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Flag of Nepal

The national flag of Nepal is the world's only non-quadrilateral flag that acts as both the state flag and civil flag of a sovereign nation. The flag is a simplified combination of two single pennons, known as a double-pennon, its crimson red is the symbol of bravery and it represents the color of the rhododendron, Nepal's national flower, while the blue border is the color of peace. Until 1962, the flag's emblems, the sun and the crescent moon, had human faces, but they were removed to modernize the flag; the current flag was adopted on 16 December 1962, along with the formation of a new constitutional government. It borrows from the original, traditional design, used throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, is a combination of the two individual pennons used by rival branches of the ruling dynasty. After Prithvi Narayan Shah unified all small principalities of Nepal, the double-pennon flag was adopted. In modern times, the flag's symbolism has evolved to incorporate several meanings; the crimson red indicates the bravery of Nepali people and is the country's national color and the blue border represents peace and harmony.

The colors are found in Nepalese decoration and works of art.. A theory is that the two points represented peace and hard work, using the symbols of the moon and sun respectively. However, the modern and government-sanctioned representation is of Hinduism and Buddhism, the main religions of the country; the inclusion of the celestial bodies indicates Nepal's permanence and the hope that Nepal will enjoy the same longevity as the Sun and the Moon. Additionally, the stylized moon represents the calm demeanor and purity of spirit of the Nepali people, while the stylized sun represents their fierce resolve. Further, the moon symbolizes the cool weather of the Himalayas, whereas the sun symbolizes the heat and the high temperature of the Nepali lowlands. During ancient times, all the flags were triangular in the Indian Subcontinent. Nepal has maintained its ancient tradition, while every other states have adopted a rectangular or square western version. Triangular flags were used recently in the state of Nagpur, Kurundwad State, etc.

A precise geometrical description of the Nepalese national flag is specified in the Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal, Article 5, Schedule 1, adopted 9 November 1990. When constructed according to the stated geometric construction law, the ratio of the height of the flag to the longest width is an irrational number: 1: 6136891429688 − 306253616715 2 − 118 − 48 2 4506606337686 ≈ 1:1.21901033…. This ratio is the least root of the quartic polynomial 243356742235044 r 4 − 1325568548812608 r 3 + 2700899847521244 r 2 − 2439951444086880 r + 824634725389225, arises from the addition of the blue border after construction of the red field; the bounding rectangle of the red field alone has the rational aspect ratio 3:4. Because it is a flag of unique proportions and specificities, its large-scale production becomes difficult and overlaid on a white area to make the flag a 3:2 ratio; the flag of Ohio, another non-quadrilateral civil flag, has been turned into a rectangle by mistake. During a 2018 visit of the Prime Minister of India to Janakpur, a version of the flag with incorrect shape and geometrical proportions was flown by officials, causing outrage on social media and with national personnel.

Emblem of Nepal Largest Human Flag of Nepal Flag of Nepal Nepal at Flags of the World Grime, James. "The Most Mathematical Flag". Numberphile. Brady Haran. Explore Nepal - Download Nepal Flag Amazing Facts about Flag of Nepal Nepal Flag – History, Meaning and More

Fletcher's Meadow Secondary School

Fletcher's Meadow Secondary School is a high school located in Brampton, Canada. Despite the school's recent construction, its population is growing at a rate faster than the supportable growth rate. For the 2010 and 2011 school year the boundary for the school changed, thus dropping the student population by 300 students to a more manageable population of 1700 students. Fletcher's Meadow Secondary School has a unique approach to teaching mathematics; the focus at Fletcher's Math is away from rote memorization and directly onto abstract thinking and knowledge. They administer this through "thinking assessments" in which a student is given an open ended problem with certain constrains and the student is to come up with a general solution, that the user reading can input any values that follow their format and their answer will be correct, it makes the student write down which restrictions are allowed for the question, why they chose particular variables and formulas and makes the student explain why their solution is correct and well explained.

