Flag of Maryland
The official flag of the state of Maryland consists of the heraldic banner of George Calvert, Lord Baltimore. The flag was adopted by the Maryland General Assembly in 1904. The first Maryland flag design consisted of the Seal of Maryland on a blue background, the black and gold design on the flag is the coat of arms from the Calvert line. It was granted to George Calvert as a reward for his storming a fortification during a battle. The red and white design is the coat of arms of the Crossland line, the family of Lord Baltimores mother, since George Calverts mother was a heiress, he was entitled to use both coats of arms in his banner. It is one of only four U. S. state flags that does not contain the color blue. It is the only US state flag to be based on English heraldry, although the flag of Washington. The heraldic blazon is, Quarterly, 1st and 4th, paly of six Or and Sable, a bend counterchanged, 2nd and 3rd, quarterly argent and gules, at first, only the gold and black Calvert arms were associated with Maryland, being reintroduced in 1854.
The black and gold colors with the design of the Calvert family were used in the flags and devices. After the war, Marylanders who had fought on either side of the returned to their state in need of reconciliation. The present design, which both of the coats of arms used by George Calvert, began appearing. At first, the Crossland coat of arms was put in the upper-left corner, the flag in its present form was first flown on October 11,1880, in Baltimore, at a parade marking the 150th anniversary of the founding of Baltimore. However, it was not officially adopted as the flag until 1904. Section 7-202 of the General Provisions Article of the Annotated Code of Maryland provides, the Maryland Secretary of State publishes a Protocol for the Maryland State Flag which, among other things, specifies the colors of the flag,1.04. In 1945, the Maryland General Assembly made a cross bottony the official ornament for the top of any flagpole carrying the state flag. Some time before October 10,2007, Government House in Annapolis ceased to display the cross bottony at the top of the flag pole, all other state government buildings, including public schools, obey this guideline, but many private individuals and businesses do not.
The Calvert and Crossland coats of arms, and the flag itself, have adapted for use in various ways across the state. Beginning on September 9,2008, the University of Maryland painted both end zones at Maryland Stadium with the two patterns
Flag of Alaska
The flag of Alaska consists of eight gold stars, forming the Big Dipper and Polaris, on a dark blue field. The Big Dipper is an asterism in the constellation Ursa Major which symbolizes a bear, as depicted on the flag, its stars can be used as a guide by the novice to locate Polaris and determine true north, which varies considerably from a magnetic north. The design was created by Benny Benson of Seward and selected from among roughly 700 entries in a 1927 contest. More than 30 years before Alaska was to become a state, up to that time, Alaskans had flown only the U. S. flag since the territory was purchased from Russia in 1867. Bensons design was chosen over roughly 700 other submissions from schoolchildren territory-wide in grades 7–12, most other entries featured variations on the territorial seal, the midnight sun, the northern lights, polar bears, and/or gold pans. To celebrate his achievement, Benson was awarded US$1,000, Benny looked to the sky for the symbols he included in his design.
The flag flown by the Companys ships and their shore establishments was Russias commercial flag, the new Company flag design of 1806 placed the Imperial eagle in the upper left quarter of Russias commercial flag. In order that the State symbol remain unobstructed and more visible the width of the stripe was enlarged to cover roughly one half of the flags width. The normal width proportions of Russias commercial flag were equal thirds, the Imperial eagle carried a scroll which dipped into the blue stripe, for more visibility, which read, in abbreviated form Russian American Companys. The symbolism of the scroll beneath the Imperial eagle compliments the official version of the Companys name Under His Imperial Majestys Protection Russian-American Company, the flag flew over Alaska until October 18,1867, when all Russian-American Company holdings in Alaska were sold to the United States. The Alaska Legislature adopted Bensons design as the flag for the Territory of Alaska on May 2,1927. The first flag made based on Bennys design was made of silk and appliquéd gold stars.
