Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina
The flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina contains a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow right triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag. The remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven full five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of the triangle; the three points of the triangle stand for the three main ethnic groups of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Bosniaks and Serbs. The triangle represents the approximate shape of the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina; the stars, representing Europe, are meant to be infinite in number and thus they continue from top to bottom. The flag features colors associated with neutrality and peace – white and yellow, they are colors traditionally associated with Bosnia. The blue background is suggestive of the flag of Europe; the Bosnian national flag is used as the regional flag of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a constituent entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The green flag with the white crescent and star pointing to the left was used by Bosniak landlords in border parts in southern and western Herzegovina.
The flag was most used in wars. It accompanied the troops of the Eyalet of Bosnia during the second siege of Khotyn in Bukowina, it differs from Ottoman flag by size and direction of crescent, but it is swallow-shaped, like some West-European jacks and ensigns. In the 1830s revolt by Husein Gradaščević the green flag with a yellow crescent and star was used; the revolt's aim was for Bosnia to gain autonomy from the Ottoman Empire. In 1878 Bosnia existed as an independent nation, its flag was similar to the flag used by Husein Gradaščević's revolt of 1830. It was a yellow crescent and star on a green background, with the crescent thinner than the previous flag's. Bosnia was independent in 1878 for a few months, after the Ottoman troops left, but shortly afterward the Austro-Hungarians occupied Bosnia after an agreement reached in Berlin among major European powers; the green/golden flag was in use for about only two months. When the Austro-Hungarian Empire annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina the flag was changed.
The province of Bosnia used the flag, red and yellow horizontally, but the province of Herzegovina used the same flag but with reversed colors.. The coat of arms is one of Stjepan Vukčić Kosača, Bosnian noble and duke from 14th century; the original medieval coat of arms had a white background and two red stripes in the top of the shield. After the war, in 1945, the red star flag became universally official, it was given its final shape by enlarging the star and adding a narrow yellow border. The flag was accompanied on official buildings by the flag of the federal republic and the flag of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia; because of this, many buildings in former Bosnia and Herzegovina still carry a three-poled flag holder. A smaller version of the flag served as the civil ensign while an elongated banner version was seen flown in front of the Yugoslav parliament. While being the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina within communist Yugoslavia, the Yugoslav flag stood as a canton, while the rest of the flag was red to symbolise the socialism and communism in Yugoslavia at the time.
Bosnia and Herzegovina had a new coat of arms during the Yugoslav period. It was a symbol of industrialism in Bosnia at the time; this flag is similar to the flag of the Soviet Union and the flag of China. On 6 April 1992 Bosnia and Herzegovina gained its independence from Yugoslavia and a new flag; the flag picked was the arms of the Kings of Bosnia Kotromanić dynasty, who ruled from 1377 until 1463 over the area, present day Bosnia-Herzegovina and Dalmatia, consisted of a blue shield with six gold fleur de lys displayed around a white bend. The flag chosen in 1992 has a white background with the Bosnian Fleur-de-lis in the center. Though it is no longer an official flag of the state, the flag continues to be used unofficially by Bosniak civilians as a sort of ethnic flag, used as part of political rallies and such; the Bosnian Serbs who lived in Bosnia and Herzegovina after the signing of the Dayton Agreement viewed the flag with the six fleurs-de-lys as only representing the Bosniaks of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The flag of the state was changed into the current, post-1999 flag. The current flag was introduced by the UN High Representative after the Parliament of Bosnia and Herzegovina could not decide on a solution, acceptable to all parties; the current flag contains no historical or other references to the Bosnian state. The flag is ever seen in the Republika Srpska, whose residents prefer to fly either that entity's regional flag or the Serbian national flag instead; some Bosniaks dislike or have no particular affinity for the flag, preferring the former Bosnian national flag used from 1992 to 1998, or the former socialist-era Yugoslav flag instead. The first flag, proposed in the First Set of Proposals was the "Czech Pattern", similar to the flag of the Czech Republic, it was intended to represent all three constitutive nations living in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The next proposal was the "Laurel branch", it is based on the light blue colour of the United Nations Flag. It would have had a golden olive branch in the middle.
