Emergency evacuation is the urgent immediate egress or escape of people away from an area that contains an imminent threat, an ongoing threat or a hazard to lives or property. Examples range from the small-scale evacuation of a building due to a storm or fire to the large-scale evacuation of a city because of a flood, bombardment or approaching weather system. In situations involving hazardous materials or possible contamination, evacuees may be decontaminated prior to being transported out of the contaminated area. Evacuations may be carried out before, during or after disasters such as: Natural disasters eruptions of volcanoes, tropical cyclones floods, earthquakes tsunamis or wildfires/bushfiresOther reasons include: industrial accidents, chemical spill nuclear accident traffic accidents, including train or aviation accidents, military attacks, terrorist attacks military battles imminent nuclear war structural failure viral outbreak Emergency evacuation plans are developed to ensure the safest and most efficient evacuation time of all expected residents of a structure, city, or region.
A benchmark "evacuation time" for different hazards and conditions is established. These benchmarks can be established through using best practices, regulations, or using simulations, such as modeling the flow of people in a building, to determine the benchmark. Proper planning will use multiple exits, contra-flow lanes, special technologies to ensure full and complete evacuation. Consideration for personal situations which may affect an individual's ability to evacuate is taken into account, including alarm signals that use both aural and visual alerts, evacuation equipment such as sleds and chairs for non-ambulatory people. Considering the persons with a disability during an emergency evacuation is important; this is because it is crucial that every user gets out of the building or to a safe place in the building, thus the persons with disabilities or the non- ambulatory people. Regulations such as building codes can be used to minimize the negative consequences of the threat triggering the evacuation and optimize the need to self-evacuate without causing alarm.
Proper planning, that covers designated actions to ensure safety of the users in emergencies, will implement an all-hazards approach so that plans can be reused for multiple hazards that could exist. Therefore, key elements for emergency planning and preparedness are early warnings for the people inside the building by emergency helpers but voice assistance, facilities to leave the building safe and fast, such as exit routes and good evacuation practices; the evacuation managing team must know which actions to take. Furthermore, the above-mentioned key elements are bounded with the human behavior types, awareness of the layout, crucial item in emergency evacuation for maritime transportation and the prompt reactions of first respondents; the sequence of an evacuation can be divided into the following phases: detection decision alarm reaction movement to an area of refuge or an assembly station transportationThe time for the first four phases is called pre-movement time. The particular phases are different for different objects, e.g. for ships a distinction between assembly and embarkation is made.
These are separate from each other. The decision whether to enter the boats or rafts is thus made after assembly is completed; the strategy of individuals in evacuating buildings was investigated by John Abrahams in 1994. The independent variables were the complexity of the building and the movement ability of the individuals. With increasing complexity and decreasing motion ability, the strategy changes from "fast egress", through "slow egress" and "move to safe place inside building", to "stay in place and wait for help"; the third strategy is the notion of using a designated "safe haven" on the floor. This is a section of the building, reinforced to protect against specific hazards, such as fire, smoke or structural collapse; some hazards may have safe havens on each floor, while a hazard such as a tornado, may have a single safe haven or safe room. Persons with limited mobility are requested to report to a safe haven for rescue by first responders. In most buildings, the safe haven will be in the stairwell.
By investing the strategy of individuals in evacuating buildings, the variable human reactions is a complex factor to take into account during an evacuation. This is a critical factor for escaping fast out of the building or to a "safe haven". During an emergency evacuation, people do not react after hearing the alarm signal; this is. Therefore, they will start evacuating when there is more information given about the degree of danger. During an evacuation, people use the most known escape route, this is the route through which they entered the building. Thereby, people adapt the role follower in emergencies; these human reactions will determinate the strategy of individuals in evacuating buildings. The most common equipment in buildings to facilitate emergency evacuations are fire alarms, exit signs, emergency lights; some structures need special emergency exits or fire escapes to ensure the availability of alternative escape paths. Commercial passenger vehicles such as buses and aircraft often have evacuation lighting and signage, in some cases windows or extra doors that function as emergency exits.
