Thuluth is a script variety of Islamic calligraphy invented by Ibn Muqlah Shirazi. The straight angular forms of Kufic were replaced in the new script by oblique lines. In Thuluth, one-third of each letter slopes, from. An alternative theory to the meaning is that the smallest width of the letter is one third of the widest part, it is an cursive script, used in medieval times on mosque decorations. Various calligraphic styles evolved from Thuluth through slight changes of form; the greatest contributions to the evolution of the Thuluth script occurred in the Ottoman Empire in three successive steps that Ottoman art historians call "calligraphical revolutions": The first revolution occurred in the 15th century and was initiated by the master calligrapher Sheikh Hamdullah. The second revolution resulted from the work of the Ottoman calligrapher Hâfız Osman in the 17th century. In the late 19th century, Mehmed Şevkî Efendi gave the script the distinctive shape it has today; the best known artist to write the Thuluth script at its zenith is said to be Mustafa Râkım Efendi, a painter who set a standard in Ottoman calligraphy which many believe has not been surpassed to this day.
Thuluth was used to write the headings of surahs. Some of the oldest copies of the Qur'an were written in Thuluth. Copies were written in a combination of Thuluth and either Naskh or Muhaqqaq. After the 15th century Naskh came to be used exclusively; the script is used in the Flag of Saudi Arabia where its text, Shahada al Tawhid, is written in Thuluth. An important aspect of Thuluth script is the use of harakat to represent vowel sounds and of certain other stylistic marks to beautify the script; the rules governing the former are similar to the rules for any Arabic script. The stylistic marks have their own rules regarding placement and grouping which allow for great creativity as to shape and orientation. For example, one grouping technique is to separate the marks written below letters from those written above. Since its creation, Thuluth has given rise to a variety of scripts used in calligraphy and over time has allowed numerous modifications. Jeli Thuluth was developed for use such as those on tombstones.
Muhaqqaq script was developed by widening the horizontal sections of the letters in Thuluth. Naskh script introduced a number of modifications resulting in greater delicacy. Tawqi is a smaller version of Thuluth. Ruq'ah was derived from the Thuluth and Naskh styles, the latter itself having originated from Thuluth. Ibn Muqlah Islamic calligraphy Mohammad Hosni Thuluth Script "Qur'anic Verses on Carpet Page", dates back to the 14th century and utilizes Thuluth script, from the World Digital Library
The Shahada is an Islamic creed, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, declaring belief in the oneness of God and the acceptance of Muhammad as God's prophet. The declaration, in its shortest form, reads: لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا ٱلله مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ ٱلله lā ʾilāha ʾillā llāh muḥammadun rasūlu llāh IPA: There is no god but God. Muhammad is the messenger of God. Audio audio In the English translation—"There is no god but God. Muhammad is the messenger of God."—the first, lower-case occurrence of "god" is a translation of the Arabic word ilah, while the capitalized second and third occurrences of "God" are translations of the Arabic word Allah. The noun šahāda, from the verbal root šahida meaning "to observe, testify", translates as "testimony" in both the everyday and the legal senses; the Islamic creed is called, in the dual form, šahādatān. The expression al-šahāda is used in Quran as one of the "titles of God". In Sunni Islam, the Shahada has two parts: la ilaha illa'llah, Muhammadun rasul Allah, which are sometimes referred to as the first Shahada and the second Shahada.
The first statement of the Shahada is known as the tahlīl. In Shia Islam, the Shahada has a third part, a phrase concerning Ali, the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam: وعليٌ وليُّ الله, which translates to "Ali is the wali of God". In the Quran, the first statement of the Shahadah takes the form la ilaha illa'llah twice, allahu la ilaha illa hu much more often, it appears in the shorter form la ilaha illa Hu in many places. It appears in these forms about 30 times in the Quran, never attached with the other parts of the Shahadah in Sunni or Shia Islam or "in conjunction with another name". Islam's monotheistic nature is reflected in the first sentence of the Shahada, which declares belief in the oneness of God and that he is the only entity worthy of worship; the second sentence of the Shahada indicates the means by which God has offered guidance to human beings. The verse reminds Muslims that they accept not only the prophecy of Muhammad but the long line of prophets who preceded him.