The olive branch is taken from the United Nations emblem. The flag would have only one branch; the branch was rotated around 30 degrees counterclockwise. The third proposal was the "Map" proposal, it would use the United Nations light blue colour.
Montenegro is a country in Southeast Europe on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Herzegovina to the northwest. Montenegro has an area of 13,812 square kilometres and a population of 620,079, its capital Podgorica is one of the twenty-three municipalities in the country. Cetinje is designated as the Old Royal Capital. During the Early Medieval period, three principalities were located on the territory of modern-day Montenegro: Duklja corresponding to the southern half. In 1042, archon Stefan Vojislav led a revolt that resulted in the independence of Duklja from the Byzantine Empire and the establishment of the Vojislavljević dynasty; the independent Principality of Zeta emerged in the 14th and 15th centuries, ruled by the House of Balšić between 1356 and 1421, by the House of Crnojević between 1431 and 1498, when the name Montenegro started being used for the country. After falling under Ottoman rule, Montenegro regained de facto independence in 1697 under the rule of the House of Petrović-Njegoš, first under the theocratic rule of prince-bishops, before being transformed into a secular principality in 1852.
Montenegro's de jure independence was recognised by the Great Powers at the Congress of Berlin in 1878, following the Montenegrin–Ottoman War. In 1905, the country became a kingdom. After World War I, it became part of Yugoslavia. Following the breakup of Yugoslavia, the republics of Serbia and Montenegro together established a federation known as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, renamed State Union of Serbia and Montenegro in 2003. On the basis of an independence referendum held in May 2006, Montenegro declared independence and the federation peacefully dissolved on 3 June of that year. Since 1990, the sovereign state of Montenegro has been governed by the Democratic Party of Socialists and its minor coalition partners. Classified by the World Bank as an upper middle-income country, Montenegro is a member of the UN, NATO, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Council of Europe, the Central European Free Trade Agreement, it is a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean.
The country's name derives from Venetian and translates as "Black Mountain", deriving from the appearance of Mount Lovćen when covered in dense evergreen forests. The native name Crna Gora came to denote the majority of contemporary Montenegro only in the 15th century, it had referred to only a small strip of land under the rule of the Paštrovići, but the name came to be used for the wider mountainous region after the Crnojević noble family took power in Upper Zeta. The aforementioned region became known as Stara Crna Gora'Old Montenegro' by the 19th century to distinguish the independent region from the neighbouring Ottoman-occupied Montenegrin territory of Brda' Highlands'. Montenegro further increased its size several times by the 20th century, as the result of wars against the Ottoman Empire, which saw the annexation of Old Herzegovina and parts of Metohija and southern Raška, its borders have changed little since losing Metohija and gaining the Bay of Kotor. After the second session of the AVNOJ during World War II in Yugoslavia, the modern state of Montenegro was founded as the Federal State of Montenegro on 15 November 1943 within the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia by the ZAVNOCGB.
After DF Yugoslavia became the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, the Federal State of Montenegro was renamed to the People's Republic of Montenegro on 29 November 1945. In 1963, the FPRY was renamed to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and coincidentally, the People's Republic of Montenegro was renamed to the Socialist Republic of Montenegro; as the breakup of Yugoslavia occurred, the SRCG was renamed to the Republic of Montenegro on 27 April 1992 within the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia by removing the adjective "socialist" from the republic's title. Since 22 October 2007, a year after its independence, the name of the country became known as Montenegro; the ISO Alpha-2 code for Montenegro is ME and the Alpha-3 Code is MNE. In the 9th century, three Slavic principalities were located on the territory of Montenegro: Duklja corresponding to the southern half, the west, Rascia, the north. Duklja gained its independence from the Byzantine Roman Empire in 1042. Over the next few decades, it expanded its territory to neighbouring Rascia and Bosnia, became recognised as a kingdom.
