Capture of Fort Ticonderoga
The Capture of Fort Ticonderoga occurred during the American Revolutionary War on May 10, 1775, when a small force of Green Mountain Boys led by Ethan Allen and Colonel Benedict Arnold surprised and captured the fort's small British garrison. The cannons and other armaments were transported to Boston by Colonel Henry Knox and used to fortify Dorchester Heights and break the standoff at the Siege of Boston. Capture of the fort marked the beginning of offensive action taken by the Americans against the British. After seizing Ticonderoga, a small detachment captured the nearby Fort Crown Point on May 11. Seven days Arnold and 50 men intrepidly raided Fort Saint-Jean on the Richelieu River in southern Quebec, seizing military supplies and the largest military vessel on Lake Champlain. Although the scope of this military action was minor, it had significant strategic importance, it impeded communication between northern and southern units of the British Army, gave the nascent Continental Army a staging ground for the invasion of Quebec in 1775.
It involved two larger-than-life personalities in Allen and Arnold, each of whom sought to gain as much credit and honor as possible for these events. Most in an effort led by Henry Knox, artillery from Ticonderoga would be dragged across Massachusetts to the heights commanding Boston Harbor, forcing the British to withdraw from that city. In 1775, Fort Ticonderoga's location did not appear to be as strategically important as it had been in the French and Indian War, when the French famously defended it against a much larger British force in the 1758 Battle of Carillon, when the British captured it in 1759. After the 1763 Treaty of Paris, in which the French ceded their North American territories to the British, the fort was no longer on the frontier of two great empires, guarding the principal waterway between them; the French had blown up the fort's powder magazine when they abandoned the fort, it had fallen further into disrepair since then. In 1775 it was garrisoned by only a small detachment of the 26th Regiment of Foot, consisting of two officers and forty-six men, with many of them "invalids".
Twenty-five women and children lived there as well. Because of its former significance, Fort Ticonderoga still had a high reputation as the "gateway to the continent" or the "Gibraltar of America", but in 1775 it was, according to historian Christopher Ward, "more like a backwoods village than a fort."Even before shooting started in the American Revolutionary War, American Patriots were concerned about Fort Ticonderoga. The fort was a valuable asset for several reasons. Within its walls was a collection of heavy artillery including cannons and mortars, armaments that the Americans had in short supply; the fort was situated on the shores of Lake Champlain, a strategically important route between the Thirteen Colonies and the British-controlled northern provinces. British forces placed. After the war began with the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775, the British General Thomas Gage realized the fort would require fortification, several colonists had the idea of capturing the fort.
Gage, writing from the besieged city of Boston following Lexington and Concord, instructed Quebec's governor, General Guy Carleton, to rehabilitate and refortify the forts at Ticonderoga and Crown Point. Carleton did not receive this letter until May 19. Benedict Arnold had traveled through the area around the fort, was familiar with its condition and armaments. En route to Boston following news of the events of April 19, he mentioned the fort and its condition to members of Silas Deane's militia; the Connecticut Committee of Correspondence acted on this information. John Brown, an American spy from Pittsfield, Massachusetts who had carried correspondence between revolutionary committees in the Boston area and Patriot supporters in Montreal, was well aware of the fort and its strategic value. Ethan Allen and other Patriots in the disputed New Hampshire Grants territory recognized the fort's value, as it played a role in the dispute over that area between New York and New Hampshire. Whether either took or instigated action prior to the Connecticut Colony's recruitment efforts is unclear.
Brown had notified the Massachusetts Committee of Safety in March of his opinion that Ticonderoga "must be seized as soon as possible should hostilities be committed by the King's Troops."When Arnold arrived outside Boston, he told the Massachusetts Committee of Safety about the cannons and other military equipment at the defended fort. On May 3, the Committee gave Arnold a colonel's commission and authorized him to command a "secret mission", to capture the fort, he was issued £100, some gunpowder and horses, instructed to recruit up to 400 men, march on the fort, ship back to Massachusetts anything he thought useful. Arnold departed after receiving his instructions, he was accompanied by two captains, Eleazer Oswald and Jonathan Brown, who were charged with recruiting the necessary men. Arnold reached the border between Massachusetts and the Grants on May 6, where he learned of the recruitment efforts of the Connecticut Committee, that Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys were on their way north.