It was retained as the flag upon statehood in 1959. The flags symbolism is described in the song, Alaskas Flag. Symbols of the State of Alaska Seal of the State of Alaska Starry Plough Catalog of the Eight Stars exhibit at the Alaska State Museum, in PDF format
The bald eagle is a bird of prey found in North America. A sea eagle, it has two subspecies and forms a species pair with the white-tailed eagle. Its range includes most of Canada and Alaska, all of the contiguous United States and it is found near large bodies of open water with an abundant food supply and old-growth trees for nesting. The bald eagle is a feeder which subsists mainly on fish. It builds the largest nest of any North American bird and the largest tree nests ever recorded for any species, up to 4 m deep,2.5 m wide. Sexual maturity is attained at the age of four to five years, Bald eagles are not actually bald, the name derives from an older meaning of the word, white headed. The adult is brown with a white head and tail. The sexes are identical in plumage, but females are about 25 percent larger than males, the beak is large and hooked. The plumage of the immature is brown, the bald eagle is both the national bird and national animal of the United States of America. The bald eagle appears on its seal, in the late 20th century it was on the brink of extirpation in the contiguous United States.
Populations have since recovered and the species was removed from the U. S. governments list of endangered species on July 12,1995 and it was removed from the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife in the Lower 48 States on June 28,2007. The plumage of an bald eagle is evenly dark brown with a white head. The tail is long and slightly wedge-shaped. Males and females are identical in coloration, but sexual dimorphism is evident in the species. The beak and irises are bright yellow, the legs are feather-free, and the toes are short and powerful with large talons. The highly developed talon of the toe is used to pierce the vital areas of prey while it is held immobile by the front toes. The beak is large and hooked, with a yellow cere, the adult bald eagle is unmistakable in its native range. The closely related African fish eagle has a body, white head and tail
Flag of Arizona
The flag of Arizona consists of 13 rays of red and weld-yellow on the top half, the colors of the flag of Spain, representing the 13 original states. The red and yellow symbolize Arizonas picturesque sunsets, the copper star represents the copper mining industry in Arizona. The rest of the flag is colored blue, representing the Colorado River, during the rifle competition at Camp Perry, the Arizona team was the only team without an emblem of any kind. Colonel Harris was chiefly responsible for the creation of the team flag that in 1917 became the Arizona State Flag. Blue and gold are the colors of Arizona and gold are the colors carried by Coronado’s Expedition of 1540 to the Seven Cities of Cibola. The blue is “liberty blue” identical to the color in the United States flag field of stars, since Arizona is a western state, the rays of the setting sun seemed appropriate. There are thirteen rays representing the original “thirteen colonies. ”The large copper star identifies Arizona as the largest producer of copper in the United States.
While Colonel Harris is credited with the creation of the Rifle Team flag, W. R. Stewart of Mesa was working in conjunction with Colonel Charles W. Harris, who was the Arizona Adjutant General and head of the Arizona National Guard. Stewart, as President of the Mesa Rifle Team, felt compelled to design a flag for competition, stewarts wife sewed the first flag for competition from a sketch he had made on the back of an envelope. The Stewart/Harris version of the flags origin is due to Stewart dropping some copper dye and white material into boiling water. However, these early explorers never used the current Spanish flag, the flag was adopted on February 17,1917, by the 3rd Arizona Legislature. It was passed into law without the signature of Governor Thomas Campbell, the governor did not officially state his reasons for taking no action on the bill. To properly produce the flag, the height of the flag is two units high while the width is three units wide. The sun rays at the top are divided into 13 equal segments, starting with red, in the center of the flag, the copper star is one unit high, while the rest of the flag is covered by blue section measuring one unit high and three units wide.
The colors of red and blue are the shade used on the flag of the United States. The specific colors of copper and gold have not been set down in law, the suggested flag size is four by six feet, with the star being two feet tall. Seal of Arizona List of Arizona state symbols Arizona flag history http, //www. mesaaz. gov/planning/RobsonHistoricDistrict. aspx
Flag of Alabama
The bars forming the cross shall be not less than six inches broad, and must extend diagonally across the flag from side to side. – The cross of St. Patrick referred to in the law is a diagonal cross, because the bars must be at least six inches wide, small representations of the Alabama flag do not meet the legal definition. On January 11,1861, the Alabama Secession Convention passed a resolution designating an official flag, designed by several women from Montgomery, final touches were made by Francis Corra of that city. One side of the flag displayed the Goddess of Liberty holding a sword in her right hand. Above the gold star appears the text Alabama in all capital letters, in an arch above this figure were the words Independent Now and Forever. The reverse side of the flag had a plant with a coiled rattlesnake. The text Noli Me Tangere, was placed below the cotton plant and this flag was sent to the governors office on February 10,1861. Due to damage from weather, the flag was never flown again.