Its power started declining at the beginning of the 12th century. After King Bodin's death, several civil wars ensued. Duklja reached its zenith under Vojislav's son and his grandson Constantine Bodin. By the 13th century, Zeta had replaced Duklja. In the late 14th century, southern Montenegro came under the rule of the Balšić noble family the Crnojević noble family, by the 15th century, Zeta was more referred to as Crna Gora; as the nobility fought for the throne, the kingdom was weakened, by 1186, it was conquered by Stefan Nemanja and incorporated into the Serbian realm as a province named Zeta. After the Serbian Empire collapsed in the second half of the 14th century, the most powerful Zetan family, the Balšićs, became sovereigns of Zeta. In 1421, Zeta was a
Blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments in painting and traditional colour theory, as well as in the RGB colour model. It lies between green on the spectrum of visible light; the eye perceives blue when observing light with a dominant wavelength between 450 and 495 nanometres. Most blues contain a slight mixture of other colours; the clear daytime sky and the deep sea appear blue because of an optical effect known as Rayleigh scattering. An optical effect called. Distant objects appear. Blue has been an important colour in decoration since ancient times; the semi-precious stone lapis lazuli was used in ancient Egypt for jewellery and ornament and in the Renaissance, to make the pigment ultramarine, the most expensive of all pigments. In the eighth century Chinese artists used cobalt blue to white porcelain. In the Middle Ages, European artists used it in the windows of Cathedrals. Europeans wore clothing coloured with the vegetable dye woad until it was replaced by the finer indigo from America.
In the 19th century, synthetic blue dyes and pigments replaced mineral pigments and synthetic dyes. Dark blue became a common colour for military uniforms and in the late 20th century, for business suits; because blue has been associated with harmony, it was chosen as the colour of the flags of the United Nations and the European Union. Surveys in the US and Europe show that blue is the colour most associated with harmony, confidence, infinity, the imagination and sometimes with sadness. In US and European public opinion polls it is the most popular colour, chosen by half of both men and women as their favourite colour; the same surveys showed that blue was the colour most associated with the masculine, just ahead of black, was the colour most associated with intelligence, knowledge and concentration. Blue is the colour of light between green on the visible spectrum. Hues of blue include ultramarine, closer to violet. Blue varies in shade or tint. Darker shades of blue include ultramarine, cobalt blue, navy blue, Prussian blue.
Blue pigments were made from minerals such as lapis lazuli and azurite, blue dyes were made from plants. Today most blue dyes are made by a chemical process; the modern English word blue comes from Middle English bleu or blewe, from the Old French bleu, a word of Germanic origin, related to the Old High German word blao. In heraldry, the word azure is used for blue. In Russian and some other languages, there is no single word for blue, but rather different words for light blue and dark blue. See Colour term. Several languages, including Japanese, Thai and Lakota Sioux, use the same word to describe blue and green. For example, in Vietnamese the colour of both tree leaves and the sky is xanh. In Japanese, the word for blue is used for colours that English speakers would refer to as green, such as the colour of a traffic signal meaning "go". Linguistic research indicates. Colour names developed individually in natural languages beginning with black and white, adding red, only much – as the last main category of colour accepted in a language – adding the colour blue when blue pigments could be manufactured reliably in the culture using that language.
Human eyes perceive blue when observing light which has a dominant wavelength of 450–495 nanometres. Blues with a higher frequency and thus a shorter wavelength look more violet, while those with a lower frequency and a longer wavelength appear more green. Pure blue, in the middle, has a wavelength of 470 nanometres. Isaac Newton included blue as one of the seven colours in his first description the visible spectrum, He chose seven colours because, the number of notes in the musical scale, which he believed was related to the optical spectrum, he included indigo, the hue between blue and violet, as one of the separate colours, though today it is considered a hue of blue. In painting and traditional colour theory, blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments, which can be mixed to form a wide gamut of colours. Red and blue mixed together form violet and yellow together form green. Mixing all three primary colours together produces a dark grey. From the Renaissance onwards, painters used this system to create their colours.
