fate of Brabant, Limburg remained a separate Imperial State, which in 1404 passed from Joanna of Brabant to Anthony of Valois, son of the Burgundian duke Philip the Bold. With the Burgundian heritage of Mary the Rich, it was bequested to her husband Maximilian I from the Austrian House of Habsburg in 1482. Combined with the Landen van Overmaas (the lands beyond t
In Euclidean plane geometry, a rectangle is a quadrilateral with four right angles. It can be defined as an equiangular quadrilateral, since equiangular means that all of its angles are equal, it can be defined as a parallelogram containing a right angle. A rectangle with four sides of equal length is a square; the term oblong is used to refer to a non-square rectangle. A rectangle with vertices ABCD would be denoted as ABCD; the word rectangle comes from the Latin rectangulus, a combination of rectus and angulus. A crossed rectangle is a crossed quadrilateral which consists of two opposite sides of a rectangle along with the two diagonals, it is a special case of an antiparallelogram, its angles are not right angles. Other geometries, such as spherical and hyperbolic, have so-called rectangles with opposite sides equal in length and equal angles that are not right angles. Rectangles are involved in many tiling problems, such as tiling the plane by rectangles or tiling a rectangle by polygons. A convex quadrilateral is a rectangle if and only if it is any one of the following: a parallelogram with at least one right angle a parallelogram with diagonals of equal length a parallelogram ABCD where triangles ABD and DCA are congruent an equiangular quadrilateral a quadrilateral with four right angles a quadrilateral where the two diagonals are equal in length and bisect each other a convex quadrilateral with successive sides a, b, c, d whose area is 1 4.
A convex quadrilateral with successive sides a, b, c, d whose area is 1 2. A rectangle is a special case of a parallelogram in which each pair of adjacent sides is perpendicular. A parallelogram is a special case of a trapezium in which both pairs of opposite sides are parallel and equal in length. A trapezium is a convex quadrilateral. A convex quadrilateral is Simple: The boundary does not cross itself. Star-shaped: The whole interior is visible from a single point, without crossing any edge. De Villiers defines a rectangle more as any quadrilateral with axes of symmetry through each pair of opposite sides; this definition crossed rectangles. Each has an axis of symmetry parallel to and equidistant from a pair of opposite sides, another, the perpendicular bisector of those sides, but, in the case of the crossed rectangle, the first axis is not an axis of symmetry for either side that it bisects. Quadrilaterals with two axes of symmetry, each through a pair of opposite sides, belong to the larger class of quadrilaterals with at least one axis of symmetry through a pair of opposite sides.
These quadrilaterals crossed isosceles trapezia. A rectangle is cyclic: all corners lie on a single circle, it is equiangular: all its corner angles are equal. It is isogonal or vertex-transitive: all corners lie within the same symmetry orbit, it has two lines of reflectional symmetry and rotational symmetry of order 2. The dual polygon of a rectangle is a rhombus; the figure formed by joining, in order, the midpoints of the sides of a rectangle is a rhombus and vice versa. A rectangle is rectilinear: its sides meet at right angles. A rectangle in the plane can be defined by five independent degrees of freedom consisting, for example, of three for position, one for shape, one for overall size. Two rectangles, neither of which will fit inside the other, are said to be incomparable. If a rectangle has length ℓ and width w it has area A = ℓ w, it has perimeter P = 2 ℓ + 2 w = 2, each diagonal has length d = ℓ 2 + w 2, when ℓ = w, the rectangle is a square; the isoperimetric theorem for rectangles states that among all rectangles of a given perimeter, the square has the largest area.
The midpoints of the sides of any quadrilateral with perpendicular diagonals form a rectangle. A parallelogram with equal diagonals is a rectangle; the Japanese theorem for cyclic quadrilaterals states that the incentres of the four triangles determined by the vertices of a cyclic quadrilateral taken three at a time form a rectangle. The British flag theorem states that with vertices denoted A, B, C, D, for any point P on the same plane of a rectangle: 2 + 2 = 2 + 2
CMYK color model
The CMYK color model is a subtractive color model, used in color printing, is used to describe the printing process itself. CMYK refers to the four inks used in some color printing: cyan, magenta and key; the CMYK model works by or masking colors on a lighter white, background. The ink reduces the light; such a model is called subtractive because inks "subtract" the colors red and blue from white light. White light minus red leaves cyan, white light minus green leaves magenta, white light minus blue leaves yellow. In additive color models, such as RGB, white is the "additive" combination of all primary colored lights, while black is the absence of light. In the CMYK model, it is the opposite: white is the natural color of the paper or other background, while black results from a full combination of colored inks. To save cost on ink, to produce deeper black tones and dark colors are produced by using black ink instead of the combination of cyan and yellow. With CMYK printing, halftoning allows for less than full saturation of the primary colors.