Alabamas current flag was adopted in 1895, the legislation introduced by Representative John W. A. Sanford Jr. stipulates that he flag of the state of Alabama shall be a crimson cross of St. Andrew on a field of white. The bars forming the cross shall be not less than six inches broad, and must extend diagonally across the flag from side to side. Sanfords father, John W. A. Sanford, had commanded the 60th Alabama Infantry Regiment during the U. S. Civil War, the design of that regimental flag was a white saltire over a blue field with a circle of white stars surrounding the crossing. The regimental flag accompanied them through the end of the war and was surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse, the saltire of Alabamas flag most closely resembles the saltire of the flag of Florida, which has its heritage in the Spanish Cross of Burgundy. Southern Alabama was originally part of Spanish Florida and subsequently West Florida, Alabamas flag is officially a St. Andrews cross as described in its legislation, and so is the Cross of Burgundy, representing the cross on which St.
Andrew was crucified. It is sometimes believed that the saltire of the current flag of Alabama was designed to resemble the blue saltire of the Confederate Battle Flag. Many battle flags were square, and the flag of Alabama is sometimes depicted as square. The legislation that created the flag did not specify that the flag was to be square. The authors of a 1917 article in National Geographic expressed their opinion that because the Alabama flag was based on the Battle Flag, another remote, but possible inspiration was the flag carried by Co. The regiment was the only Alabama regiment in Ruckers Brigade, commanded by Col. Edmund Rucker of Tennessee, the flag of Ruckers brigade utilized a white background with a red saltire charged with 13 blue/green stars
There are two separate meanings for the term of state flag in vexillology, the flag of the government of a sovereign state and the flag of an individual subnational state. A state flag is a variant of a national flag specifically designated and restricted by law or custom to use by a government or its agencies. For this reason they are referred to as government flags. Scandinavian countries use swallowtailed state flags, to differentiate them from civil flags. In addition, some countries have state ensigns, separate flags for use by government ships such as guard vessels. For example, government ships in the United Kingdom fly the blue ensign, state flags should not be confused with the national flag as used by military organisations, these are referred to as war flags and naval ensigns. To avoid confusion with the first meaning of the term, such a flag would be more referred to as the flag of the state of X. For this usage, see also, Flags of the Australian states and territories Flags of Brazilian states Flags of the U. S.
states Flags of German states Znamierowski, the world encyclopedia of flags, The definitive guide to international flags, banners and ensigns
Flag of Hawaii
The flag of the state of Hawaii is the official flag symbolizing Hawaii as a U. S. state. The same flag had previously been used by the kingdom, republic. It is the only U. S. state flag to feature the flag of a country which is the Union flag of the United Kingdom. The canton of the flag of Hawaii contains the Union Flag of the United Kingdom, the field of the flag is composed of eight horizontal stripes, symbolizing the eight major islands. Other versions of the flag have only seven stripes, probably representing the islands with the exception of Kahoʻolawe or Niʻihau. The color of the stripes, from the top down, follows the sequence, red, white, blue, the colors were standardized in 1843, although other combinations have been seen and are occasionally still used. In 2001, a survey conducted by the North American Vexillological Association placed Hawaiis flag 11th in design quality out of the 72 Canadian provincial, U. S. state, there are various accounts of the earliest history of the flag of Hawaii.