While the first part is seen as a cosmic truth, the second is specific to Islam, as it is understood that members of the older Abrahamic religions do not view Muhammad as one of their prophets. The Shahada is a statement of both worship. In a well-known hadith, Muhammad defines Islam as witnessing that there is no god but God and that Muhammad is God's messenger, giving of alms, performing the ritual prayer, fasting during the month of Ramadan, making a pilgrimage to the Kaaba: the Five Pillars of Islam are inherent in this declaration of faith. Recitation of the Shahādah is the most common statement of faith for Muslims. In Sunni Islam, it is counted as the first of the Five Pillars of Islam, while the Shi'i Twelvers and Isma'ilis have the Shahada as among their pillars of faith, it is whispered by the father into the ear of a newborn child, it is whispered into the ear of a dying person. The five canonical daily prayers each include a recitation of the Shahada. Recitation of the Shahada in front of witnesses is the first and only formal step in conversion to Islam.
This occasion attracts more than the two required witnesses and sometimes includes a celebration to welcome the convert into their new faith. In accordance with the central importance played by the notion of intention in Islamic doctrine, the recitation of the Shahada must reflect understanding of its import and heartfelt sincerity. Intention is what differentiates acts of devotion from mundane acts and a simple reading of the Shahada from invoking it as a ritual activity. Though the two statements of the Shahada are both present in the Quran, they are not found there side by side as in the Shahada formula. Versions of both phrases began to appear in coins and monumental architecture in the late seventh century, which suggests that it had not been established as a ritual statement of faith until then. An inscription in the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem reads: "There is no god but God alone. Another variant appears in coins minted after the reign of Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, the fifth Umayyad caliph: "Muhammad is the servant of God and His messenger".
Although it is not clear when the Shahada first came into common use among Muslims, it is clear that the sentiments it expresses were part of the Quran and Islamic doctrine from the earliest period. The Shahada has been traditionally recited in the Sufi ceremony of dhikr, a ritual that resembles mantras found in many other religious traditions. During the ceremony, the Shahada may be repeated thousands of times, sometimes in the shortened form of the first phrase where the word Allah is replaced by huwa; the chanting of the Shahada sometimes provides a rhythmic background for singing. The Shahada appears as an architectural element in Islamic buildings around the world, such as those in Jerusalem and Istanbul. Late-medieval and Renaissance European art displays a fascination with Middle Eastern motifs in general and the Arabic script in particular, as indicated by its use, without concern f
2002 FIFA World Cup
The 2002 FIFA World Cup was the 17th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial world championship for men's national football teams organized by FIFA. It was held from 31 May to 30 June 2002 at sites in South Korea and Japan, with its final match hosted by Japan at International Stadium in Yokohama. A field of 32 teams qualified for this World Cup, the first to be held in Asia, the first to be held outside of the Americas or Europe, as well as the first to be jointly-hosted by more than one nation. China, Ecuador and Slovenia made their World Cup debuts; the tournament had several upsets and surprise results, which included the defending champions France being eliminated in the group stage after earning a single point and second favourites Argentina being eliminated in the group stage. South Korea managed to reach the semi-finals, beating Spain and Portugal en route. However, the most potent team at the tournament, prevailed, winning the final against Germany 2–0, making them the first and only country to have won the World Cup five times.
The victory qualified Brazil for the 2003 and subsequently 2005 FIFA Confederations Cups, its fourth and fifth Confederations Cup appearance in a row. In the third place play-off match against South Korea, Turkey won 3–2, taking third place in only their second FIFA World Cup; the 2002 World Cup was the last one to use the golden goal rule. South Korea and Japan were selected as hosts by FIFA on 31 May 1996. South Korea and Mexico presented three rival bids. FIFA officials brokered a united bid between the two Asian countries shortly before the decision was made, they were chosen unanimously in preference to Mexico; this was the first World Cup to be hosted by more than one country, the second being the 2026 World Cup, which will be hosted by the United States and Canada. The general secretary of South Korea's bidding committee, Song Young-shik, stated that FIFA was interested in staging some matches in North Korea in order to aid Korean reunification, but it was ruled out. At the time the decision was made, Japan had never qualified for a World Cup finals.
The only other countries to have been awarded a World Cup without having competed in a final tournament are Italy in 1934 and Qatar in 2022. The unusual choice of host proved an issue for football fans in Europe, used to watching international matches on or close to their time zone. With games taking place in the European morning, some schools and businesses chose to open late on match days or set up communal watching events before the start of work. 199 teams attempted to qualify for the 2002 World Cup. The qualification process began with the preliminary draw held in Tokyo on 7 December 1999. Defending champions France and co-hosts South Korea and Japan qualified automatically and did not have to play any qualification matches; this was the final World Cup in which the defending champions qualified automatically.14 places were contested by UEFA teams, five by CAF teams, four by CONMEBOL teams, four by AFC teams and three by CONCACAF teams. The remaining two places were decided by playoffs between AFC and UEFA and between CONMEBOL and OFC.