Commercial emergency aircraft evacuation is facilitated by evacuation slides and pre-flight safety briefings. Military aircraft are equipped with ejection seats or parachutes. Water vessels and commercial aircraft that fly over wat
Henry Morrison Flagler was an American industrialist and a founder of Standard Oil, first based in Ohio. He was a key figure in the development of the Atlantic coast of Florida and founder of what became the Florida East Coast Railway, he is known as Palm Beach, Florida. Flagler was born in Hopewell, New York, the son of Isaac Flagler, a Presbyterian minister and his wife, the widowed Elizabeth Caldwell Harkness, she had brought two sons to the marriage with Flagler from her previous marriage to the widower Dr. David Harkness of Milan, Ohio, his son by his first marriage, Stephen V. Harkness, became Elizabeth's stepson. Together David and Elizabeth had a son Daniel M. Harkness before his death, he was of paternal German descent from the Palatinate region. The immigrant ancestor was Zacharra Flegler who first settled in Walworth and left for America arriving in New York in 1710 settling in Dutchess County, it was a grandson Solomon Flagler. Solomon had eleven children including Henry's father. Flagler attended local schools through eighth-grade.
His half-brother Daniel had left Hopewell to live and work with his paternal uncle Lamon G. Harkness, who had a store in Republic, Ohio, he recruited Henry Flagler to join him, the youth went to Ohio at age 14, where he started work in 1844 at a salary of US$5 per month plus room and board. By 1849, Flagler was promoted to the sales staff at a salary of $40 per month, he joined Daniel in a grain business started with his uncle Lamon in Bellevue, Ohio. In 1862, Flagler and his brother-in-law Barney York founded the Flagler and York Salt Company, a salt mining and production business in Saginaw, Michigan, he found that salt mining required more technical knowledge than he had and struggled in the industry during the Civil War. The company collapsed. Flagler returned to Bellevue having lost his initial $50,000 investment and an additional $50,000 he had borrowed from his father-in-law and Daniel. Flagler believed that he had learned a valuable lesson: invest in a business only after thorough investigation.
After the failure of his salt business in Saginaw, Flagler returned to Bellevue in 1866 and reentered the grain business as a commission merchant with the Harkness Grain Company. During this time he worked to pay back his stepbrother Stephen Harkness. Through this business, Flagler became acquainted with John D. Rockefeller, who worked as a commission agent with Hewitt and Tuttle for the Harkness Grain Company. By the mid-1860s, Cleveland had become the center of the oil refining industry in America and Rockefeller left the grain business to start his own oil refinery. Rockefeller worked in association with inventor Samuel Andrews. Needing capital for his new venture, Rockefeller approached Flagler in 1867. Flagler's stepbrother Stephen Harkness invested $100,000 on the condition that Flagler be made a partner; the Rockefeller, Andrews & Flagler partnership was formed with Flagler in control of Harkness' interest. The partnership grew into the Standard Oil Corporation, it was Flagler's idea to use the rebate system to strengthen the firm's position against competitors and the transporting enterprises alike.
Flagler was in a special position to make those deals due to his connections as a grain merchant. Though the refunds issued amounted to no more than fifteen cents on the dollar, they put Standard Oil in position to undercut other oil refineries. By 1872, it led the American oil refining industry. In 1877, Flagler and his family moved to New York City, becoming the center of commerce in the US. In 1885, Standard Oil moved its corporate headquarters to New York City to the iconic 26 Broadway location. By the end of the American Civil War, Cleveland was one of the five main refining centers in the U. S.. By 1869, there was three times more kerosene refining capacity than needed to supply the market, the capacity remained in excess for many years. In June 1870, Flagler and Rockefeller formed Standard Oil of Ohio, which became the most profitable refiner in Ohio. Standard Oil grew to become one of the largest shippers of kerosene in the country; the railroads were fighting fiercely for traffic and, in an attempt to create a cartel to control freight rates, formed the South Improvement Company in collusion with Standard and other oil men outside the main oil centers.