Examples of level 4+ work could include having multiple solutions, having a generalization formula that works for the general case P. These follow the format goal, plan and reflection; these thinking assessments allow one to think about a problem and write a general solution that can give the reader reading it, an infinite array of solutions for the problem, shows the student has thought out of the box, connected the ideas and meaning behind the mathematics taught to them to the work they are doing. In addition to this, Fletcher's has started to beta test grade-less tests, rather than students focusing on grades, they focus on the concepts they do not learn, the teachers assess the students through assessments that test on concepts, which gives the student, the ability to go back and learn concepts, rather than chase marks; this approach with thinking assessments and focusing on concept and not grades has allowed Fletcher's graduates to go onto university level mathematics and be prepared for abstract concepts, without computation and sole theory.

Fletcher's Meadow Secondary School participates in the annual DECA competition, has become renowned for their transition from an underdog team to a known competitor. Fletcher's has one of the DECA biggest chapters in all of Ontario. Fletcher's DECA revitalized their program with the executives from 2017 & 2018 choosing to run the club on the philosophy that no individual should be denied entry, but given equal opportunity to learn and experience DECA; this along with unique teaching methods in the past year and has since sent many individuals from their chapter to DECA Provincials and sending some to represent Ontario at DECA's International Career Development Conference in 2017, 2018. In the year 2018, Fletcher's won over 14 medallions DECA Provincials. In the years 2017 and 2018, Fletcher's has sent students such as Balpreet Cheema, Karanveer Cheema, Muhammad Fayk Chaudhry, Charmi Sanghvi, Manpreet Sandhu to participate in ICDC, either in competitive events or in the leader academies; the school used to host an intra-school competition known as DECA Apprentice.

In it, small teams compete in a variety of different challenges that emulate those of the business world, such as pitching an idea, budgeting and collaboration. The competition is a blend of the DECA case competition and NBC's reality show The Apprentice. Teams are given a time-frame in order to complete a task and are graded on the quality of their work. In the end, the team with the highest total score wins a prize, there are two runners-up. Fletcher's Meadow Secondary School participates in the annual FIRST VEX Competitions, they have been active since then. In 2012, the team participated in two competitions: GTR East at Oshawa and GTR West at Hershey Centre. In 2018, Fletcher's team of juniors was selected as VEX Robotics team captains was at a regional tournament. Awards won by Team 3705: 2011 - GTR West Animation Award 2012 - Safety Animation Award 2012 - GTR West - placed 11th in qualification rounds and had the second best record of 8-2-0Apart from FIRST, students participate in the Skills Canada Challenges: Robotics Team of 4: 2011 - Silver Medal at Peel Technological Skills Challenge 2012 - Gold Medal at Peel Technological Skills ChallengeVirtual Robotics Team of 2: 2011 - Gold Medal at Peel Technological Skills Challenge 2011 - Silver Medal at Ontario Skills Challenge 2012 - Silver Medal at Peel Technological Skills Challenge 2016 - Gold Medal at Peel Technological Skills Challenge The school offers sports including track and field, baseball, football and tennis.

These sport teams compete in many tournaments throughout Ontario. The Global Youth Issues Club is a active club at Fletcher's and hosts events like a cake auction, vow of silence, Halloween for Hunger during the school year, they are a Free the Children's club. Each year the school hosts an intra-school competition known as the Science Olympics. In it large teams complete a variety of science related challenges that promote teamwork and critical thinking. Teams are composed of students in grades 9-12 and choose their own mascot and logo. In the end, the team with the fastest completion time wins; the competition is hosted by the school's science department. The school formed a jazz combo, consisting of eight senior members; as a Fletcher's first, both the Jazz Combo and the school's Concert Band, a large group of music students of all ages, competed in MusicFest 2016, a national music co

Maggie Hassan

Margaret Coldwell Hassan is an American politician and junior United States Senator from New Hampshire. A Democrat, Hassan was elected to the Senate in the 2016 election, she was the 81st Governor of New Hampshire, from 2013 to 2017. Born in Boston, Hassan is a graduate of Brown University and earned a J. D. from the Northeastern University School of Law. After graduating from law school in 1985, Hassan worked at the law firm Dodge, she worked as associate general counsel for Brigham and Women’s Hospital. Hassan first ran for the New Hampshire Senate in 2002, she ran against Prescott again in 2004 and won. Hassan was elected to a total of three two-year terms, representing New Hampshire's 23rd district from January 2005 to December 2010. Hassan became the Majority Leader in the State Senate in 2008 before losing re-election in a 2010 rematch with Prescott. Hassan declared her candidacy for governor in October 2011. Hassan defeated former State Senator Jacalyn Cilley in the Democratic primary and faced attorney and Republican nominee Ovide M. Lamontagne in the general election.