Four nations qualified for the finals for the first time: China, Ecuador and Slovenia. As of 2018, this was the last time the Republic of Ireland and China qualified for a FIFA World Cup finals, as well as the last time Australia and Switzerland failed to qualify. Turkey qualified for the first time since 1954, Poland and Portugal both qualified for the first time since 1986 and Costa Rica and Uruguay qualified for the first time since 1990. Sweden and the Republic of Ireland returned after missing the 1998 World Cup. 1998 semi-finalists the Netherlands, three times 1990s participants Romania and Colombia and Norway and Morocco, which had participated in the previous 2 finals, failed to qualify, while South Korea set a record by appearing in a fifth successive finals tournament, the first nation from outside Europe or the Americas to achieve this feat. All seven previous World Cup-winning nations qualified, which broke the record of most previous champions at a tournament before the record was broken again in 2014.
The highest ranked team not to qualify was Colombia, while the lowest ranked team that did qualify was China PR. The following 32 teams, shown with final pre-tournament rankings, qualified for the final tournament: South Korea and Japan each provided 10 venues, the vast majority of them newly built for the tournament. Groups A–D played all their matches in South Korea and Groups E–H played all their matches in Japan; the stadiums in Daegu, Suwon and Saitama all hosted 4 matches each, while the other 16 stadiums hosted 3 matches each. Notably, no matches were played in Tokyo, making it the second capital of a host country not to have a World Cup venue. A cross denotes an indoor stadium. There was much controversy over the refereeing in the tournament. Questionable decisions in the match between Italy and South Korea resulted in 400,000 complaints, featured in ESPN's 10 most fabled World Cup controversies; the match between Spain and South Korea featured two controversially disallowed Spanish goals, which Iván Helguera referred to as "a robbery" and led to Spanish press brandishing the officials "thieves of dreams", though FIFA
A naval ensign is an ensign used by naval ships of various countries to denote their nationality. It can be the different from a country's civil ensign or state ensign, it can be known as a war ensign. A large version of a naval ensign, flown on a warship's mast just before going into battle is called a battle ensign. An ensign differs from a jack, flown from a jackstaff at the bow of a vessel. Most countries have ensign for all purposes. In other countries, a distinction is made between the land flag and the civil and naval ensigns; the elaborate British ensigns, for example, differ from the flag used on land, the Union Flag, have different versions of plain and defaced Red and Blue ensigns for civilian and state use, besides the naval ensign. Some naval ensigns differ in shape from the national flag, such as the Nordic naval ensigns, which have'tongues'. Naval ensigns that are different from the civil ensign and the national flag
Epigraphy is the study of inscriptions, or epigraphs, as writing. Excluded from epigraphy are the historical significance of an epigraph as a document and the artistic value of a literary composition. A person using the methods of epigraphy is called an epigraphist. For example, the Behistun inscription is an official document of the Achaemenid Empire engraved on native rock at a location in Iran. Epigraphists are responsible for reconstructing and dating the trilingual inscription and finding any relevant circumstances, it is the work of historians, however, to determine and interpret the events recorded by the inscription as document. Epigraphy and history are competences practised by the same person. An epigraph is any sort of text, from a single grapheme to a lengthy document. Epigraphy overlaps other competences such as numismatics or palaeography; when compared to books, most inscriptions are short. The media and the forms of the graphemes are diverse: engravings in stone or metal, scratches on rock, impressions in wax, embossing on cast metal, cameo or intaglio on precious stones, painting on ceramic or in fresco.
The material is durable, but the durability might be an accident of circumstance, such as the baking of a clay tablet in a conflagration. Epigraphy is a primary tool of archaeology; the US Library of Congress classifies epigraphy as one of the auxiliary sciences of history. Epigraphy helps identify a forgery: epigraphic evidence formed part of the discussion concerning the James Ossuary; the study of ancient handwriting in ink, is a separate field, palaeography. The character of the writing, the subject of epigraphy, is a matter quite separate from the nature of the text, studied in itself. Texts inscribed in stone are for public view and so they are different from the written texts of each culture. Not all inscribed texts are public, however: in Mycenaean Greece the deciphered texts of "Linear B" were revealed to be used for economic and administrative record keeping. Informal inscribed texts are "graffiti" in its original sense; the science of epigraphy has been developing since the 16th century.