The cartel received preferential treatment as a high-volume shipper, which included not just steep rebates of up to 50% for their product but rebates for the shipment of competing products. Part of this scheme was the announcement of increased freight charges; this touched off a firestorm of protest from independent oil well owners, including boycotts and vandalism, which led to the discovery of Standard Oil's part in the deal. A major New York refiner, Charles Pratt and Company, headed by Charles Pratt and Henry H. Rogers, led the opposition to this plan, railroads soon backed off. Pennsylvania revoked the cartel's charter, non-preferential rates were restored for the time being. Undeterred, though vilified for the first time by the press and Rockefeller continued with their self-reinforcing cycle of buying competing refiners, improving the efficiency of operations, pressing for discounts on oil shipments, undercutting competition, making secret deals, raising investment pools, buying rivals out.
In less than four months in 1872, in what was known as "The Cleveland Conquest" or "T
U.S. Route 1 in Florida
U. S. Highway 1 in Florida runs 545 miles along the state's east coast– from Key West to its crossing of the St. Marys River into Georgia north of Boulogne –and south of Folkston. US 1 was designated through Florida when the United States Numbered Highway System was established in 1926; the road is maintained by the Florida Department of Transportation. From its national southern terminus in Key West, US 1 carries the Overseas Highway– the Keys main highway –north to the mainland, entering South Florida. From South Florida to Jacksonville, US 1 runs close to the coastline of the Atlantic Ocean and the Intracoastal Waterway east of Interstate 95 and west of State Road A1A, running parallel with both roads. North of Jacksonville, US 1 curves inland towards the St. Mary's River as it enters Georgia; as is the case with all Florida roads with national designations, the entirety of US 1 has a hidden FDOT designation: SR 5 from Whitehead Street / Fleming Street in Key West to US 1 Alternate/US 17 in Jacksonville with one exception: SR 805 from Federal Highway in Lantana to Belvedere Road in West Palm Beach.
SR 15 from the I-95 interchange in Jacksonville to the Georgia state line near Boulogne. Among other designations, US 1 is a designated Blue Star Memorial Highway along its entire route through the state. Markers are placed including one in Rockledge and Fort Lauderdale. US 1 begins at the Monroe County courthouse at the intersection of Whitehead and Fleming Streets, Key West, it proceeds south as Whitehead Street, a two-laned street, until the intersection with Truman Avenue, which takes it east through central Key West. Truman Avenue becomes North Roosevelt Boulevard about a mile east, remains so until leaving the island; the road follows the northern shore of this section of Key West after curving southward, it meets State Road A1A head-on at a T-intersection before continuing east. This intersection marks the southern terminus of the Overseas Highway, which US 1 is known by between here and mainland Florida. After crossing to Stock Island and forming the boundary between the eponymous district and incorporated Key West, US 1 proceeds through unincorporated Monroe County on Boca Chica Key, past the Naval Air Station Key West, Rockland Key, where the Overseas Highway drops down to a two-laned road.
It crosses East Rockland Key, Big Coppitt Key, Saddlebunch Keys, Sugarloaf Key, Park Key, Cudjoe Key, Summerland Key, Ramrod Key, Middle Torch Key, Little Torch Key, Big Pine Key, Scout Key, Spanish Harbor Key. The highway expands to four lanes as it crosses the Bahia Honda Bridge reduces to two lanes as it traverses Bahia Honda Key, Ohio Key, Missouri Key, Little Duck Key. After Little Duck Key, US 1 enters Knight's Key, Boot Key, Key Vaca and the town of Marathon via the Seven Mile Bridge, thus leaving the lower Keys. US 1 runs through Marathon as a four-laned road. After Key Vaca, the road becomes two-laned once more and runs through Fat Deer Key, where it forms the northern boundary of the city of Key Colony Beach, it continues wholly in Marathon through Long Point Key, Crawl Key and Grassy Key. The road crosses to Little Conch Key and Conch Key, both part of the Duck Key district. US 1 crosses to and traverses Long Key, unincorporated except for the city of Layton, which the highway passes through.
The road reaches Craig Key, the village of Islamorada including Lower Matecumbe Key, Tea Table Key, Upper Matecumbe Key and Windley Key. US 1 crosses a drawbridge onto Plantation Key, where it expands to four lanes and leaves Islamorada as it crosses to Key Largo; the Overseas Highway enters Tavernier, where it temporarily splits into a pair of one-way roads through the community. Soon the road enters the community of Key Largo, which features another pair of one-way roads. At the northern end of the Key Largo district, about two-thirds of the way along the island, US 1 intersects County Road 905, which offers an alternative route out of the Keys via North Key Largo and the Card Sound Bridge. Signage approaching the intersection directs northbound motorists to take this alternative route if the lights on it are flashing. US 1 swings to the northwest, forms the southern boundary of North Key Largo, becomes a two-laned divided road after the intersection. After crossing the Jewfish Creek Bridge and travelling along Cross Key, US 1 crosses Manatee Creek, along with the Miami-Dade County boundary, reaches the mainland.