The RYB model was used for colour printing by Jacob Christoph Le Blon as early as 1725. Printers discovered that more accurate colours could be created by using combinations of magenta, cyan and black ink, put onto separate inked plates and overlaid one at a time onto paper; this method could produce all the colours in the spectrum with reasonable accuracy. In the 19th century the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell found a new way of explaining colours, by the wa
White is the lightest color and is achromatic. It is the color of fresh snow and milk, is the opposite of black. White objects reflect and scatter all the visible wavelengths of light. White on television and computer screens is created by a mixture of red and green light. In ancient Egypt and ancient Rome, priestesses wore white as a symbol of purity, Romans wore a white toga as a symbol of citizenship. In the Middle Ages and Renaissance a white unicorn symbolized chastity, a white lamb sacrifice and purity, it was the royal color of the Kings of France, of the monarchist movement that opposed the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War. Greek and Roman temples were faced with white marble, beginning in the 18th century, with the advent of neoclassical architecture, white became the most common color of new churches and other government buildings in the United States, it was widely used in 20th century modern architecture as a symbol of modernity and simplicity. According to surveys in Europe and the United States, white is the color most associated with perfection, the good, cleanliness, the beginning, the new and exactitude.
White is an important color for all world religions. The Pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church, has worn white since 1566, as a symbol of purity and sacrifice. In Islam, in the Shinto religion of Japan, it is worn by pilgrims. In Western cultures and in Japan, white is the most common color for wedding dresses, symbolizing purity and virginity. In many Asian cultures, white is the color of mourning; the word white continues Old English hwīt from a Common Germanic *χwītaz reflected in OHG wîz, ON hvítr, Goth. ƕeits. The root is from Proto-Indo-European language *kwid-, surviving in Sanskrit śveta "to be white or bright" and Slavonic světŭ "light"; the Icelandic word for white, hvítur, is directly derived from the Old Norse form of the word hvítr. Common Germanic had the word *blankaz, borrowed into Late Latin as *blancus, which provided the source for Romance words for "white"; the antonym of white is black. Some non-European languages have a wide variety of terms for white; the Inuit language has seven different words for seven different nuances of white.
Sanskrit has specific words for bright white, the white of teeth, the white of sandalwood, the white of the autumn moon, the white of silver, the white of cow's milk, the white of pearls, the white of a ray of sunlight, the white of stars. Japanese has six different words, depending upon brilliance or dullness, or if the color is inert or dynamic. White was one of the first colors used in art; the Lascaux Cave in France contains drawings of bulls and other animals drawn by paleolithic artists between 18,000 and 17,000 years ago. Paleolithic artists used calcite or chalk, sometimes as a background, sometimes as a highlight, along with charcoal and red and yellow ochre in their vivid cave paintings. In ancient Egypt, white was connected with the goddess Isis; the priests and priestesses of Isis dressed only in white linen, it was used to wrap mummies. In Greece and other ancient civilizations, white was associated with mother's milk. In Greek mythology, the chief god Zeus was nourished at the breast of the nymph Amalthea.
In the Talmud, milk was one of four sacred substances, along with wine and the rose. The ancient Greeks saw the world in terms of darkness and light, so white was a fundamental color. According to Pliny the Elder in his Natural History and the other famous painters of ancient Greece used only four colors in their paintings. A plain white toga, known as a toga virilis, was worn for ceremonial occasions by all Roman citizens over the age of 14–18. Magistrates and certain priests wore a toga praetexta, with a broad purple stripe. In the time of the Emperor Augustus, no Roman man was allowed to appear in the Roman forum without a toga; the ancient Romans had two words for white. A man who wanted public office in Rome wore a white toga brightened with chalk, called a toga candida, the origin of the word candidate; the Latin word candere meant to be bright. It was the origin of the words candid. In ancient Rome, the priestesses of the goddess Vesta dressed in white linen robes, a white palla or shawl, a white veil.