Riding furiously northward, he reached Allen's headquarters in Benni
Siege of Yorktown
The Siege of Yorktown known as the Battle of Yorktown, the Surrender at Yorktown, German Battle or the Siege of Little York, ending on October 19, 1781, at Yorktown, was a decisive victory by a combined force of American Continental Army troops led by General George Washington and French Army troops led by the Comte de Rochambeau over a British Army commanded by British peer and Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis. The culmination of the Yorktown campaign, the siege proved to be the last major land battle of the American Revolutionary War in the North American theater, as the surrender by Cornwallis, the capture of both him and his army, prompted the British government to negotiate an end to the conflict; the battle boosted faltering American morale and revived French enthusiasm for the war, as well as undermining popular support for the conflict in Great Britain. In 1780, about 5,500 French soldiers landed in Rhode Island to help their American allies fight the British troops who controlled New York City.
Following the arrival of dispatches from France that included the possibility of support from the French West Indies fleet of the Comte de Grasse and Rochambeau decided to ask de Grasse for assistance either in besieging New York, or in military operations against a British army operating in Virginia. On the advice of Rochambeau, de Grasse informed them of his intent to sail to the Chesapeake Bay, where Cornwallis had taken command of the army. Cornwallis, at first given confusing orders by his superior officer, Henry Clinton, was ordered to build a defensible deep-water port, which he began to do in Yorktown. Cornwallis' movements in Virginia were shadowed by a Continental Army force led by the Marquis de Lafayette; the French and American armies united north of New York City during the summer of 1781. When word of de Grasse's decision arrived, both armies began moving south toward Virginia, engaging in tactics of deception to lead the British to believe a siege of New York was planned. De Grasse sailed from the West Indies and arrived at the Chesapeake Bay at the end of August, bringing additional troops and creating a naval blockade of Yorktown.
He was transporting 500,000 silver pesos collected from the citizens of Havana, Cuba, to fund supplies for the siege and payroll for the Continental Army. While in Santo Domingo, de Grasse met with Francisco Saavedra de Sangronis, an agent of Carlos III of Spain. De Grasse had planned to leave several of his warships in Santo Domingo. Saavedra promised the assistance of the Spanish navy to protect the French merchant fleet, enabling de Grasse to sail north with all of his warships. In the beginning of September, he defeated a British fleet led by Sir Thomas Graves that came to relieve Cornwallis at the Battle of the Chesapeake; as a result of this victory, de Grasse blocked any escape by sea for Cornwallis. By late September and Rochambeau arrived, the army and naval forces surrounded Cornwallis. After initial preparations, the Americans and French built their first parallel and began the bombardment. With the British defense weakened, on October 14, 1781, Washington sent two columns to attack the last major remaining British outer defenses.
A French column under Wilhelm of the Palatinate-Zweibrücken took Redoubt No. 9 and an American column under Alexander Hamilton took Redoubt No. 10. With these defenses taken, the allies were able to finish their second parallel. With the American artillery closer and its bombardment more intense than the British position began to deteriorate rapidly. Cornwallis asked for capitulation terms on October 17. After two days of negotiation, the surrender ceremony occurred on October 19. With the capture of more than 7,000 British soldiers, negotiations between the United States and Great Britain began, resulting in the Treaty of Paris of 1783. On December 20, 1780, Benedict Arnold sailed from New York with 1,500 troops to Portsmouth, Virginia, he first raided Richmond, defeating the defending militia, from January 5–7 before falling back to Portsmouth. Admiral Destouches, who arrived in Newport, Rhode Island in July 1780 with a fleet transporting 5,500 soldiers, was encouraged by Washington and French Lieutenant General Rochambeau to move his fleet south, launch a joint land-naval attack on Arnold's troops.