One relates how King Kamehameha I flew a British flag, probably a Red Ensign, subsequent visitors reported seeing the flag flying from places of honor. This explains why the flag of Hawaii was a deliberate hybrid of the two nations flags. In 1816, Kamehameha commissioned his own flag to avoid this conflict and it was probably designed by one of the commanders of the Royal Hawaiian Navy, former officers of the British Royal Navy, who advised Kamehameha, based on a form of the British naval flag. There is debate as to the designer, some credit Alexander Adams. It was very similar to the flag of the British East India Company in use about this time which had only red, Captain Adams used this flag for the first time on a Hawaiian trade mission to China in 1817. The original flag was designed to feature stripes alternating in the order red-white-blue, there may have been possibly different versions of the flag with different numbers of stripes and colors. The number of stripes changed, the flag was designed with seven or nine horizontal stripes.
The latter arrangement was adopted and is used today, in 1990, Governor of Hawaii John Waihee proclaimed July 31 to be Ka Hae Hawaii Day, the Hawaiian Flag Day. It has been celebrated each year since then, the flag used by the governor of Hawaii is a red and blue bi-color. In the middle of the eight white stars appears the name of the state in all capital letters, during the time Hawaii was a United States territory, the letters in the middle of the flag were TH, which stood for Territory of Hawaii. List of Hawaii state symbols Seal of Hawaii Constitutional Provisions for the Display of Ka Hae Hawaii Hawaii at Flags of the World
Flag of Georgia (U.S. state)
The current flag of the state of Georgia was adopted on May 8,2003. The flag bears three stripes consisting of red-white-red, and a canton containing a ring of 13 white stars encompassing the states coat of arms in gold. In the coat of arms, the arch symbolizes the states constitution, within the arms, a sword is drawn to represent the defense of the states constitution. An additional motto, In God We Trust, is positioned underneath these elements acting as the states foundation, the ring of stars that encompass the states coat of arms symbolize Georgias status as one of the original Thirteen Colonies. The design principle is based on the first national flag of the Confederacy, the 1879 flag was introduced by Georgia state senator Herman H. Perry and was adopted to memorialize Confederate soldiers during the American Civil War. Perry was a colonel in the Confederate army during the war. Over the following decades, the flag was changed by adding, at the time, opposition to changing the flag came from various sides, including from Confederate historical groups like the United Daughters of the Confederacy. S.
Pledge of Allegiance, which states that the U. S. was one nation, opponents to the flags change said that there was nothing wrong with the 1920 flag and that people were content with it. Others opposed changing the flag out of the burden it would place on those who would have to purchase a new flag to replace the outdated one. Board of Education and pro-segregationist comments by then-Governor Marvin Griffin, such as The rest of the nation is looking to Georgia for the lead in segregation. Political pressure for a change in the state flag increased during the 1990s. In 1992, Governor Zell Miller announced his intention to get the battle flag element removed, the matter was dropped after the 1993 legislative session. Many Atlanta residents and some Georgia politicians refused to fly the 1956 flag, millers successor as governor, Roy Barnes, responded to the increasing calls for a new state flag, and in 2001 hurried a replacement through the Georgia General Assembly. Those flags are a thirteen-star U. S.
flag of the Betsy Ross design, the first Georgia flag, the 1920–1956 Georgia flag, the state flag. In a 2001 survey on state and provincial flags in North America conducted by the North American Vexillological Association, the group stated that the flag violates all the principles of good flag design. After the 1956 state flag was replaced in 2001, the Georgia city of Trenton adopted a version as its official city flag. In 2002, Sonny Perdue was elected Governor of Georgia, partially on a platform of allowing Georgians to choose their own flag in a state referendum and he authorized the Georgia legislature to draft a new flag in 2003. Perdue signed the legislation into law on May 8,2003, the 2003 flag legislation authorized a public referendum on which of the two most recent flags would be adopted as the flag of the state
Daughters of the American Revolution
The Daughters of the American Revolution is a lineage-based membership service organization for women who are directly descended from a person involved in the United States struggle for independence. A non-profit group, they work to promote preservation, education. It currently has approximately 180,000 members in the United States and its motto is God and Country. The DAR is a white organization with a record of excluding African American women. In 1889 the centennial of President George Washingtons inauguration was celebrated, out of the renewed interest in United States history, numerous patriotic and preservation societies were founded. The first meeting of the society was held August 9,1890, the first DAR chapter was organized on October 11,1890, at the Strathmore Arms, the home of Mary Smith Lockwood, one of the DARs four co-founders. Other founders were Eugenia Washington, a great-grandniece of George Washington, Ellen Hardin Walworth and they had held organizational meetings in August 1890.
