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Flag of Poland

The flag of Poland consists of two horizontal stripes of equal width, the upper one white and the lower one red. The two colours are defined in the Polish constitution as the national colours. A variant of the flag with the national coat of arms in the middle of the white stripe is reserved for official use abroad and at sea. A similar flag with the addition of a swallow-tail is used as the naval ensign of Poland. White and red were adopted as national colours in 1831, they are of heraldic origin and derive from the tinctures of the coats of arms of the two constituent nations of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, i.e. the White Eagle of Poland and the Pursuer of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, a white knight riding a white horse, both on a red shield. Prior to that, Polish soldiers wore cockades of various color combinations; the national flag was adopted in 1919. Since 2004, Polish Flag Day is celebrated on 2 May; the flag is flown continuously on the buildings of the highest national authorities, such as the parliament and the presidential palace.

Other institutions and many Polish people fly the national flag on national holidays and other special occasions of national significance. Current Polish law does not restrict the use of the national flag without the coat of arms as long as the flag is not disrespected. Horizontal bicolours of white and red being a widespread design, there are several flags that are similar but unrelated to the Polish one. There are two national flags with the red stripe above the white one: those of Monaco. In Poland, many flags based on the national design feature the national colours; the colors and flags of the Republic of Poland are described in two legal documents: the Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 1997, the Coat of Arms and Anthem of the Republic of Poland, State Seals Act of 1980 with subsequent amendments. Legislation concerning the national symbols is far from perfect; the Coat of Arms Act has been amended several times and refers extensively to executive ordinances, some of which have never been issued.

Moreover, the Act contains errors and inconsistencies which make the law confusing, open to various interpretations and not followed in practice. According to Chapter I, Article 28, paragraph 2 of the Constitution, the national colours of Poland are white and red; the Coat of Arms Act, Article 4, further specifies that the colours are white and red in two horizontal, parallel stripes of equal width, of which the top one is white and the bottom one is red. If the colours are displayed vertically, the white stripe is placed on the left from the onlooker's viewpoint. Attachment no. 2 to the Act shows the national colors in both horizontal and vertical alignment, as well as the official shades of both colours expressed as coordinates in the CIE xyY colour space with the tolerated colour differences specified in the CIE 1976 colour space. The Constitution contains no mention of a national flag. Instead, the flag is defined by the Coat of Arms Act which specifies two variants of the national flag: the national flag of the Republic of Poland and the national flag with coat of arms of the Republic of Poland.

Both flags are defined in Article 6 of the act as follows: The state flag of the Republic of Poland is a rectangular piece of cloth in the colors of the Republic of Poland hoisted on a flagpole. The state flag of the Republic of Poland is the flag specified in paragraph 1, with the coat of arms of the Republic of Poland placed in the middle of the white stripe; the hoist to fly ratio for both flags is 5:8. For the latter flag, the proportion between the inescutcheon of the coat of arms and the hoist is 2:5. Images of both variations of the flag can be found in attachment no. 3 to the Coat of Arms Act. Polish law says that treating the national symbols, including the flag, "with reverence and respect" is the "right and obligation" of every Polish citizen and all state organs and organizations. Public disrespect, destruction or intentional removal of the flag is considered a crime punishable by a fine, penal servitude or up to one year of imprisonment. Official statistics show that crimes against national symbols are rare: 43 such crimes in 2003 and 96 in 2004 were less than 0.001% of all crimes registered in Poland in those years.

Other, unspecified violation of regulations on the Polish flag is an infraction, punishable by a fine or up to one month imprisonment. According to the Coat of Arms Act, everyone can use the Polish flag during national and cultural events, as long as it is done in a respectful manner; this liberty in the use of national colors is a relative novelty. Until 2004, Polish citizens were only allowed to fly the Polish flag on national holidays; the use of both variants was restricted, but only flying the flag with coat of arms was, from 1955 to 1985, punishable by a fine or arrest for up to one year. After 1985, unauthorized use of any national symbol was an infraction. A possible explanation to such harsh measures was the fact that the promoted holiday of 1 May was separated by only one day from the pre-war national holiday of Poland, the anniversary of signing of the Constitution of 3 May 1791. While hoisting a flag on 1 May was acceptable, no than the following day it must have been hidden; that restriction and kind of state monopoly on the use of national symbols during the Communist regime made flying the Polish flag a symbol of resistance against the governm