They protected the penates of Rome. White symbolized their purity and chastity; the early Christian church adopted the Roman symbolism of white as the color of purity and virtue. It became the color worn by priests during Mass, the color worn by monks of the Cistercian Order, under Pope Pius V, a former monk of the Dominican Order, it became the official color worn by the pope himself. Monks of the Order of Saint Benedict dressed in the white or gray of natural undyed wool, but changed to black, the color of humility and penitence. Postclassical history art, the white lamb became the symbol of the sacrifice of Christ on behalf of mankind. John the Baptist described Christ as the lamb of God; the white lamb was the center of one of the most famous paintings of the Medieval period, the Ghent Altarpiece by Jan van Eyck. White was the symbolic color of the transfiguration; the Gospel of Saint Mark describes Jesus' clothing in this event as "shining, exceeding white as snow." Artists such as Fra Angelico used their skill
Government of Republika Srpska
Government of Republika Srpska is the executive authority of Republika Srpska, along with the President of Republika Srpska. The Prime Minister is head of the Government, while the Government is composed of his deputies and ministers; the powers of the Government are determined by the Constitution of Republika Srpska. The Government is appointed by the National Assembly for a four-year term; the first Government of Republika Srpska was inaugurated on 22 April 1992, the first Prime Minister of Republika Srpska was Branko Đerić. The current Government was elected after the 2018 general election and was inaugurated by the National Assembly on 18 December 2018. Through its history, Republika Srpska had fifteen governments. According to the Constitution of Republika Srpska, the Government has power to: Suggest laws, other regulations and general acts; the Government has power to appoint foreign representatives of Republika Srpska. The Government is appointed by the National Assembly on a four-year term.
The new government is appointed every time after constituting the new assembly. Prime Minister of Republika Srpska is head of the Government, with official title being President of the Government; the Government is, along with the Prime Minister, composed of his ministers. A member of parliament elected as Prime Minister of a minister in the government cannot decide on election of the Government, the member of parliament appointed to these duties cannot vote on distrust to the Government, his removal or reports of the Government or his ministry. Prime Ministers and his deputies cannot be members of the same constituent nation, he has two deputies, who are ministers in the Government. At least 15% of the Government must be composed out of members of the one of the constituent nations, at least 35% of the Government must be composed of members of the two constituent nations; the Government and its members are responsible to the National Assembly, which can vote on the distrust to the Government.
The proposal on the voting on the distrust to the Government can be made by at least twenty people's representatives. The Government can ask about its trust in within the National Assembly. Prime Minister can suggest removal of the Government members to the National Assembly; the decision on removal of the Government or particular member of the Government can be made only with the support of the majority of the total number of people's representatives. The Government or its member can resign before the National Assembly; the resignation or removal of the Prime Minister entails resignation of the entire Government. The Government, voted on distrust, or resigned or which term has ended because of a dismissal of the National Assembly, remains on duty until the election of a new Government; the President of Republika Srpska suggests the candidate for the Prime Minister within ten days after the resignation had been accepted, or the voting of distrust or the end of the term due to the dismissal of the National Assembly or shortening terms of the people's representatives.
The new Government must be elected within forty days after the candidate for the Prime Minister had been suggested. During the term, the Prime Minister can, based on the opinion of the President of the Republic or Speaker of the National Assembly, change the Government composition, after which he must inform the National Assembly. If the President of the Republic determines that there's a crisis in the functioning of the Government, he can, on the initiative of at least twenty people's representatives, after he hears the opinion of the Speaker of the National Assembly and the Prime Minister, ask the Prime Minister to resign. If the Prime Minister refuses to resign, he can be removed from office by the President of the Republic; the National Assembly can, during the war or intermediate war danger, vote on the distrust to the Government by the majority vote on a session with majority of people's representatives present. State administration affairs are led by other republican organs of administration.
Ministries and other republican organs of administration implement laws, other regulations and general acts of the National Assembly and the Government, as well as those of the President of the Republic. Ministries and other republican organs of administration are independent in their execution of powers determined by the Constitution and law. Certain administrative powers can be given to other organisations; the constituent nations and minorities will be proportionately represented in public institutions in Republika Srpska. The proportional representation
Bosanska Krajina, pronounced. The region is a historic and cultural entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina, famous for its natural beauties and wildlife diversity; the largest city, its historical center is Banja Luka. Other cities include Bihać, Velika Kladuša, Sanski Most, Gradiška, Kozarska Dubica, Novi Grad, Bosanska Krupa, Ključ, Bosanski Petrovac, Kotor Varoš, Šipovo, Mrkonjić Grad, Bosansko Grahovo, Gornji Vakuf, Donji Vakuf, Kneževo, Bužim, Laktaši, Čelinac. Bosanska Krajina is not a formal entity within the structure of Herzegovina; the territory of Bosanska Krajina is divided between two entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Between the 16th and 19th centuries, the territory between the Una and Vrbas rivers was referred to by the name Turkish Croatia; the name was first used by Austrian military topographers who worked in the Austro-Ottoman border commission after the Treaty of Karlowitz of 1699. In the mid 19th century the name Turkish Croatia was replaced by cartographers in favor of Bosanska Krajina.