For the first 14 miles in Miami-Dade County, US 1 is a divided two-lane road bordering the Everglades National Park on the west. It is named South Dixie Highway from the county line to Miami, its first major intersection is with the north end of Card Sound Road south of Florida City. To the south, signage directs southbound travelers approaching this intersection to take Card Sound Road if the lights on it are flashing, rather than taking US 1 south to Key Largo. Just north of the Card Sound Road intersection, US 1 meets the southern end of Krome Avenue, enters Florida City. Here, US 1 intersects State Road 9336. From here northbound, the South Dixie Highway is paralleled by the South Miami-Dade Busway along the former Florida East Coast
Bulow Creek State Park
Bulow Creek State Park is a Florida State Park located five miles north of Ormond Beach. It is on Old Dixie Highway, next to the Atlantic Ocean; the park is adjacent to Bulow Plantation Ruins Historic State Park, close to North Peninsula State Park, Gamble Rogers Memorial State Recreation Area and Tomoka State Park. Containing one of the largest stands of southern live oak remaining on the east coast of Florida, the park's "star" is the Fairchild Oak. Over four centuries old, it is among the largest of its kind in the southern United States. Among the wildlife of the park are white-tailed deer, barred owls and raccoons. Activities include hiking, picnicing, wildlife viewing and primitive camping. Amenities include a picnic pavilion and a primitive campsite; the Bulow Woods Trail, more than six miles long, leads to Bulow Plantation Ruins Historic State Park. Florida state parks are sundown every day of the year. Bulow Creek State Park at Florida State Parks Bulow Creek State Park at Absolutely Florida
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Gamble Rogers Memorial State Recreation Area at Flagler Beach
Gamble Rogers Memorial State Recreation Area is a 144-acre Florida State Park located at Flagler Beach, between the Atlantic Ocean and the Intra-Coastal Waterway on SR A1A. It is about 30 miles south of St. Augustine; the park is named for a Florida folk singer. On October 10, 1991 Rogers was camping in the area. In response to a child's plea for help, he attempted to rescue a Canadian tourist in the heavy surf and riptides of Flagler Beach. Both Rogers and the tourist drowned; the park was created by the Florida legislature in honor of this Florida folk singer/guitarist. Activities include coastal camping, swimming, ecotours and beachcombing. Visitors can enjoy sunbathing, canoeing and wildlife viewing. Between May and early September, Loggerhead and Leatherback sea turtles are among the wildlife of the park. Amenities include 34 campsites overlooking the Atlantic Ocean, boat ramp and boat basin with access to the Intracoastal Waterway, picnic tables, a large picnic pavilion, a mile long nature trail, the beach and hiking trails.
Florida state parks are sundown every day of the year. Gamble Rogers Memorial State Recreation Area at Florida State Parks Gamble Rogers Memorial State Recreation Area at Absolutely Florida Gamble Rogers Memorial State Recreation Area at Wildernet
Florida State Road A1A
State Road A1A is a north-south Florida State Road that runs along the Atlantic Ocean, from Key West at the southern tip of Florida, to Fernandina Beach, just south of Georgia on Amelia Island. It is the main road through most oceanfront towns. Part of SR A1A is designated Historic Coastal Byway, a National Scenic Byway. A portion of A1A that passes through Volusia County is designated the Ormond Scenic Loop and Trail, a Florida Scenic Highway, it is called the Indian River Lagoon Scenic Highway from State Road 510 at Wabasso Beach to U. S. Route 1 in Cocoa. A1A is famous worldwide as a center of beach culture in the United States, a scenic coastal route through most Atlantic coastal cities and beach towns, including the unique tropical coral islands of the Florida Keys. A1A serves as a major thoroughfare through Miami Beach and other south Florida coastal cities. Other than SR A1A Alternate, only two other Florida state roads have begun with a letter: SR A19A, SR G1A; the road was designated as State Road 1 in the 1945 renumbering replacing the former State Road 140 designation.