Magenta printed with a 20% halftone, for example, produces a pink color, because the eye perceives the tiny magenta dots on the large white paper as lighter and less saturated than the color of pure magenta ink. Without halftoning, the three primary process colors could be printed only as solid blocks of color, therefore could produce only seven colors: the three primaries themselves, plus three secondary colors produced by layering two of the primaries: cyan and yellow produce green and magenta produce blue and magenta produce red, plus layering all three of them resulting in black. With halftoning, a full continuous range of colors can be produced. To improve print quality and reduce moiré patterns, the screen for each color is set at a different angle. While the angles depend on how many colors are used and the preference of the press operator, typical CMYK process printing uses any of the following screen angles: The "black" generated by mixing commercially practical cyan and yellow inks is unsatisfactory, so four-color printing uses black ink in addition to the subtractive primaries.
Common reasons for using black ink include: In traditional preparation of color separations, a red keyline on the black line art marked the outline of solid or tint color areas. In some cases a black keyline was used when it served as both a color indicator and an outline to be printed in black; because the black plate contained the keyline, the K in CMYK represents the keyline or black plate sometimes called the key plate. Text is printed in black and includes fine detail, so to reproduce text or other finely detailed outlines, without slight blurring, using three inks would require impractically accurate registration. A combination of 100% cyan and yellow inks soaks the paper with ink, making it slower to dry, causing bleeding, or weakening the paper so much that it tears. Although a combination of 100% cyan and yellow inks should, in theory absorb the entire visible spectrum of light and produce a perfect black, practical inks fall short of their ideal characteristics and the result is a dark muddy color that does not quite appear black.
Adding black ink absorbs more light and yields much better blacks. Using black ink is less expensive than using the corresponding amounts of colored inks; when a dark area is desirable, a colored or gray CMY "bedding" is applied first a full black layer is applied on top, making a rich, deep black. A black made with just CMY inks is sometimes called a composite black; the amount of black to use to replace amounts of the other ink is variable, the choice depends on the technology and ink in use. Processes called under color removal, under color addition, gray component replacement are used to decide on the final mix. CMYK or process color printing is contrasted with spot color printing, in which specific colored inks are used to generate the colors appearing on paper; some printing presses are capable of printing with both four-color process inks and additional spot color inks at the same time. High-quality printed materials, such as marketing brochures and books include photographs requiring process-color printing, other graphic effects requiring spot colors, finishes such as varnish, which enhances the glossy appearance of the printed piece.
CMYK are the process printers which have a small color gamut. Processes such as Pantone's proprietary six-color Hexachrome expand the gamut. Light, saturated colors cannot be created with CMYK, light colors in general may make visible the halftone pattern. Using a CcMmYK process, with the addition of light cyan and magenta inks to CMYK, can solve these problems, such a process is used by many inkjet printers, including desktop models. Comparisons between RGB displays and CMYK prints can be difficult, since the color reproduction technologies and properties are different. A computer monitor mixes shades of red and blue light to create color pictures. A CMYK printer instead uses light-absorbing cyan and yellow inks, whose colors are mixed using dithering, halftoning, or some other optical technique. Similar to monitors, the inks used in printing produ
House of Luxembourg
The House of Luxembourg was a late medieval European royal family, whose members between 1308 and 1437 ruled as King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperors as well as Kings of Bohemia and Hungary. Their rule over the Holy Roman Empire was twice interrupted by the rival House of Wittelsbach; the Luxembourg line was a cadet branch of the ducal House of Limburg–Arlon, when in 1247 Henry, younger son of Duke Waleran III of Limburg inherited the County of Luxembourg upon the death of his mother Countess Ermesinde, a scion of the House of Namur. Her father, Count Henry IV of Luxembourg, was related on his mother's side to the Ardennes-Verdun dynasty, which had ruled the county since the late 10th century. Count Henry V's grandson Henry VII, Count of Luxembourg upon the death of his father Henry VI at the 1288 Battle of Worringen, was elected Rex Romanorum in 1308; the election was necessary after the Habsburg king Albert I of Germany had been murdered, Henry, backed by his brother Archbishop-Elector Baldwin of Trier, prevailed against Charles, Count of Valois.