Ward No. 92, Kolkata Municipal Corporation

Ward No. 92, Kolkata Municipal Corporation is an administrative division of Kolkata Municipal Corporation in Borough No. 10, covering parts of Dhakuria, Jadavpur University and Garfa neighbourhoods in South Kolkata, in the Indian state of West Bengal. The establishment and evolution of Kolkata Municipal Corporation followed a long process starting from around the middle of the 19th century; the Municipal Consolidation Act of 1888 and certain steps taken thereafter saw the addition of peripheral areas in the eastern and southern parts of the city to the corporation area. In 1888, there were 75 commissioners, 50 of whom were elected, 15 appointed by the government and 10 nominated from bodies like Chambers of Commerce, Trades Associations and the Port Commissioners; the Calcutta Municipal Act of 1923 brought about important changes. The adjacent municipalities of Cossipore, Chitpore and Garden Reach were amalgamated with Kolkata. Garden Reach was taken out. Post-independence developments saw the introduction of adult franchise in municipal elections in 1962.

The number of wards increased from 75 to 100. Tollygunge was merged with Kolkata in 1953; the Calcutta Municipal Corporation Act 1980, which came into effect in 1984, extended the boundaries of Kolkata by including South Suburban, Garden Reach and Jadavpur municipalities in Kolkata. With the addition of Joka to Kolkata, the number of wards rose to 144. Ward No. 92 is bordered on the north by Sarat Ghosh Garden Road and Budge Budge branch of Eastern Railway. The ward is served by Jadavpur police stations of Kolkata Police. Patuli Women police station has jurisdiction over all police districts under the jurisdiction of South Suburban Division i.e. Netaji Nagar, Kasba, Regent Park, Bansdroni and Patuli; as per the 2011 Census of India, Ward No. 92, Kolkata Municipal Corporation, had a total population of 36,450, of which 17,865 were males and 18,585 were females. Population below 6 years was 1,791; the total number of literates in Ward No. 92 was 32,417. Kolkata is the second most literate district in West Bengal.

The literacy rate of Kolkata district has increased from 53.0% in 1951 to 86.3% in the 2011 census. See – List of West Bengal districts ranked by literacy rate Census data about mother tongue and religion is not available at the ward level. For district level information see Kolkata district. According to the District Census Handbook Kolkata 2011, 141 wards of Kolkata Municipal Corporation formed Kolkata district.. The ward is a part of Kasba. Source: DNA West Bengal Municipal Election Results, 28 April 2015 Kolkata/Southern fringes travel guide from Wikivoyage

Zika Forest

The Ziika Forest, better known as the Zika Forest, is a tropical forest near Entebbe in Uganda. Ziika means "overgrown" in the Luganda language; as the property of the Uganda Virus Research Institute of Entebbe, it is protected and restricted to scientific research. The forest covers an area of about 25 hectares next to the swamps of Waiya Bay, an inlet of Lake Victoria. Accessible and combining several ecosystems, the Zika Forest is well suited to the study of mosquitoes. According to the UVRI, the size of the research area of the forest is about 12 hectares; the forest has a rich biodiversity in plants and moths, is home to about 40 types of mosquitoes. The UVRI maintains an insectarium; the forest is accessible to visitors for bird watching. Former U. S. President Jimmy Carter once visited the forest for that purpose; the Zika virus as well as the moths Sidisca zika and Milocera zika are named after the forest. The Zika Forest is where the infected Aedes mosquito first spread Zika to rhesus monkeys spreading further to humans.

Investigations of mosquitoes at Zika started in 1946 as part of the study of human yellow fever at the Yellow Fever Research Institute, established in Entebbe, Uganda in 1936 by the Rockefeller Foundation. In 1947, the Zika virus was isolated from a rhesus monkey stationed at Zika. In 1960, a 36.6-metre steel tower was moved from Mpanga Forest to Zika to study the vertical distribution of mosquitoes, allowing for a comprehensive study of the mosquito population in 1964. In that same year, the Zika virus was identified from a collected Aedes africanus sample. No routine mosquito collections were performed for about the next four decades, while human activities encroached on the forest. An updated mosquito collection took place in 2009 and 2010; the name Zika has been made notorious by the Zika virus, involved in a growing number of outbreaks around the globe from 2007 onwards. Zika Forest in Entebbe, Uganda CNN – Zika virus origin