Hassan won with 55 percent of the vote. Hassan won re-election in 2014. Since becoming Governor of New Hampshire, Hassan was elected Vice Chair of the Democratic Governors Association and served as a superdelegate at the Democratic National Convention. In 2016, Hassan ran for the U. S. Senate and narrowly defeated Kelly Ayotte, the Republican incumbent, by a thousand votes, she is serving with another former governor. Hassan and Shaheen are the only two women in American history to be elected as both a Governor and a Senator. Hassan was born Margaret Wood in Boston, the daughter of Margaret and Robert Coldwell Wood, a political scientist who served as U. S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development in the Lyndon Johnson administration, she has two siblings, including Tony award-winning actor Frank Wood. Wood grew up in Massachusetts; as a child she sang at church. Her parents were politically active, young Maggie collated mailers for the League of Women Voters. Wood attended Lincoln-Sudbury Regional High School, Sudbury and graduated with the Class of 1976.

Wood earned her B. A. degree from Brown University in 1980. While there, Wood met her future husband, Thomas Hassan a student at the university, she received a J. D. degree from the Northeastern University School of Law in 1985. From 1985 to 1999, Hassan worked as an attorney. From 1985 to 1992, Hassan worked at the Boston law firm and Dodge. From 1993 to 1996, Hassan was Associate General Counsel for Brigham and Women's Hospital/Partners Healthcare of Boston. In 1996, Hassan began working as an attorney for Sullivan, Weinstein and McQuay, a Boston corporate defense and business law firm. In 1999, Hassan was appointed by then-New Hampshire Governor Jeanne Shaheen as a citizen advisor to the Advisory Committee to the Adequacy in Education and Finance Commission. Hassan first ran for the New Hampshire Senate in 2002 after Democratic Party leaders suggested she run, she lost to incumbent Senator Russell Prescott 54% to 46%. In 2004, she ran against Prescott again and won 52% to 48%. In 2006, she won re-election against Natalie Healy 60% to 40%.

In 2008, she defeated Lee Quandt 57% to 43%. She served as the assistant Democratic whip, president pro tempore, majority leader of the State Senate during her six years in office, she represented New Hampshire's 23rd district, which includes the towns of East Kingston, Kensington, Newfields, Newton, South Hampton and Stratham. In November 2010, Hassan was defeated by Prescott in a second rematch, 53% to 47%, as Republicans regained control of both the state House and state Senate. Hassan served on the Budget Conference Committee. Hassan helped pass the FY2008-FY2009 budget. In 2008, Senate President Sylvia Larsen chose Hassan to serve as Senate Majority Leader, the number two position in the New Hampshire Senate. Larsen chose Hassan for the position because she wanted someone who would fight to get the democratic caucus to support the same agenda, at times creating friction between Hassan and her Republican colleagues. During her tenure as majority leader, Hassan had a major role in legalizing same-sex marriage in New Hampshire.

Hassan presented three versions of a same-sex marriage bill, one of which narrowly gained enough support to pass both chambers. Hassan helped pass the FY2010-FY2011 budget; this budget increased spending by over a billion dollars and contained thirty-three tax and fee increases, including taxing campsites like hotel rooms, a so-called "income tax" on New Hampshire business, raising vehicle registration fees. Capital Budget Committee Commerce and Consumer Protection Finance Public and Municipal Affairs Energy and Economic Development Internal Affairs Committee Executive Department and Administration Committee In October 2011, Hassan announced her candidacy for governor of New Hampshire, she won the Democratic primary with 53%, defeating former state senator Jacalyn Cilley, who received 39%. Hassan was endorsed by former U. S. President Bill Clinton Campaign themes included implementing the Affordable Care Act. In the general election, Hassan defeated Republican nominee Ovide M. Lamontagne by 55% to 43%, carrying every county in the state.