Henry arranged the marriage of his son John with the Přemyslid heiress Elisabeth of Bohemia in 1310, through whom the House of Luxembourg acquired the Kingdom of Bohemia, enabling that family to compete more for power with the Habsburg and Wittelsbach dynasties. One year after being crowned Holy Roman Emperor at Rome, Henry VII, still on campaign in Italy, died in 1313; the prince-electors, perturbed by the rise of the Luxembourgs, disregarded the claims raised by Henry's heir King John, the rule over the Empire was assumed by the Wittelsbach duke Louis of Bavaria. John instead concentrated on securing his rule in Bohemia and vassalized the Piast dukes of adjacent Silesia from 1327 until 1335, his son Charles IV, in 1346 mounted the Imperial throne. His Golden Bull of 1356 served as a constitution of the Empire for centuries. Charles not only acquired the duchies of Brabant and Limburg in the west, but the former March of Lusatia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1373 under the Kingdom of Bohemia.
The family's decline began under Charles' son King Wenceslaus, deposed by the prince-electors in 1400 who chose the Wittelsbach Elector Palatine Rupert. In 1410 rule was assumed by Wenceslaus' brother Sigismund, who once again stabilized the rule of the Luxembourgs and contributed to end the Western Schism in 1417, he was succeeded by his son-in-law, the Habsburg archduke Albert V of Austria. The Habsburgs prevailed as Luxembourg heirs, ruling the Empire until the extinction of their senior branch upon the death of Maria Theresa in 1780. Henry VII — elected King of the Romans in 1308 succeeding assassinated Albert of Habsburg, crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1312, he was succeeded by Louis IV from the House of Wittelsbach. Baldwin — brother of Henry, Prince-Archbishop of Trier and thereby Archchancellor of Burgundy 1307–54. John the Blind — only son of Henry, he was enfeoffed with Bohemia by his father in 1310, married the Přemyslid heiress Elisabeth of Bohemia and deposed the Bohemian king Henry the Carinthian.
Charles IV — eldest son of John. He was elected King of the Romans in opposition to Louis IV in 1346 and succeeded his father as king of Bohemia in the same year, crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1355. John Henry, Margrave of Moravia — younger brother of Charles, he married Margaret, Countess of Tyrol, daughter of Henry the Carinthian in 1330. Jobst of Moravia — eldest son of John Henry. Margrave of Brandenburg 1388–1411, elected King of the Romans in 1410. Wenceslaus — eldest surviving son of Charles; as Margrave of Brandenburg from 1373 to 1378, he was elected King of the Romans in 1376 and succeeded his father as King of Bohemia in 1378. Declared deposed by the prince-electors in 1400, he was succeeded by Rupert of Wittelsbach. Sigismund — younger son of Charles. Margrave of Brandenburg from 1378 to 1388, he was King of Hungary from 1387 in right of his wife Mary of Anjou, was elected King of the Romans in 1411, succeeding his brother as King of Bohemia in 1419, being crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1433 yet he left no heirs male.
Jacquetta of Luxembourg — Mother of Queen Consort, Elizabeth Woodville and subsequent ancestress of all English and British monarchs since Henry VIII including the current monarch, Elizabeth II. Elizabeth of Luxembourg, only child of Emperor Sigismund, married Archduke Albert V of Austria from the Albertinian line of the House of Habsburg in 1422, becoming queen consort of Hungary from 1437 as well as Queen of the Romans and queen consort of Bohemia from 1438 until Albert's death in 1439: she was the heiress who conveyed the major portion of the Luxembourg inheritance to the Habsburgs and the Jagiellons through her daughter Elisabeth of Austria. According to the Salic law, the succession could have been disputed, in which case it would have passed collaterally to the cadet branch of Ligny; that branch descended from a younger son of Henry V, was headed by Louis de Luxembourg, Count of Saint-Pol, before he was executed for treason by Louis XI of France. The first instance of the house of Luxembourg seems to be: Two houses descended from the women of the counts of Luxembourg, the Counts of Loon and the Counts of Grandpré, wear a shield barry.