The First Lady, Caroline Lavina Scott Harrison, wife of President Benjamin Harrison, lent her prestige to the founding of DAR, having initiated a renovation of the White House, she was interested in historic preservation. She helped establish the goals of DAR, which was incorporated by charter in 1896. This was in addition to fraternal and civic organizations flourishing in this period. The DAR chapters raised funds to initiate a number of historic preservation and they began a practice of installing markers at the graves of Revolutionary War veterans to indicate their service, and adding small flags at their gravesites on Memorial Day. Other activities included commissioning and installing monuments to battles and other related to the War. The DAR recognized women patriots contributions as well as those of soldiers, for instance, they installed a monument at the site of a spring where Polly Hawkins Craig and other women got water to use against flaming arrows, in the defense of Bryan Station.
In addition to installing markers and monuments, DAR chapters have purchased and operated historic houses, see DAR Historic Sites and Database for a map and database of DAR sites. Washington, D. C. had segregated facilities under laws established by a Southern-dominated Congress, in 1945, African-American jazz singer Hazel Scott was excluded from performing at Constitution Hall. In October 1945, the DAR invited First Lady Bess Truman to a tea at the hall, congressman Powell protested and asked Truman not to attend the tea. She chose to go, but said publicly that she opposed discrimination, the White House received letters asking Bess Truman to resign from the DAR in protest of their policy, she declined to do so. Other letters supported her having attended the tea, the DAR did not officially reverse its white performers only policy until 1952
Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought
Dialogue, A Journal of Mormon Thought is an independent quarterly journal of Mormon thought that addresses a wide range of issues on Mormonism and the Latter Day Saint Movement. The journal publishes peer-reviewed academic articles that run the gamut from anthropology and sociology to theology, the journal publishes fiction and graphic arts. Dialogue authors regularly include both members of the Mormon community and non-Mormon scholars interested in Mormon Studies, douglas Davies and Jan Shipps are some of the non-Mormon academics that publish in Dialogue. Examples of Mormon authors are Eugene England, Richard Bushman, Claudia Bushman, Gregory Prince, Dialogue, A Journal of Mormon Thought, is the oldest independent journal in Mormon Studies. Dialogue was originally the creation of a group of young Mormon scholars at Stanford University led by Eugene England, Dialogues original offices were located at Stanford. Brent Rushforth aided in Dialogues initiation, Cherry Silver, Karen Rosenbaum, and Laurel Thatcher Ulrich.
Dialogue is known for publishing groundbreaking articles from respected Mormon scholars and writers such as Armand Mauss, Hugh Nibley, Lester Bush, and D. Michael Quinn. Two key sponsors and advisors from the beginning were Lowell L. Bennion, of the LDS Institute at the University of Utah, Dialogue has nevertheless remained totally independent of church auspices over the years thanks to loyal readers and the generosity of its donors. The founding and subsequent editorial boards have been composed mainly of scholars, the Mormon History Association was founded in 1966, and for the first 6–7 years of its existence, MHA members published their Mormon-related studies principally in Dialogue. MHA founded the Journal of Mormon History, since then and The Journal of Mormon History, along with BYU Studies Quarterly have been some of the main venues for historical studies of Mormonism. Both BYU Studies Quarterly and Sunstone Magazine are periodicals that, like Dialogue, in 2005 Dialogue dipped its toe into the Bloggernacle with several of its editorial and board members participating as long-term guest contributors to the Mormon blog By Common Consent.