Her campaign was managed by Matt Burgess and senior consultants included media consultant Joe

Nagasaki trade coins

Nagasaki trade coins known as Nagasaki export coins refer to Japanese mon coins cast for export by the Tokugawa government between 1659 and 1685 during the Sakoku era. Though the inscriptions on the coins match Chinese coins from the Song dynasty they’re cast with different typefaces such as the fact that the Genpō Tsūhō produced at Nagasaki was in Clerical script while the Song dynasty’s versions were in Seal script and Running script. Due to the success of these coins they’re still found in modern day Vietnam and Java, were copied by contemporary Vietnamese mints as they had become the de facto standard coinage in Vietnam as native production had declined in the 17th century; as the export of gold and silver was banned by the Qing dynasty Japanese merchants were most to go to Hanoi and Hội An to gain access to Chinese products causing these coins to start circulating en masse on the Vietnamese market. A special “5 elements” series of Nagasaki trade coins were cast for export to Taiwan. Japanese trade with China started in the eight century with the Tang dynasty when Chinese merchants entered Japan, from the thirteenth century onwards Japanese merchants began to enter China and under the Yongle Emperor the Ming dynasty started issuing the Eiraku Tsūhō for export to other countries which included Japan, these coins would circulate in Japan in lieu of Japanese coins until they started to mass produce the Kan’ei Tsūhō in 1626 for internal usage.

The Japanese merchants exported Japanese imitations of the Eiraku Tsūhō, locally produced Kan’ei Tsūhō coins to Đại Việt which became so popular there that they oftentimes became the main currency. This demand for Japanese coins would continue despite the Sakoku isolationist policies of the Tokugawa shogunate and during the height of these export restrictions foreign trade still increased until the eighteenth century; the Tokugawa government excluded the restrictions on foreign trade for certain domains such as Tsushima domain which gain a monopoly on trade with the Koreans in Pusan. While the Tokugawa shogunate itself opened up Nagasaki as the exclusive port for foreign trade with China, Southeast Asia, the Dutch Republic through the Dutch East India Company due to the Japanese demand for silk and cloth. Though the Japanese main export was silver to the Chinese as it was one of the world’s foremost producers of the metal, Japanese mines were in demand for their vast quantities of copper which many southeast Asian national such as the contemporary Vietnamese lacked.

Copper coins produced in Nagasaki were produced not only in enormous quantities but in a huge variety, though these coins were produced using local Japanese mother coins they contained many Song dynasty inscriptions despite all being produced at a single mint and as contemporary Kan’ei Tsūhō coins were uniform Nagasaki trade coins can be distinguished. From 1608 the Tokugawa shogunate banned the circulation of “Bitasen” coins which were bad quality copies of Chinese coinage and instead opted to produce their own coinage, meanwhile contemporary Ming China phased out copper coins in favour of banknotes until in 1651 the Chinese requested the Japanese for copper coins which the Tokugawa shogunate started minting in Nagasaki. Since the early 17th century a large influx of Japanese merchants entered southern Vietnam through Hội An as the demand for silver and copper imported by the Nguyễn lords was high due to the lack of resources present in that region. Nguyễn Phúc Trăn requested several times to import a huge number copper coinage to Southern Vietnam as the Trịnh–Nguyễn War caused them to use a lot of copper for creating canons, the Nguyễn ran out of the resource.

As Japanese merchants had been exporting banned low-quality “Bitasen” coins for high profits the export of copper coins proved to profitable to continue denying this request and in 1659 Nagasaki trade coins were cast for the Vietnamese and the Dutch East India Company. In Northern Vietnam smaller Nagasaki trade coins were melted down to make utensils with and circulated only in Hanoi and the provinces surrounding it while the larger Nagasaki trade coins circulated throughout the entire country; the following coins were minted in the city of Nagasaki for export: Nagasaki trade coins notably bear the inscription of many Song dynasty coins because those coins were widespread in circulation on the Southeast Asian market making the Nagasaki trade coins more familiar for its target demographic. Vietnamese Văn 滝沢武雄 『日本の貨幣の歴史』 吉川弘文館、1996年。. Images of Nagasaki trade coins