Both families had a place in relation to the succession of the House of Ardennes. Indeed, the Count of Grandpré was the next heir of Conrad II of Luxembourg, the last representative of the Ardennes dynasty, but Emperor Frederick Barbarossa preferred that Luxembourg was held by a lord Germanic rather than French and attributed the co
Celtic Luxembourg existed during the period from 600 BC until 100 AD, when the Celts inhabited what is now the territory of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Their culture was well developed from the 1st century BC, as can be seen from the remains of the extensive Titelberg site in the far southwest of the country and from the impressive finds in several tombs and necropolises in the Moselle valley and its surroundings; the Celts inhabited large areas of Europe from the Danube to the Rhine and Rhône during the 6th to 1st centuries BC, a period sometimes referred to as La Tène after a site in Switzerland where Celtic remains were discovered in 1857. It was around 100 BC that one of the Celtic tribes, entered a period of prosperity, they constructed a number of fortified settlements or oppida near the Moselle valley in what is now southern Luxembourg, western Germany and eastern France. In the territory now covered by the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, there is evidence of primitive inhabitants right back to the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age over 35,000 years ago.
The oldest artifacts from this period are decorated. However, the first real evidence of civilization is from the Neolithic or 5th millennium BC when houses began to appear. Traces have been found in the south of Luxembourg at Aspelt, Weiler-la-Tour, as well as at Grevenmacher and Diekirch; the dwellings were made of a combination of tree trunks for the basic structure, mud-clad wickerwork walls, roofs of thatched reeds or straw. Pottery from this period has been found near Remerschen. While there is not much evidence of communities in Luxembourg at the beginning of the Bronze Age, a number of sites dating back to the period between the 13th and the 8th centuries BC provide evidence of dwellings and reveal artifacts such as pottery and jewelry; these include Nospelt, Dalheim and Remerschen. The discovery in 1846 of a prehistoric cemetery at Hallstatt in Austria revealed distinctive artifacts from the Neolithic through to the early Iron Age from 600 to 450 BC; these are considered to be the first evidence of Celtic civilization and served as a model for similar finds which were to occur in other parts of Europe in areas inhabited by the Celts.
In Luxembourg too, evidence of this early period comes from modest tombs such as those found in Niederanven. However, the tombs found in south-east Luxembourg at Grosbous and Altrier which date back to between 450 and 250 BC contained much richer finds. Judging from the objects discovered at Altrier, the tomb from about 450 BC must have been that of a high-ranking chieftain, it contained a bronze Etruscan stamnos, an iron sword, an ornate bronze and coral fibula and a gold bracelet. The Grosbous tomb, part of a small cemetery, is interesting as the corpse had been placed on a two-wheeled chariot providing indications of how the Celts constructed such vehicles; the Celtic civilization was at its peak at around 300 BC, prior to the Roman conquest in 54 BC. Most of the evidence from that period has been discovered in tombs, many associated with Titelberg, a 50-ha site which reveals much about the dwellings and handicrafts of the period. Titelberg is the site of a large Celtic settlement or oppidum in the extreme southwest of Luxembourg near Rodange and Differdange.
Though it had been inhabited from about 300 BC, by the 1st century BC, the community had reached a high level of urbanization and was certainly the capital of the Treveri people. It was by far the largest of the Treveri settlements at the time, no doubt as a result of its proximity to two of the most important Celtic roads, one from the south connecting the Rhône to the Moselle valley and the north, the other leading to Reims and the west. Another attraction was the iron ore which could be mined in the immediate vicinity and was indeed smelted to produce knives, lances and cooking utensils and equipment. Covering an area of some 50 ha, the oval-shaped Titelberg plateau rising 100 m above the river Chiers is 1 km long and 500 m wide. Evidence of the foundations of numerous dwellings, a public space for religious or political purposes, the 9-m high ramparts which still stand at the SW entrance today demonstrate the importance of the oppidum which, until the Roman conquest, appears to have been the seat of the Treveri chieftains.
One of the most important finds on Titelberg has been a huge number of Celtic coins which come from not only the Treveri themselves but several other Celtic tribes, indicating that this had become a centre of trade and commerce showing signs of urbanization. Facilities for minting coins have been excavated close to the residential area and appear to have been used over an extended period, both during the purely Celtic period and under the Romans as the Celts began to adopt Roman culture. A large number of both Celtic and Gallo-Roman fibulae have been found on the site. In a multitude of different shapes and sizes, these bronze clasps, sometimes hinged, were used either as ornamental brooches or for pinning garments together; the Romans converted the Celtic dwellings to houses with stone foundations. But towards the end of the 1st century BC, the Romans established their centre of interest in Trier which became the new capital for the Treveri. Indeed, the Romans dismantled the ramparts and reduced the oppidum to a vicus which continued to be inhabited for another 400 years.