The number reflected its location in the new grid as the easternmost major north–south road. About a year and a half in November 1946, the State Road Board resolved to renumber the route due to confusion with the parallel U. S. Highway 1; the new designation, A1A, was chosen to keep the number 1 in its place in the grid. The East Coast Greenway, a system of trails that connects Maine to Florida, travels along sections of State Road A1A. SR A1A is associated with Florida beach culture and is known for its lush tropical and subtropical scenery and ocean vistas. In many places, the highway runs directly along the waterfront of the Atlantic Ocean, but in other places, it runs one to five blocks inland from the beachfront. For most of its length, A1A runs along Florida's East Coast Barrier Islands, separated from the mainland of the state by the Intracoastal Waterway; because of the proximity of the highway to the ocean and its susceptibility to storm surges, sections of A1A are closed or damaged by hurricanes and tropical storms.
A1A has been a backbone of Florida's Spring Break serving as "the strip" in both Fort Lauderdale – a popular spring break destination during the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s – and Daytona Beach, which became a popular destination for college spring breaks during the 1970s. Today, A1A serves as more a main coastal highway that connects beach towns for more than 375 miles along Florida's East Coast; the southern terminus of SR A1A is at the southern end of Bertha Street, where SR A1A begins as a two-lane a four-lane highway along the Straits of Florida in Key West, known locally as South Roosevelt Boulevard. The road heads east past East Martello Tower and Key West International Airport, before curving north with an intersection with CR 5A, followed by the northern terminus of the Key West section of SR A1A, U. S. Route 1 and State Road 5. Running along the south shore of Key West, SR A1A is the southmost numbered highway in the lower 48 states. SR A1A reappears at Interstate 395 and US 1 in Miami, beginning at MacArthur Causeway before becoming Collins Avenue at Fifth Street in Miami Beach, serving as one of Miami Beach's main north — south thoroughfares.
Just north in the town of Surfside, the northbound is Collins Avenue, the southbound is Harding Avenue. In Bal Harbour it is called Bal Harbour Boulevard. In Golden Beach it is called Ocean Boulevard, it serves Hallandale Beach, Hollywood Beach, Dania Beach. It joins with US 1 for 3.4 miles, passes the Ft. Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport, it divides and serves Ft. Lauderdale Beach, Pompano Beach, continuing north, it serves as the main road throughout much of the exclusive Palm Beach, further to the north. In the area of Vero Beach, A1A is called the Robert C. Spillman Memorial Highway, it spans Sebastian Inlet at the Sebastian Inlet Bridge. A1A next passes just to the west of the John F. Kennedy Space Center. Two miles of A1A were used as part of the well-known Daytona Beach Road Course. A1A passes through St. Augustine, the oldest continuously-inhabited city on the mainland of the United States. A1A is called 3rd Street in Neptune Beach. Just south of Atlantic Beach, A1A turns inland for several blocks, following Atlantic Boulevard, before resuming a northward course along Mayport Road that ends at the St. Johns River.
A ferry takes traffic to the northern section of A1A that continues along the coast to just south of Fort Clinch State Park on the estuary of the Saint Mary's River. At that point A1A hooks back south to Fernandina Beach and turns west, going inland 20 miles through Yulee and crossing I-95 and U. S. Highway 17, it ends at U. S. Highway 1, U. S. Highway 23, U. S. Highway 301 in Florida; this section west of Fernandina Beach, is marked as SR 200, but SR A1A signs are displayed at every cluster of signs, though a designated direction is only above the SR 200 signs. Prior to the 1945 renumbering, the route that became SR 1 had the following numbers: SR 1 was defined in the 1945 renumbering as: Since the following changes have been made: The Jungle Trail was part of A1A in northeastern Indian River County, Florida; the narrow, 7 1⁄2-mile-long road is located between Old Winter Beach Road and the current A1A, along the western side of Orchid Island, is unpaved. It is part of the Indian River Lagoon Scenic Highway system, the southernmost road in the highway system