War in Heaven

The Book of Revelation describes a war in heaven between angels led by the Archangel Michael against those led by "the dragon", identified as the devil or Satan, who will be defeated and thrown down to the earth. Revelation's war in heaven is related to the idea of fallen angels, possible parallels have been proposed in the Hebrew Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls. 7 Then war broke out in heaven. Michael and his angels fought against the dragon, the dragon and his angels fought back. 8 But he was not strong enough, they lost their place in heaven. 9 The great dragon was hurled down—that ancient serpent called the devil, or Satan, who leads the whole world astray. He was hurled to the earth, his angels with him; the Christian tradition has stories about angelic beings cast down from heaven by God presenting the punishment as inflicted in particular on Satan. As a result of linking this motif with the cited passage of the Book of Revelation, the casting of Satan down from heaven, which other versions of the motif present as an action of God himself, has become attributed to the archangel Michael at the conclusion of a war between two groups of angels, of whom one third are supposed to have been on the side of Satan, in spite of the fact that the casting down of the stars is recounted as occurring before the start of the "war in heaven".

Commentators have attributed Satan's rebellion to a number of motives, all of which stem from his great pride. These motives include: a refusal to bow down to mankind on the occasion of the creation of man—as in the Armenian and Latin versions of the Life of Adam and Eve. Islamic tradition holds a similar view: Iblis refuses to bow down to Adam; the culmination of a gradual distancing from God through use of free will. A declaration by God that all were to be subject to his Son, the Messiah. Jonathan Edwards states in his sermon Wisdom Displayed in Salvation: Satan and his angels rebelled against God in heaven, proudly presumed to try their strength with his, and when God, by his almighty power, overcame the strength of Satan, sent him like lightning from heaven to hell with all his army. He added that Michael's name "was the war-cry of the good angels in the battle fought in heaven against the enemy and his followers"; the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints teaches that Revelation 12 concerns an actual event in the pre-mortal existence of man.

The Book of Moses, included in the LDS "standard works" canon, references the War in Heaven and Satan's origin as a fallen angel of light. The concept of a war in heaven at the end of time became an addendum to the story of Satan's fall at the genesis of time—a narrative which included Satan and a third of all of heaven's angels. Evidence for this interpretation comes from the phrase "the dragon and his angels". Several modern Bible-commentators view the "war in heaven" in Revelation 12:7–13 as an eschatological vision of the end of time or as a reference to spiritual warfare within the church, rather than "the story of the origin of Satan/Lucifer as an angel who rebelled against God in primeval times." Some commentators have seen the war in heaven as "not literal" but symbolic of events on earth. Other New Testament scholars, for example, Craig R. Koester and James L. Resseguie, see the heavenly war between Michael and Satan as a depiction of what happened at the crucifixion. Jesus' death signals Satan's ultimate defeat, although a skirmish continues on earth until the devil is cast into the lake of fire at the end of time.

Like a Greek chorus, a voice in heaven interprets these events: "they have conquered him by the blood of the Lamb and by the word of their testimony". Parallels are drawn to the passage in Isaiah 14:4–17 that mentions the "son of the morning" that had "fallen from heaven" and was "cast down to the earth". In verse 12 of this passage, the Hebrew word that referred to the morning star was translated into Latin as Lucifer. With the application to the Devil of the morning star story, "Lucifer" was applied to him as a proper name; the name Lucifer, the Latin name for the morning star, is given to the Devil in these stories. The brilliancy of the morning star—which eclipses all other stars, but is not seen during the night—may be what gave rise to myths such as the Babylonian story of Ethana and Zu, led by his pride to strive for the highest seat among the star-gods on the northern mountain of the gods, but was hurled down by the supreme ruler of the Babylonian Olympus. Stars were regarded as living celestial beings.