The Marquis de Lafayette was sent south with 1,200 men to help with the assault. However, Destouches was reluctant to dispatch many ships, in February sent only three. After they proved ineffective, he took a larger force of 8 ships in March 1781, fought a tactically inconclusive battle with the British fleet of Marriot Arbuthnot at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay. Destouches withdrew due to the damage sustained to his fleet, leaving Arbuthnot and the British fleet in control of the bay's mouth. On March 26, Arnold was joined by 2,300 troops under command of Major General William Phillips, who took command of the combined forces. Phillips resumed raiding, defeating the militia at Blandford burning the tobacco warehouses at Petersburg on April 25. Richmond was about to suffer the same fate; the British, not wanting to engage in a major battle, withdrew to Petersburg on May 10. On May 20, Charles Cornwallis arrived at Petersburg with 1,500 men after suffering heavy casualties at the Battle of Guilford Courthouse.
He assumed command, as Phillips had died of a fever. Cornwallis had not received permission to abandon the Carolinas from his superior, Henry Clinton, but he believed that Virginia would be easier to capture, feeling that it would approve of an invading British army. With the arrival of Cornwallis and more reinforcements from New York, the British Army numbered 7,200 men. Cornwallis wanted to push Lafayette, whose force now
Battle of Churubusco
The Battle of Churubusco took place on August 20, 1847, while Santa Anna's army was in retreat from the Battle of Contreras or Battle of Padierna during the Mexican–American War. It was the battle where the San Patricio Battalion, made up of American deserters, made their last stand against U. S. forces. The U. S. Army was victorious. After the battle, the U. S. Army was only 5 miles away from Mexico City. About 50 of the captured San Patricio's were hanged. Following their defeats at Contreras Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón ordered Major General Nicolás Bravo Rueda with the Army of the Center to retreat from San Antonio to Churubusco. Santa Anna ordered Major General Manuel Rincón to hold the Franciscan Convent of San Mateo in Churubusco, with earthworks and seven guns, placed General Francisco Pérez on the tete-de-pont on the south bank of the river. Two regiments were placed along the river while the convent included the Bravo Battalions of the Mexico City National Guard and the San Patricio Battalion, plus Santa Anna formed a reserve along the highway to the north.
Scott sent David Twiggs and Gideon Johnson Pillow's Divisions from San Angel to Coyoacán, while he ordered William Jenkins Worth to turn the San Antonio position. Worth sent Colonel Newman S. Clarke's Brigade and Lieutenant Colonel Charles Ferguson Smith's Light Battalion across the Pedregal lava field to the west of San Antonio, while Colonel John Garland faced San Antonio on the south. During retreat from San Antonio, the Mexican defenders, were struck in flank by Clarke's Brigade. Garland moved forward as the Mexicans withdrew from San Antonio and captured a General and four guns. Scott ordered an attack on the convent. In addition to the stone walls of the convent, the defenses included a series of incomplete trenches the Mexicans had begun digging prior to the attack; some elements of the Tlapa and Lagos Battalions arrived as reinforcements. Three cannon were placed on the right. Independencia was assigned to defend the upper walls, the right flank leading to the bridge, the unfortified south and north sides, two adobe huts further forward on the battlefield.
The Bravos and the San Patricios were stationed behind barricades. In support along the Rio Churubusco was the Pérez Brigade: 2,500 men. Worth's division took while Twiggs' the convent. Rincón's gunners were able to force Taylor's battery to withdraw, Perez's defense on the tete-de-ponte twice repulsed Major Benjamin Louis Eulalie de Bonneville's 6th Infantry charge; the attack by Franklin Pierce and James Shields, crossing the river on the Coyoacan-Mixcoac road in an attempt to cut off the Mexican retreat, was stopped. However, Worth turned the Mexican left and crossed the river, while the 8th and 5th Infantry took the tete de pont. Captain Duncan set up a battery to attack the convent. Two of the Mexican cannons had melted and a third had fallen from its mount. Lieutenant Colonel Francisco Peñúñuri of Independencia led a handful of men in a bayonet charge and was defeated, he and Captain Luis Martínez de Castro, who had accompanied him, were killed in the battle. Officers from the Bravos attempted to raise the white flag over the convent walls on three occasions.