Then in early 2006 Dialogue introduced Dialogue Paperless at Dialoguejournal. com, with sections for ePapers, Letters, the e-Papers section intended to supplement the printed journal by housing digital documents that qualify as papers. complete pieces, duly refereed and edited and hitherto unpublished. In 2005, Dialogue received 1,332 responses to a subscriber survey, Dialogue reports the following responses, The geographic location of respondents was, California, other Western states—Rockies to the Coast, the Northeast, elsewhere. Less than 1% lived outside the U. S. though there is indication that the availability of the on-line subscriptions may be changing the level of international readership. The terminal education degree of respondents was, doctoral degree, Master’s, Bachelor’s degree, 66% of respondents attend worship service every week, another 12% attend “most weeks”. 59% of today’s readers are returned missionaries, 90% of respondents are members of the LDS Church. Around 6% of respondents described themselves as having left the LDS Church, 81% of respondents either “strongly” or “somewhat” agreed that Dialogue contributes to their personal spiritual or religious enrichment.
84% of respondents viewed the Book of Mormon as “authentic in any sense. ”In collaboration with the University of Utahs J. Willard Marriott Library, the librarys Special Collections now hosts the digital archive in pdf and text-searchable form
Flags of the U.S. states and territories
The flags of the U. S. states and federal district exhibit a variety of regional influences and local histories, as well as different styles and design principles. Nonetheless, the majority of the states share the same design pattern consisting of the state seal superimposed on a monochrome background. The most recent current state flag is that of Utah, while the most recent current territorial flag is that of the Northern Mariana Islands. Modern U. S. state flags date from the 1890s, most U. S. state flags were designed and adopted between 1893 and World War I. Dates in parentheses denote when the current flag was adopted by the states legislature and these are the current flags of the federal district and territories of the United States. Dates in parenthesis denote when the district or territorys current flag was adopted by its respective political body, the U. S. national flag is the official flag for all islands and reefs composing the United States Minor Outlying Islands. However, unofficial flags are in use on five of these nine areas, Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island.
Maine and Massachusetts have ensigns differing from the flag for use at sea
Glossary of vexillology
Flag terminology is the nomenclature, or system of terms, used in vexillology, the study of flags, to describe precisely the parts and other attributes of flags and their display. Badge A coat of arms or simple heraldic symbol, canton Any quarter of a flag, but commonly means the upper hoist quarter, such as the field of stars in the flag of the United States or the Union Jack in the Australian Flag. Charge A figure or symbol appearing in the field of a flag, emblem A device often used as a charge on a flag. It may be heraldic in origin or modern, for example the maple leaf on the Canadian Flag, field The background of a flag, the color behind the charges. Fimbriation A narrow edging or border, often in white or gold, for example the white and gold lines of the South African Flag. Fly The half or edge of a flag farthest away from the flagpole and this term sometimes refers to the horizontal length of a flag. Hoist The half or edge of a flag nearest to the flagpole and this term sometimes refers to the vertical width of a flag.
Length The span of a flag along the side at right angles to the flagpole, width The span of a flag down the side parallel to the flagpole. Flags often inherit traits seen in traditional European heraldry designs and as a result patterns often share names, banderole or bannerol A small flag or streamer carried on the lance of a knight, or a long narrow flag flying from the mast-head of a ship. Banner Generically, a synonym for a flag of any kind, in heraldry, a flag whose design is the same as the shield in a coat of arms, but usually in a square or rectangular shape, known as a banner of arms. Burgee A distinguishing flag of a recreational boating organisation, Civil ensign, merchant flag or merchant ensign A version of the national flag flown by civil ships to denote nationality. Civil flag A version of the flag flown by civilians on non-government installations or craft. Colour or color The flag of a military unit, courtesy flag or courtesy ensign A flag flown by a visiting ship in foreign waters as a token of respect.
Ensign The flag of a ship or military unit, may be used generically as a synonym for a flag of any kind. Fanion A small flag used by the French military, gonfanon or gonfalone A type of heraldic flag suspended from a crossbar. Guidon A small flag borne by a military unit, in Scots heraldry, a smaller version of the Standard. Pennon or pennant A flag larger at the hoist than at the fly, pipe banner A decorative flag for the Scottish Highland bagpipes. Prayer flag A type of flag found strung along mountain ridges and peaks in the Himalayas, rank flag or distinguishing flag The flag flown by a superior naval officer on his flagship or headquarters