The Jewish Encyclopedia states that the myth concerning the Morning star was transferred to Satan by the first century before the Common Era, citing in support of this view the Life of Adam and Eve and the Slavonic Book of Enoch 29:4, 31:4, where Satan-Sataniel is described as having been one of the archangels. Because he contrived "to make his throne higher than the clouds over the earth and resemble'My power' on high", Satan-Sataniel was hurled down, with his angels, and

The Soul Children

The Soul Children was an American vocal group who recorded soul music for Stax Records in the late 1960s and early 1970s. They had three top 10 hits on the U. S. Billboard R&B chart – "The Sweeter He Is", "Hearsay", "I'll Be the Other Woman" – all of which crossed over to the Billboard Hot 100; the group was formed in 1968 by Isaac Hayes and David Porter of Stax Records in Memphis, after Sam & Dave, one of the label's top acts, were forced to leave Stax and return to the Atlantic label following the termination of the Stax/Atlantic partnership. As leading songwriters and producers for the label and Porter put together a vocal group with two male and two female singers, all of whom sang lead on some of the group's recordings; the original members were Norman West, John Colbert, Anita Louis, Shelbra Bennett. Colbert, known from childhood as Blackfoot for his habit of walking barefoot on the tarred sidewalks of Memphis during the hot summers, had recorded solo singles before joining The Bar-Kays as lead singer, after four original band members were killed with Otis Redding in a plane crash.

Anita Louis was a backing singer on some of the records produced by Porter. Shelbra Bennett had joined the label as a singer. Norman West, Jr. the last to join the group, grew up in Louisiana, sang in church with his brothers Joe and Robert. He replaced William Bell as a member of The Del-Rios in 1962 recorded several unsuccessful solo singles in Memphis, sang with Colors Incorporated, a rock band formed by members of Jerry Lee Lewis' band; the group's first record, "Give'Em Love", produced by Hayes and Porter and released in late 1968, was a Billboard R&B chart hit, as were two follow-ups. Their fourth single, "The Sweeter He Is", became one of their biggest hits, reaching no. 7 on the R&B chart in late 1969 and no. 52 on the Billboard Hot 100. The group released Soul Children, their first album, in 1969. Musicians used on the recordings included Booker T. Jones, Steve Cropper, Donald "Duck" Dunn and Al Jackson, Jr. of Booker T. & the M. G.'s, as well as Hayes. However, after the group had a minor hit with a slowed-down version of "Hold On, I'm Coming" in early 1970, Hayes left the project to develop his solo career.

The group recorded Best of Two Worlds, a second album, at Muscle Shoals Sound Studios, but their next few singles failed to make the charts. In 1972, they recorded another album, arranged by Dale Warren and produced by Jim Stewart and Al Jackson, which produced another hit single, "Hearsay". Written by West and Colbert, it reached no. 5 on the R&B chart and no. 44 on the U. S. pop chart. They appeared at the Wattstax concert in August 1972, followed up with several smaller hit singles. In 1973, they recorded the ballad "I'll Be the Other Woman", written and produced by Homer Banks and Carl Hampton, with lead vocals by Shelbra Bennett, which became their biggest hit, reaching no. 3 on the R&B chart and no. 36 on the pop chart. They recorded Friction, a final album for Stax with Banks and Hampton; the Soul Children left Stax as the company went under in 1975, Bennett left for a solo career. She changed her name to Shelbra Deane and under this recorded a few solo 45s for TK, Casino and Muscle Shoals Sound.

The trio of West and Louis signed to Epic Records in 1976, releasing Finders Keepers, an album, several moderately successful singles. Where Is Your Woman Tonight, their second album for Epic, reunited the group with producer David Porter. Porter signed the group to a reactivated Stax label established by Fantasy Records, co-produced Open Door Policy, another album for the group. However, it was less successful than their earlier recordings, the group decided to split in 1979. After the group split, Anita Louis left the music business and worked for FedEx, Time-Warner, as a professional business trainer. Norman West continued working as a gospel singer and musician. J. Blackfoot became a successful solo singer. Shelbra Bennett recorded several singles as Shelbra Deane in the early 1980s. In 2007, West and Blackfoot decided to reform the Soul Children, adding two new singers: Ann Hines and Cassandra Graham, they recorded Still an album, for JEA Right Now Records. West released a single in 2008 called "Long Ride Home."

J. Blackfoot died of pancreatic cancer on November 30, 2011 in Tennessee, he was 65. Shelbra Bennett died on May 2013, in Memphis, Tennessee, she was 66. The news was posted on the Stax Museum's website. Shelbra Bennett John Colbert Anita Louis Norman Richard West, Jr. Soul Children Best of Two Worlds Genesis Friction Finders Keepers Where Is Your Woman Tonight? Open Door Policy Chronicle The Soul Children via Stax Records