They were prevented from doing so, however, by members of the San Patricios who feared the fate that awaited them if they were taken prisoner. They were captured and court-marshaled for desertion, including the leader, John Patrick Riley. U. S. Captain James Milton Smith stopped the fighting by putting up a white handkerchief; the Americans captured three pieces of artillery at the tete de pont. They captured 1,259 prisoners, including three Generals and the San Patricios leader Lieutenant Colonel Francisco Rosenda Moreno, plus seven pieces of artillery at the convent, they captured another 380 prisoners further up the road. Seventy-two men of the San Patricios Battalion were court-marshaled by the United States Army as deserters. Two separate court-marshals were held, one at Tacubaya on 23 August, another at San Ángel on 26 August. Fifty were sentenced having deserted after war had been declared; those who had deserted earlier received 50 lashes. Scott did not continue the pursuit into Mexico City, "...willing to leave something to this republic...
I halted our victorious corps at the gates of the city."A Brigade of volunteers from New York was billeted to the convent, remaining there until September 7. Parts of the battle were portrayed in the 1985 ABC mini-series North and South, based on a trilogy of novels of the same name by John Jakes, as well as the film One Man's Hero. Balbontin, Manuel " Recuerdos de la invasion norte-americana, 1846-1848. Annual Reports 1894, War Department lists trophy guns as:1- 16 pounder bronze, 4- 8 pounders, 4- 6 pounders and 3- 4 pounders. A Continent Divided: The U. S. - Mexico War, Center for Greater Southwestern Studies, the University of Texas at Arlington
Battle of Lundy's Lane
The Battle of Lundy's Lane was a battle of the Anglo-American War of 1812, which took place on 25 July 1814, in present-day Niagara Falls, Ontario. It was one of the bloodiest battles of the war, one of the deadliest battles fought in Canada; the battle was a tactical draw with both sides left on the battlefield but a British strategic victory because the Americans had suffered so many casualties that they were now outnumbered and forced to withdraw. There were over 1,500 casualties including 258 killed. On 3 July 1814 an American army under Major General Jacob Brown launched an attack across the Niagara River near its source on Lake Erie, his force captured the British position at Fort Erie and advanced north. Two days one of his two brigades of regular U. S. Infantry under Brigadier General Winfield Scott defeated a British force commanded by Major General Phineas Riall at the Battle of Chippawa. A few days after the battle Brown outflanked the British defences along the Chippawa River and the British fell back to Fort George near the mouth of the Niagara on Lake Ontario.
Brown lacked the necessary troops and heavy artillery to attack this position. At the time a British naval squadron controlled the lake. Commodore Isaac Chauncey, commander of the American ships based at Sackett's Harbor, New York, was waiting for new frigates and armed brigs to be completed before he could challenge the British squadron; when these were ready to sail, the American squadron was further delayed in port when Chauncey fell ill. As a result, no reinforcements or heavy guns could be sent to Brown while the British were able to move several units across the lake from York to reinforce Fort George. For most of July, Brown's army occupied Queenston a few miles south of Fort George. In this forward position they were harassed by First Nations. On 24 July Brown fell back to the Chippawa River intending to secure his supplies before advancing west to Burlington; as soon as Brown retired, British light infantry and militia under Major General Riall advanced to Lundy's Lane 4 miles north of the Chippawa to allow light troops to maintain contact with the American main force.