A Celtic funeral chamber measuring 4.30 m by 4.20 m, the largest Gallic tomb found, was discovered in 1987 at Clemency. From the offerings in the tomb, it was the burial place of a Celtic nobleman; these included at least ten wine amphorae, an Italic bronze basin, an oil lamp from Campania, an iron gri
A banner can be a flag or other piece of cloth bearing a symbol, slogan or other message. A flag whose design is the same as the shield in a coat of arms is called a banner of arms. A bar shape piece of non-cloth advertising material sporting a name, slogan, or other marketing message. Banner-making is an ancient craft. Church banners portray the saint to whom the church is dedicated; the word derives from French word "bannière" and late Latin bandum, a cloth out of which a flag is made. The German language developed the word to mean an official edict or proclamation and since such written orders prohibited some form of human activity, bandum assumed the meaning of a ban, interdict or excommunication. Banns has the same origin meaning an official proclamation, abandon means to change loyalty or disobey orders, semantically "to leave the cloth or flag"; the vexillum was a flag-like object used as a military standard by units in the Ancient Roman army. The word vexillum itself is a diminutive of the Latin word, meaning a sail, which confirms the historical evidence that vexilla were "little sails" i.e. flag-like standards.
In the vexillum the cloth was draped from a horizontal crossbar suspended from the staff. A heraldic banner called banner of arms, displays the basic coat of arms only: i.e. it contains the design displayed on the shield and omits the crest, helmet or coronet, supporters, motto or any other elements associated with the coat of arms. A heraldic banner is square or rectangular. A distinction exists between the heraldic standard; the distinction, however, is misunderstood or ignored. For example, the Royal Standard of the United Kingdom is in fact a banner of the royal arms. In the old testament, the prophet Isaiah was commanded to exalt his voice. Habakkuk received a similar order to write a vision upon tables that could be read by one who runs past it. Banners in churches have, in the past, been used for processions, both inside and outside of the church building. However, the emphasis has, in recent years, shifted markedly towards the permanent or transient display of banners on walls or pillars of churches and other places of worship.
A famous example of large banners on display is Liverpool R. C. Cathedral, where the banners are designed by a resident artist. Banners are used to communicate the testimony of Jesus Christ by evangelists and public ministers engaged in Open Air Preaching; the iconography of these banners included mines, factories, but visions of the future, showing a land where children and adults were well-fed and living in tidy brick-built houses, where the old and sick were cared for, where the burden of work was lessened by new technology, where leisure time was increasing. The same kind of banners are used in many other countries. Many, but not all of them, have red as a dominant colour. In Australia in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, trade union banners were unfurled with pride in annual Eight Hour Day marches which advocated ‘Eight Hours Labour, Eight Hours Recreation and Eight Hours Rest’; these marches were one of the most prominent annual celebrations. In Sydney alone, by the early twentieth century, thousands of unionists representing up to seventy different unions would take part in such parades, marching behind the banner emblematic of their trade.
Most of these banners have not survived. The State Library of NSW in Sydney has a small collection of trade union banners that were donated to the Library in the early 1970s such that of a Federated Society of Boilermakers, Iron & Steel Shipbuilders of Australia banner thought to have been made c. 1913-1919. The Federated Society of Boilermakers, Iron & Steel Shipbuilders of Australia was formed in 1873 and joined the Amalgamated Metal Workers Union in 1972; the banner features a kneeling figure in the centre surrounded by scroll work and is decorated with Australian native flowers and images representative of the work of the Union's members such as a New South Wales Government Railways 34 class steam locomotive, the Hawkesbury River rail bridge built in 1889, a furnace. The reverse of the banner shows the warship "Australia" at sea; the banner is canvas and was painted by Sydney firm Althouse & Geiger, master painters and decorators. Founded in 1875, the company is still in operation; the banner is a powerful interpretive tool in communicating the experience and the history of the Australian labour movement.