Principles of epigraphy vary culture by culture, the infant science in European hands concentrated on Latin inscriptions at first. Individual contributions have been made by epigraphers such as Georg Fabricius; the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, begun by Mommsen and other scholars, has been published in Berlin since 1863, with wartime interruptions. It is the most extensive collection of Latin inscriptions. New fascicles are still produced; the Corpus is arranged geographically: all inscriptions from Rome are contained in volume 6. This volume has the greatest number of inscriptions. Specialists depend on such on-going series of volumes in which newly discovered inscriptions are published in Latin, not unlike the biologists' Zoological Record— the raw material of history. Greek epigraphy has unfolded with different corpora. There are two; the first is Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum of which four volumes came out, again at Berlin, 1825-1877. This marked a first attempt at a comprehensive publication of Greek inscriptions copied from all over the Greek-speaking world.
Only advanced students still consult it, for better editions of the texts have superseded it. The second, modern corpus is Inscriptiones Graecae arranged geographically under categories: decrees, honorary titles, funeral inscriptions, all presented in Latin, to preserve the international neutrality of the field of classics. Other such series include the Corpus Inscriptionum Etruscarum, Corpus Inscriptionum Crucesignatorum Terrae Sanctae, Corpus Inscriptionum Insularum Celticarum, Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum, "Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia" and "Royal Inscriptions of the Neo-Assyrian Period" and so forth. Egyptian hieroglyphs were solved using the Rosetta Stone, a multilingual stele in Classical Greek, Demotic Egyptian and Classical Egyptian hieroglyphs; the work was done by the French scholar, Jean-François Champollion, the British scientist Thomas Young. The interpretation of Maya hieroglyphs was lost as a result of the Spanish Conquest of Central America. However, recent work by Maya epigraphers and linguists has yielded a considerable amount of information on this complex writing system.
Inscriptions were incised on stone, metal, terracotta, or wood. In Egypt and Mesopotamia hard stones were used for the purpose, the inscriptions are therefore well preserved and easy to read. In Greece the favourite material in Athens, was white marble, which takes an admirably clear lettering, but is liable to weathering of the surface if exposed, to wear if rebuilt into pavements or similar structures. Many other kinds of stone, both hard
Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab
Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab was a religious leader and theologian from Najd in central Arabia who founded the movement now called Wahhabism. Born to a family of jurists, Ibn'Abd al-Wahhab's early education consisted of learning a standard curriculum of orthodox jurisprudence according to the Hanbali school of law, the school of law most prevalent in his area of birth. Despite his initial rudimentary training in classical Sunni Muslim tradition, Ibn'Abd al-Wahhab became opposed to many of the most popular Sunni practices such as the visitation to and the veneration of the tombs of saints, which he felt amounted to heretical religious innovation or idolatry. Despite his teachings being rejected and opposed by many of the most notable Sunni Muslim scholars of the period, including his own father and brother, Ibn'Abd al-Wahhab charted a religio-political pact with Muhammad bin Saud to help him to establish the Emirate of Diriyah, the first Saudi state, began a dynastic alliance and power-sharing arrangement between their families which continues to the present day in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
The Al ash-Sheikh, Saudi Arabia's leading religious family, are the descendants of Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab, have led the ulama in the Saudi state, dominating the state's clerical institutions. Ibn'Abd al-Wahhab is acknowledged to have been born in 1703 into the sedentary and impoverished Arab clan of Banu Tamim in'Uyayna, a village in the Najd region of central Arabia. Before the emergence of Wahhabism there was a limited history of Islamic education in the area. For this reason, Ibn'Abd al-Wahhab had modest access to Islamic education during his youth. Despite this, the area had produced several notable jurists of the Hanbali school of orthodox Sunni jurisprudence, the school of law most prominently practiced in the area. In fact, Ibn'Abd-al-Wahhab's own family "had produced several doctors of the school," with his father, Sulaymān b. Muḥammad, having been the Hanbali jurisconsult of the Najd and his grandfather, ʿAbd al-Wahhāb, having been a judge of Hanbali law. Ibn'Abd-al-Wahhab's early education consisted of learning the Quran by heart and studying a rudimentary level of Hanbali jurisprudence and theology as outlined in the works of Ibn Qudamah, one of the most influential medieval representatives of the Hanbali school whose works were regarded "as having great authority" in the Najd.
