Victorian gold rush
The Victorian gold rush was a period in the history of Victoria, Australia between 1851 and the late 1860s. It led to a period of extreme prosperity for the Australian colony, an influx of population growth and financial capital for Melbourne, dubbed "Marvellous Melbourne" as a result of the procurement of wealth; the Victorian Gold Discovery Committee wrote in 1854: The discovery of the Victorian Goldfields has converted a remote dependency into a country of world wide fame. For a number of years the gold output from Victoria was greater than in any other country in the world with the exception of the more extensive fields of California. Victoria's greatest yield for one year was in 1856, when 3,053,744 troy ounces of gold were extracted from the diggings. From 1851 to 1896 the Victorian Mines Department reported that a total of 61,034,682 oz of gold was mined in Victoria. Gold was first discovered in Australia on 15 February 1823, by assistant surveyor James McBrien, at Fish River, between Rydal and Bathurst.
The find was considered unimportant at the time, was not pursued for policy reasons. In the 1850s gold discoveries in Victoria, in Beechworth, Daylesford and Bendigo sparked gold rushes similar to the California Gold Rush. At its peak some two tonnes of gold per week flowed into the Treasury Building in Melbourne; the gold exported to Britain in the 1850s paid all her foreign debts and helped lay the foundation of her enormous commercial expansion in the latter half of the century. Melbourne was a major boomtown during the gold rush; the city became the centre of the colony with rail networks radiating to the regional towns and ports. Politically, Victoria's goldminers sped up the introduction of greater parliamentary democracy in Victoria, based on British Chartist principles adopted to some extent by the miners' activist bodies such as Bendigo's Anti-Gold Licence Association and the Ballarat Reform League; as the alluvial gold dwindled, pressures for land reform and political reform generated social struggles.
And a Land Convention in Melbourne during 1857 recorded demands for land reform. By 1854 Chinese people were contributing to the gold rushes, their presence on the goldfields of Bendigo and the Bright district resulted in riots, entry taxes and segregation in the short term, became the foundations of the White Australia policy. In short, the gold rush was reshaped Victoria, its society and politics. There were rumours abroad about the presence of gold in Australia, but Government officials kept all findings secret for fear of disorganising the young colony; however the Colonial Secretary, Edward Deas Thomson, saw a great future for the country when Edward Hargraves proved his theory that Australia was a vast storehouse of gold. Hargraves had been in the California gold rush and knew gold country, when he first saw it, round Bathurst; the news spread like wildfire, soon the race was on from coast to gold fields. Flocks were left untended, drovers deserted their teams and lawyers rushed from their desks and entire ships' crews, captains included, marched off to seek their fortunes.
In March 1850, Mr. W. Campbell of Strath Loddon found on the station of Mr. Donald Cameron, of Clunes several minute pieces of native gold in quartz; this was concealed at the time but on 10 January 1851, Campbell disclosed it. Others had found indications of gold. Dr. George H. Bruhn, a German physician, whose services as an analyst were in great demand, had been shown specimens of gold from what afterwards became the Clunes diggings. In spite of these and other discoveries, however, it was impracticable to market the gold, James Esmond's "find", made on Creswick's Creek, a tributary of the Loddon River, at Clunes on 1 July 1851, was the first marketable gold field. A party formed by Mr. Louis John Michel, consisting of himself, Mr. William Haberlin, James Furnival, James Melville, James Headon, B. Groenig, discovered the existence of gold in the quartz rocks of the Yarra ranges, at Andersons Creek, near Warrandyte, in the latter part of June, showed it on the spot to Dr. Webb Richmond, on behalf of the Gold Discovery Committee on 5 July.
The third discovery was by a resident at Buninyong. Clarke, by the discovery of Brentani's nugget in the Pyrenees district two years before, he had kept a constant lookout for gold in his neighbourhood, he discovered an auriferous deposit in the gully of the Buninyong ranges now bearing his name, on 8 August 1851, he communicated the fact, with its precise locality, to the editor of the Geelong Advertiser on the 10th of that month. Dr. George H. Bruhn, a German physician, in the month of January, 1851, started from Melbourne to explore "the mineral resources of this colony'. During his lengthened tour, he found, in April, indications of gold in quartz about two miles from Mr. Barker's station, on arriving at Mr. Cameron's station was shown by that gentleman specimens of gold at what are now called the Clunes diggings; this information he made known through the country in the course of his journey, communicated to Mr. James Esmond, at that time engaged in erecting a building at Mr. James Hodgkinson's station.