Early on 25 July, the British Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada, Lieutenant General Gordon Drummond, arrived in Fort George to take personal command on the Niagara peninsula. He ordered a force under Lieutenant Colonel John Tucker to advance south from Fort Niagara along the east side of the Niagara River, hoping this would force Brown to evacuate the west bank. Instead, Brown ordered an advance north, intending in turn to force the British to recall Tucker's column to protect Fort George; the Americans did not know that the British held Lundy's Lane in strength. As soon as Riall knew the Americans were advancing, he ordered his troops to fall back to Fort George and ordered another column under Colonel Hercules Scott to move from St. Davids to Queenston to cover his withdrawal, rather than advance to his support; these orders were countermanded by Drummond, who had force-marched a detachment of reinforcements to Lundy's Lane from Fort George. The British were still reoccupying their positions when the first American units came into view, at about 6:00 pm.
Lundy's Lane was a spur from the main portage road alongside the Niagara River. It therefore commanded good views of the area; the British artillery was massed in a cemetery at the highest point of the battlefield. The American 1st Brigade of regulars under Winfield Scott emerged in the late afternoon from a forest into an open field and were badly mauled by the British artillery. Scott sent the 25th U. S. Infantry, commanded by Major Thomas Jesup, to outflank the British left; the 25th found a disused track leading to a landing stage on the river, used it to pass round the British flank. They caught the British and Canadian units there while they were redeploying and unaware of the American presence, drove them back in confusion; the British and Canadians had been driven off the Portage Road. Jesup sent Captain Ketchum's light infantry company to secure the junction of Lundy's Lane and the Portage Road. Ketchum's company captured large numbers of wounded and messengers, including Major General Riall, wounded in one arm and was riding to the rear.
Most of the prisoners escaped when Ketchum himself, having rejoined Jesup, ran into an enemy unit while trying to return to the main body of the American army, although Riall and militia cavalry leader Captain William Hamilton Merritt remained prisoners. Jesup's action and the steadiness of Scott's brigade persuaded Drummond to withdraw his centre to maintain alignment with his left flank, pull back the Glengarry Light Infantry, harassing Scott's own left flank; the withdrawal of Drummond's centre left the artillery exposed in front of the infantry. By nightfall, Scott's brigade had suffered heavy casualties, but Brown had arrived with the American main body; as Ripley and Porter relieved Scott's brigade, Brown ordered the 21st U. S. Infantry under Lieutenant Colonel James Miller to capture the British guns. Miller famously responded, "I'll try, Sir". While the British were distracted by another attack by the 1st U. S. Infant
Battle of Germantown
The Battle of Germantown was a major engagement in the Philadelphia campaign of the American Revolutionary War. It was fought on October 4, 1777, at Germantown, between the British Army led by Sir William Howe, the American Continental Army, with the 2nd Canadian Regiment, under George Washington. After defeating the Continental Army at the Battle of Brandywine on September 11, the Battle of Paoli on September 20, Howe outmaneuvered Washington, seizing Philadelphia, the capital of the United States, on September 26. Howe left a garrison of some 3,000 troops in Philadelphia, while moving the bulk of his force to Germantown an outlying community to the city. Learning of the division, Washington determined to engage the British, his plan called for four separate columns to converge on the British position at Germantown. The two flanking columns were composed of 3,000 militia, while the centre-left, under Nathanael Greene, the centre-right under John Sullivan, the reserve under Lord Stirling were made up of regular troops.
The ambition behind the plan was to surprise and destroy the British force, much in the same way as Washington had surprised and decisively defeated the Hessians at Trenton. In Germantown, Howe had the 40th Foot spread across his front as pickets. In the main camp, Wilhelm von Knyphausen commanded the British left, while Howe himself led the British right. A heavy fog caused a great deal of confusion among the approaching Americans. After a sharp contest, Sullivan's column routed the British pickets. Unseen in the fog, around 120 men of the British 40th Foot barricaded the Chew Mansion; when the American reserve moved forward, Washington made the erroneous decision to launch repeated assaults on the position, all of which failed with heavy casualties. Penetrating several hundred yards beyond the mansion, Sullivan's wing became dispirited, running low on ammunition and hearing cannon fire behind them; as they withdrew, Anthony Wayne's division collided with part of Greene's late-arriving wing in the fog.