The largest city, its historical center is Banja Luka. Other cities include Bihać, Velika Kladuša, Sanski Most, Gradiška, Kozarska Dubica, Novi Grad, Bosanska Krupa, Ključ, Bosanski Petrovac, Kotor Varoš, Šipovo, Mrkonjić Grad, Bosansko Grahovo, Kneževo, Bužim, Laktaši, Čelinac. Sub-regions include: Bihaćka krajina, Cazinska krajina, Lijevče, etc. In the 6th century, today's northwestern Bosnia was part of the Roman province of Dalmatia, it fell under the jurisdiction of the Eastern Roman Empire. Shortly thereafter, Eurasian Avars and their Slavic subjects from central-eastern Europe invaded Dalmatia and settled in what is now Bosnia and Herzegovina. In the 7th century the Serbs and Croats formed principalities under the Eastern Roman Empire, it is unclear whether the region was under the Principality of Serbia or Duchy of Croatia in the Early Middle Ages. Fine, Jr. believes that what is today western Bosnia and Herzegovina was part of Croatia, while the rest was divided between Croatia and Serbia.
Bosnia proper, called Bosona in the De Administrando Imperio, was a "small country" part of the Serbian principality. Although the borders of the Kingdom of Croatia are unknown, Fine, Jr. believes that it included western Bosnia. Croatia was unified with the Kingdom of Hungary in 1102. In the 13th and 14th century, a region called Donji Kraji, located in today's southern Bosanska Krajina, was first mentioned as a property of the Diocese of Bosnia and claimed by the Kingdom of Bosnia. By the 14th century, the Ottoman Empire had expanded into the western Balkans in a series of wars, the Turkish westward incursions made this region an Ottoman borderland. Jajce had fallen to the Ottomans in 1463; the Battle of Krbava Field in 1493 ended the Kingdom of Croatia's persistent hold over the entire region, restricting them to fortified cities. In the late 15th century, a local Croatian lord Juraj Mikuličić erected a fort in the village of Bužim near Bihać, fearing the advancing Ottoman army. Mikuličić died in 1495, but the Bužim fort would not pass to Ottoman control until 1576.
After the crucial 1526 Battle of Mohács and the 1527 election in Cetin, Croatia became part of the Austrian Habsburg Empire. The Ottoman Empire formally established the Eyalet of Bosnia in 1580; the Croatian lands in general were reduced to a fraction of what they encompassed, only the westernmost parts of today's Bosanska Krajina still resisted the Ottoman rule. The Ottoman armies preferred to advance towards their targets in the northwest through more passable terrain, such as along the river Danube, for example Vienna was first besieged in 1529 after the army had gone through Osijek, Mohács and Buda; the natural obstacles in and around the region at the time, included the rivers Sava, Vrbas and Sana, as well as the mountains such as Plješevica, Šator, Klekovača, Raduša, Grmeč, Kozara and Vlašić. Turkish incursions expanded further to the north, Charles of Styria erected a new fortified city of Karlovac in 1579. In 1580 the Turks responded by declaring the Pashaluk of Bosnia which unified all the Sanjaks, including territory in modern-day Croatia.