As the veneration of saints and the belief in their ability to perform miracles by the grace of God had become one of the most omnipresent and established aspects of Sunni Muslim practice throughout the Islamic world, being an agreed upon tenet of the faith by the vast majority of the classical scholars, it was not long before Ibn'Abd-al-Wahhab began to encounter the omnipresence of saint-veneration in his area as well. After leaving'Uyayna, Ibn'Abd al-Wahhab performed the Greater Pilgrimage in Mecca, where the scholars appear to have held opinions and espoused teachings that were unpalatable to him. After this, he went to Medina, the stay at which seems to have been "decisive in shaping the direction of his thought." In Medina, he met a Hanbali theologian from Najd named ʿAbd Allāh b. Ibrāhīm al-Najdī, a supporter of the neo-Hanbali works of Ibn Taymiyyah, the controversial medieval scholar whose teachings had been considered heterodox and misguided on a number of important points by the vast majority of Sunni Muslim scholars up to that point in history.
Ibn'Abd al-Wahhab's teacher Abdallah ibn Ibrahim ibn Sayf introduced the young man to Mohammad Hayya Al-Sindhi in Medina who belonged to the Naqshbandi order of Sufism and recommended him as a student. Mohammad Ibn Abd-al-Wahhab and al-Sindhi became close and Mohammad Ibn Abd-al-Wahhab stayed with him for some time. Muhammad Hayya taught Mohammad Ibn ʿAbd-al-Wahhab to reject popular religious practices associated with walis and their tombs that resembles Wahhabi teachings. Following his early education in Medina, Ibn Abdul Wahhab traveled outside of the peninsula, venturing first to Basra. After his return home, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab began to attract followers, including the ruler of'Uyayna, Uthman ibn Mu'ammar. With Ibn Mu'ammar, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab came to an agreement to support Ibn Mu'ammar's political ambitions to expand his rule "over Najd and beyond", in exchange for the ruler's support for Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab's religious teachings. Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab began to implement some of his ideas for reform.
First, he persuaded Ibn Mu'ammar to help him level the grave of Zayd ibn al-Khattab, a companion of Muhammad, whose grave was revered by locals. Secondly, he ordered the cutting down of trees considered sacred by locals, cutting down "the most glorified of all of the trees" himself. Third, he organised the stoning of a woman; these actions gained the attention of Sulaiman ibn Muhammad ibn Ghurayr of the tribe of Bani Khalid, the chief of Al-Hasa and Qatif, who held substantial influence in Najd. Ibn Ghurayr threatened Ibn Mu'ammar with denying him the ability to collect a land tax for some properties that Ibn Mu'ammar owned in Al-Hasa if he did not kill or drive away Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab. Ibn Mu'ammar forced Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab to leave. Upon his expulsion from'Uyayna, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab was invited to settle in neighboring Diriyah by its ruler Muhammad bin Saud. After some time in Diriyah, Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab concluded his second and more successful agreement with a ruler. Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab and Muh
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God, that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs; the primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, the teachings and normative example of Muhammad. Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith, revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham and Jesus. Muslims consider the Quran in its original Arabic to be the final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous punished in hell. Religious concepts and practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, following Islamic law, which touches on every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment.
The cities of Mecca and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam. Aside from the theological narrative, Islam is believed to have originated in the early 7th century CE in Mecca, by the 8th century the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east; the Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate, when much of the Muslim world was experiencing a scientific and cultural flourishing. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates, such as the Ottoman Empire and conversion to Islam by missionary activities. Most Muslims are of one of two denominations. About 13 % of Muslims live in the largest Muslim-majority country. Sizeable Muslim communities are found in the Americas, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Europe, Mainland Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Russia. Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world. Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root S-L-M which forms a large class of words relating to concepts of wholeness, submission and peace.
In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God". Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, means "submission" or "surrender". Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, means "submitter" or "one who surrenders"; the word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal spiritual state: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He opens his heart to Islam." Other verses connect Islam and religion together: "Today, I have perfected your religion for you. Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, ihsān. Islam was called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies; this term has fallen out of use and is sometimes said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims' religion, parallel to Buddha in Buddhism.
Some authors, continue to use the term Muhammadanism as a technical term for the religious system as opposed to the theological concept of Islam that exists within that system. Faith in the Islamic creed is represented as the six articles of faith, notably spelled out in the Hadith of Gabriel. Islam is seen as having the simplest doctrines of the major religions, its most fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawḥīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Quran as: "He is God, the One and Only. Muslims repudiate polytheism and idolatry, called Shirk, reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and thus. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahmān, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahīm, meaning "The Merciful". Muslims believe that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's sheer command, "Be, it is" and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God.
He is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in distress calls him. There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states, "I am nearer to him than jugular vein." God consciousness is referred to as Taqwa. Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews to reference God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general. Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish, "Khodā" in Persian or "Ḵẖudā" in Urdu. Belief in angels is fundamental