Mistaking each other for the enemy, they opened fire, both units retreated. Meanwhile, Greene's left-centre column threw back the British right. With Sullivan's column repulsed, the British left outflanked Greene's column; the two militia columns had only succeeded in diverting the attention of the British, had made no progress before they withdrew. Despite the defeat, France impressed by the American success at Saratoga, decided to lend greater aid to the Americans. Howe did not vigorously pursue the defeated Americans, instead turning his attention to clearing the Delaware River of obstacles at Red Bank and Fort Mifflin. After unsuccessfully attempting to draw Washington into combat at White Marsh, Howe withdrew to Philadelphia. Washington, his army intact, withdrew to Valley Forge, where he re-trained his forces; the Philadelphia campaign had begun badly for the Americans. Washington's Continental Army suffered a string of defeats at Cooch's Bridge and Paoli. After inflicting a stinging defeat on Anthony Wayne's division at Paoli on September 20, the British army marched north to Valley Forge west to the French Creek bridge.
At this point, Howe's right wing faced Fatland Ford on the Schuylkill River near Valley Forge while the left wing was opposite Gordon's Ford at French Creek and the left center faced Richardson's Ford. The American army defended all these Schuylkill crossings, plus one farther downstream at Swede's Ford near Norristown. On September 22, a small British force under Sir William Erskine feinted north and another force mounted a demonstration at Gordon's Ford. Howe's moves convinced Washington that the Britisher was trying to seize his supply base at Reading and turn his right flank. Washington moved north, they crossed the Schuylkill at Fatland and Richardson's Fords without opposition, after a brief rest, headed downstream toward Swede's Ford where the American militia abandoned three cannons. Charles Cornwallis subsequently seized Philadelphia for the British on September 26, dealing a blow to the revolutionary cause. Howe left a garrison of 3,462 men to defend the city, moving the bulk of his force north, some 9,728 men, to the outlying community of Germantown.
With the campaigning season drawing to a close, Howe determined to locate and destroy the main American army. Howe established his headquarters at the former country home of James Logan. Despite having suffered successive defeats, Washington saw an opportunity to entrap and decisively defeat the divided British army, he resolved to attack the Germantown garrison, as the last effort of the year before entering winter quarters. His plan called for a ambitious assault. Washington's hope was that the British would be surprised and overwhelmed much how the Hessians were at Trenton. Germantown was a hamlet of stone houses, spreading from what is now known as Mount Airy on the north, to what is now Market Square in the south. Extending southwest from Market Square was Schoolhouse Lane, running 1.5 miles to the point where Wissahickon Creek emptied from a steep gorge, into the Schuylkill River. Howe had established his main camp along the high ground of Church lanes; the western wing of the camp, under the command of Hessian general Wilhelm von Knyphausen, had a picket of two Jäger battalions, positioned on the high ground above the mouth of the Wissahickon to the far left.
A brigade of Hessians, two brigades of British regulars camped along Market Square. East of the Square, two British brigades under the command
Battle of Princeton
The Battle of Princeton was a battle of the American Revolutionary War, fought near Princeton, New Jersey on January 3, 1777 and ending in a small victory for the Colonials. General Lord Cornwallis had left 1,400 British troops under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Charles Mawhood in Princeton. Following a surprise attack at Trenton early in the morning of December 26, 1776, General George Washington of the Continental Army decided to attack the British in New Jersey before entering the winter quarters. On December 30, he crossed the Delaware River back into New Jersey, his troops followed on January 3, 1777. Washington advanced to Princeton by a back road, where he pushed back a smaller British force but had to retreat before Cornwallis arrived with reinforcements; the battles of Trenton and Princeton were a boost to the morale of the patriot cause, leading many recruits to join the Continental Army in the spring. After defeating the Hessians at the Battle of Trenton on the morning of December 26, 1776, Washington withdrew back to Pennsylvania.