As a result of the wars and border changes, the Catholic Croat population moved north, was replaced with Orthodox Serbs and Vlachs. The Bužim fort, under Ottoman control since 1576, was held by the Ottomans in numerous battles and it was upgraded until their eventual surrender in the 19th century; the building remains to this day as a monument to the Ottoman conquest. Bihać held out longer than Bužim, at one point served as the capital of Croatia. But, in 1592 the Turkish army of about 20,000 under Hasan-pasa Predojević, an Ottoman vizier and forcefully occupied Bihać. Records show that nearly 2,000 people died in defense of Bihać, an estimated 800 Croat children from Bihać were sent into servitude in Turkey, to be educated in Islam and become Yenicari. Hasan-pasha Predojević pressed further north into Croatia, but was defeated in the June 1593
A tricolour or tricolor is a type of flag or banner design with a triband design which originated in the 16th century as a symbol of republicanism, liberty or indeed revolution. The flags of France, Romania and Ireland were all first adopted with the formation of an independent republic in the period of the French Revolution to the Revolutions of 1848, with the exception of the Irish tricolour, which dates from 1848 but was not popularised until the Easter Rising in 1916 and adopted in 1919; the first association of the tricolour with republicanism is the orange-white-blue design of the Prince's Flag, used from 1579 by William I of Orange-Nassau in the Eighty Years' War, establishing the independence of the Dutch Republic from the Spanish Empire. Though not the first tricolour flag, one of the most famous, known as Le Tricolore, is the blue and red flag of France adopted in the French Revolution. With the formation of French client republics after 1795, the revolutionary tricolour was exported and adopted more in Europe, by the Republic of Alba 1796, the Cisalpine Republic 1797, the Cisrhenian Republic 1797, the Anconine Republic 1797, the Roman Republic 1798, the Helvetic Republic 1798, the Parthenopean Republic 1799, the Principality of Lucca and Piombino 1805.
Thus providing the format for most of modern Europe's national flags, from the flag of Italy, to the flag of Germany, flag of Ireland, flag of Belgium, flag of Romania, flag of Bulgaria, flag of Moldova, others around the World such as the flag of Cameroon, flag of Chad, flag of Ivory Coast, flag of Gabon, flag of Guinea, flag of Mali, flag of Nigeria. The green-white-red tricolour remained a symbol of republicanism throughout the 19th century and was adopted as national flag by a number of states following the Revolutions of 1848, it was adopted by the Kingdom of Sardinia. The flag of Germany originated as the flag of the revolutionary, anti-monarchist Freikorps of the 1830s and was adopted by the republicanist bourgeoisie, at the time known as Dreifarb, a German calque of Tricolore; this flag was a symbol of opposition against the German Kleinstaaterei and the desire for German Unification. It was at first illegal in the German Confederation, but was adopted as the national flag at the Frankfurt Parliament of 1848/9.
The flag of Belgium was introduced in a similar context, in 1831, its colours taken from the flag used in the Brabant Revolution of 1789. The first national flag of the New World inspired by this symbolism was the flag of Mexico, adopted when the First Mexican Empire gained independence from Spain in 1821. After 1848, the young republican nation states continued to pick triband designs, but now more prevalently expressing the sentiment of nationalism or ethnic identity than anti-monarchism, the flag of Hungary, the flag of Romania, the Flag of Ireland, the flag of Estonia, the flag of Lithuania, the flag of Armenia. By contrast, the flag of Russia was adopted by the Tsardom of Russia in the late 17th century and while it may or may not have been inspired by the Dutch tricolour, it never had any republican implications; the political ideology of the unification of an ethnic nation state associated with tricolour flags since the 19th century has resulted in the design of new "tricolours" expressing specific nationalisms in the 20th century, the Pan-African colours adopted in the 1920s for Pan-Africanism, chosen in numerous African flags during decolonisation.
The Pan-Arab colours adopted in Arab nationalism 1916 are a comparable concept though they combine four, not three, colours. In the 20th century, Pan-Iranian colours for Iranian nationalism and Pan-Slavic colours for Slavic nationalism were adopted based on the triband design of the flags used during the 19th century by the Qajar dynasty and the Russian Empire, respectively; the Indian independence movement in 1931 adopted a tricolour in the traditional symbolism of "national unification" and republican "self-rule", adopted as the flag of the Indian Republic in 1947. In 1999, a red and blue tricolour was proposed as the Flag of Mars; the design symbolizes liberty, the terraforming of Mars by humanity from a red planet to a green one, an Earth-like blue one. List of national flags by design Fin flash on military aircraft, sometimes in a "tricolour" form Triband