For more on the design and making of these banners, see Banner-making. Sports fans buy or make banners to display in the grandstands. Team banners contain the logo, name or nickname and the team colors. Banners on individual competitors can contain a drawing of the player. Sports banners may honor notable players or hall-of-fame athletes and commemorate past championships won; these types of sports banners are hung from rafters in stadiums. The Miami Heat, an NBA Team, hangs division titles and championship banners at the top of the rafters in their home stadium, American Airlines Arena. Similar to other sports banners, they feature the color palette of the team's logo, the logo, names of players, championship winning years. In North American indoor
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries. The organization implements the North Atlantic Treaty, signed on 4 April 1949. NATO constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its independent member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party. NATO's Headquarters are located in Haren, Belgium, while the headquarters of Allied Command Operations is near Mons, Belgium. Since its founding, the admission of new member states has increased the alliance from the original 12 countries to 29; the most recent member state to be added to NATO is Montenegro on 5 June 2017. NATO recognizes Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia and Ukraine as aspiring members. An additional 21 countries participate in NATO's Partnership for Peace program, with 15 other countries involved in institutionalized dialogue programs; the combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70% of the global total.
Members have committed to reach or maintain defense spending of at least 2% of GDP by 2024. On 4 March 1947 the Treaty of Dunkirk was signed by France and the United Kingdom as a Treaty of Alliance and Mutual Assistance in the event of a possible attack by Germany or the Soviet Union in the aftermath of World War II. In 1948, this alliance was expanded to include the Benelux countries, in the form of the Western Union referred to as the Brussels Treaty Organization, established by the Treaty of Brussels. Talks for a new military alliance which could include North America resulted in the signature of the North Atlantic Treaty on 4 April 1949 by the member states of the Western Union plus the United States, Portugal, Norway and Iceland; the North Atlantic Treaty was dormant until the Korean War initiated the establishment of NATO to implement it, by means of an integrated military structure: This included the formation of Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe in 1951, which adopted the Western Union's military structures and plans.
In 1952 the post of Secretary General of NATO was established as the organization's chief civilian. That year saw the first major NATO maritime exercises, Exercise Mainbrace and the accession of Greece and Turkey to the organization. Following the London and Paris Conferences, West Germany was permitted to rearm militarily, as they joined NATO in May 1955, in turn a major factor in the creation of the Soviet-dominated Warsaw Pact, delineating the two opposing sides of the Cold War. Doubts over the strength of the relationship between the European states and the United States ebbed and flowed, along with doubts over the credibility of the NATO defense against a prospective Soviet invasion – doubts that led to the development of the independent French nuclear deterrent and the withdrawal of France from NATO's military structure in 1966. In 1982 the newly democratic Spain joined the alliance; the collapse of the Warsaw Pact in 1989–1991 removed the de facto main adversary of NATO and caused a strategic re-evaluation of NATO's purpose, nature and focus on the continent of Europe.
This shift started with the 1990 signing in Paris of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe between NATO and the Soviet Union, which mandated specific military reductions across the continent that continued after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991. At that time, European countries accounted for 34 percent of NATO's military spending. NATO began a gradual expansion to include newly autonomous Central and Eastern European nations, extended its activities into political and humanitarian situations that had not been NATO concerns. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in Germany in 1989, the organization conducted its first military interventions in Bosnia from 1992 to 1995 and Yugoslavia in 1999 during the breakup of Yugoslavia. Politically, the organization sought better relations with former Warsaw Pact countries, most of which joined the alliance in 1999 and 2004. Article 5 of the North Atlantic treaty, requiring member states to come to the aid of any member state subject to an armed attack, was invoked for the first and only time after the September 11 attacks, after which troops were deployed to Afghanistan under the NATO-led ISAF.
The organization has operated a range of additional roles since including sending trainers to Iraq, assisting in counter-piracy operations and in 2011 enforcing a no-fly zone over Libya in accordance with UN Security Council Resolution 1973. The less potent Article 4, which invokes consultation among NATO members, has been invoked five times following incidents in the Iraq War, Syrian Civil War, annexation of Crimea; the first post-Cold War expansion of NATO came with German reunification on 3 October 1990, when the former East Germany became part of the Federal Republic of Germany and the alliance. As part of post-Cold War restructuring, NATO's military structure was cut back and reorganized, with new forces such as the Headquarters Allied Command Europe Rapid Reaction Corps established; the changes brought about by the collapse of the Soviet Union on the military balance in Europe were recognized in the Adapted Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty, signed in 1999. The policies of French President Nicolas Sarkozy resulted in a major reform of France's military position, culminating with the return to full membership on 4 April 2009, which included France rejoining the NATO Military Command Structure, while maintaining an independent nuclear deterrent.
Between 1994 and 1997, wider forums for regional co