He subsequently decided to attack the British forces before going into winter quarters. On December 29, he led his army back into Trenton. On the night of January 2, 1777, Washington repulsed a British attack at the Battle of the Assunpink Creek; that night, he evacuated his position, circled around General Lord Cornwallis' army, went to attack the British garrison at Princeton. On January 3, Brigadier General Hugh Mercer of the Continental Army clashed with two regiments under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Charles Mawhood of the British Army. Mercer and his troops were overrun, Mercer was mortally wounded. Washington sent a brigade of militia under Brigadier General John Cadwalader to help them; the militia, on seeing the flight of Mercer's men began to flee. Washington rallied the fleeing militia, he led the attack on Mawhood's troops, driving them back. Mawhood gave the order to retreat and most of the troops tried to flee to Cornwallis in Trenton. In Princeton itself, Brigadier General John Sullivan encouraged some British troops who had taken refuge in Nassau Hall to surrender, ending the battle.
After the battle, Washington moved his army to Morristown, with their third defeat in 10 days, the British evacuated southern New Jersey. With the victory at Princeton, morale rose in the American ranks and more men began to enlist in the army; the battle was the last major action of Washington's winter New Jersey campaign. On the night of December 25–26, 1776, General George Washington, Commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, led 2,400 men across the Delaware River. After a nine-mile march, they seized the town of Trenton on the morning of the 26th, killing or wounding over 100 Hessians and capturing 900 more. Soon after capturing the town, Washington led the army back across the Delaware into Pennsylvania. On the 29th, Washington once again led the army across the river, established a defensive position at Trenton. On the 31st, Washington appealed to his men, whose enlistments expired at the end of the year, "Stay for just six more weeks for an extra bounty of ten dollars." His appeal worked, most of the men agreed to stay.
That day, Washington learned that Congress had voted to give him wide-ranging powers for six months that are described as dictatorial. In response to the loss at Trenton, General Lord Cornwallis left New York City and reassembled a British force of more than 9,000 at Princeton to oppose Washington. Leaving 1,200 men under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Charles Mawhood at Princeton, Cornwallis left Princeton on January 2 in command of 8,000 men to attack Washington's army of 6,000 troops. Washington sent troops to skirmish with the approaching British to delay their advance, it was nightfall by the time the British reached Trenton. After three failed attempts to cross the bridge over the Assunpink Creek, beyond which were the primary American defenses, Cornwallis called off the attack until the next day. During the night, Washington called a council of war and asked his officers whether they should stand and fight, attempt to cross the river somewhere, or take the back roads to attack Princeton.
Although the idea had occurred to Washington, he learned from Arthur St. Clair and John Cadwalader that his plan to attack Princeton was indeed possible. Two intelligence collection efforts, both of which came to fruition at the end of December 1776, supported such a surprise attack. After consulting with his officers, they agreed. Washington ordered that the excess baggage be taken to Burlington where it could be sent to Pennsylvania; the ground had frozen. By midnight, the plan was complete, with the baggage on its way to Burlington and the guns wrapped in heavy cloth to stifle noise and prevent the British from learning of the evacuation. Washington left 500 men behind with two cannon to patrol, keep the fires burning, to work with picks and shovels to make the British think that they were digging in. Before dawn, these men were to join up with the main army. By 2:00 AM the entire army was in motion along Quaker Bridge Road through what is now Hamilton Township; the men were ordered to march with absolute silence.
Along the way, a rumor was spread that they were surrounded and some frightened militiamen fled for Philadelphia. The march was difficult, as some of the route ran through thick woods and it was icy, causing horses to slip, men to break through ice on ponds; as dawn came, the army approached. The road the army took followed Stony Brook for a mile farther until it intersected the Post Road from Trenton to Princeton
Hindu–Arabic numeral system
The Hindu–Arabic numeral system is a positional decimal numeral system, is the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world. It was invented between the 4th centuries by Indian mathematicians; the system was adopted in Arabic mathematics by the 9th century. Influential were the books of Al-Kindi; the system spread to medieval Europe by the High Middle Ages. The system is based upon ten glyphs; the symbols used to represent the system are in principle independent of the system itself. The glyphs in actual use are descended from Brahmi numerals and have split into various typographical variants since the Middle Ages; these symbol sets can be divided into three main families: Western Arabic numerals used in the Greater Maghreb and in Europe, Eastern Arabic numerals used in the Middle East, the Indian numerals used in the Indian subcontinent. The Hindu-Arabic numerals were invented by mathematicians in India. Perso-Arabic mathematicians called them "Hindu numerals", they came to be called "Arabic numerals" in Europe, because they were introduced to the West by Arab merchants.
The Hindu–Arabic system is designed for positional notation in a decimal system. In a more developed form, positional notation uses a decimal marker, a symbol for "these digits recur ad infinitum". In modern usage, this latter symbol is a vinculum. In this more developed form, the numeral system can symbolize any rational number using only 13 symbols. Although found in text written with the Arabic abjad, numbers written with these numerals place the most-significant digit to the left, so they read from left to right; the requisite changes in reading direction are found in text that mixes left-to-right writing systems with right-to-left systems. Various symbol sets are used to represent numbers in the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, most of which developed from the Brahmi numerals; the symbols used to represent the system have split into various typographical variants since the Middle Ages, arranged in three main groups: The widespread Western "Arabic numerals" used with the Latin and Greek alphabets in the table, descended from the "West Arabic numerals" which were developed in al-Andalus and the Maghreb.
The "Arabic–Indic" or "Eastern Arabic numerals" used with Arabic script, developed in what is now Iraq. A variant of the Eastern Arabic numerals is used in Urdu; the Indian numerals in use with scripts of the Brahmic family in India and Southeast Asia. Each of the dozen major scripts of India has its own numeral glyphs; as in many numbering systems, the numerals 1, 2, 3 represent simple tally marks. After three, numerals tend to become more complex symbols. Theorists believe that this is because it becomes difficult to instantaneously count objects past three; the Brahmi numerals at the basis of the system predate the Common Era. They replaced the earlier Kharosthi numerals used since the 4th century BC. Brahmi and Kharosthi numerals were used alongside one another in the Maurya Empire period, both appearing on the 3rd century BC edicts of Ashoka. Buddhist inscriptions from around 300 BC use the symbols that became 1, 4, 6. One century their use of the symbols that became 2, 4, 6, 7, 9 was recorded.
These Brahmi numerals are the ancestors of the Hindu–Arabic glyphs 1 to 9, but they were not used as a positional system with a zero, there were rather separate numerals for each of the tens. The actual numeral system, including positional notation and use of zero, is in principle independent of the glyphs used, younger than the Brahmi numerals; the place-value system is used in the Bakhshali Manuscript. Although date of the composition of the manuscript is uncertain, the language used in the manuscript indicates that it could not have been composed any than 400; the development of the positional decimal system takes its origins in Hindu mathematics during the Gupta period. Around 500, the astronomer Aryabhata uses the word kha to mark "zero" in tabular arrangements of digits; the 7th century Brahmasphuta Siddhanta contains a comparatively advanced understanding of the mathematical role of zero. The Sanskrit translation of the lost 5th century Prakrit Jaina cosmological text Lokavibhaga may preserve an early instance of positional use of zero.
These Indian developments were taken up in Islamic mathematics in the 8th century, as recorded in al-Qifti's Chronology of the scholars. The numeral system came to be known to both the Persian mathematician Khwarizmi, who wrote a book, On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals in about 825, the Arab mathematician Al-Kindi, who wrote four volumes, On the Use of the Hindu Numerals around 830; these earlier texts did not use the Hindu numerals. Kushyar ibn L