Dr. Bruhn forwarded specimens, which were received by the Gold Discovery Committe
William John Wills
William John Wills was a British surveyor who trained as a surgeon. He achieved fame as the second-in-command of the ill-fated Burke and Wills expedition, the first expedition to cross Australia from south to north, finding a route across the continent from the settled areas of Victoria to the Gulf of Carpentaria. Wills was born in Totnes in Devon, the second child to Dr William Wills and Sarah Mary Elizabeth Wills. William John Wills was born on 5 January 1834 in Totnes, was one of seven children, he lived at the family home at Ipplepen and as a young child he contracted a fever which left him with "slow and hesitating speech". He was home-tutored by his father until the age of 11 and from 1845 to 1850 he attended St Andrew's Grammar School, Ashburton, he was articled to Wills' surgical practice. In 1852 he studied practical chemistry under John Stenhouse at St Bartholomew's Hospital in London. Dr Wills bought a share in the Melbourne Gold Mining Company in 1852 and planned to migrate to Australia with William and Thomas.
However Sarah Wills objected to him leaving so Dr Wills delayed his departure and the two boys went alone. Eighteen-year-old William and fifteen-year-old Thomas left Dartmouth on 1 October 1852 aboard the Janet Mitchell, they arrived in Melbourne on 3 January 1853 with 197 fellow unassisted passengers. William and Thomas found accommodation at the Immigrants Home in South Melbourne. In February 1853 the Wills brothers found work as shepherds at a property owned by the Royal Bank Company on the Edward River near Deniliquin, they were in charge of a flock of 1300 rams at the Ram Station. Dr Wills followed his sons out to Australia, arriving in August 1853, the three returned to Melbourne before moving to Ballarat where William took up work as a digger on the goldfields. In 1854 he worked as assistant surgeon in his father's practice and he opened his own gold office. In early 1855, William worked on William Skene's Kanawalla Station on the Wannon River near Hamilton, he returned to Ballarat towards the end of the year he began to study surveying.
He was appointed as an amateur to the office of John Hamlet Taylor, Acting District Surveyor in the Ballarat Survey Office on Sturt Street. William spent several months learning trigonometry, Euclid drawing and geometry and in 1856 he went on to learn field-surveying, he started his practical experience at Glendaruel, near Tourello, where he worked under the supervision of Frederick John Byerly, Assistant Surveyor, on ₤150 p.a. plus board. In February 1857 he was working at Bullarook Creek Camp and in March 1857 he was surveying at Kingower near Inglewood. In the middle of 1857 he was promoted to foreman and placed in charge of a field party and his salary increased to ₤185 p.a. From April to June 1858 he was surveying at St Arnaud, his field party contract was terminated in June and he returned to Ballarat in July and took occasional contracts surveying for Clement Hodgkinson, the Deputy Surveyor General. Wills moved to Melbourne in August 1858 and from August to December he lodged with Mrs E Henderson at 1 Dorcas Street, South Melbourne.
In November 1858 he received a temporary appointment on the recommendation of Charles Whybrow Ligar, Surveyor-General, as a supernumerary at the established Magnetic Observatory, at Flagstaff Hill. In February 1859 one of the Observatory assistants, John Walter Osborne, transferred from the observatory to become a photolithographer in the Survey Department of the Office of Crown Lands and Survey. Wills' replaced him, in March 1859 when his permanent appointment was confirmed, he moved into a room at the Observatory. Wills studied under Government Meteorologist and Observatory Director, Georg von Neumayer, his work companions were Jacob Bauer, Charles E Pickering, Charles Moerlin and supernumeries John Osborne and Edwin James Welch. Robert O'Hara Burke was appointed leader of the Victorian Exploring Expedition with George James Landells as second-in-command. Wills was appointed third-in-command, surveyor and meteorological observer in July 1860 on a salary of £300 a year; the expedition left Melbourne on Monday, 20 August 1860 with a total of 19 men, 27 camels and 23 horses.
They reached Menindee on 16 October 1860. Wills was promoted to second-in-command. Burke split the expedition at Menindee and the lead party reached Cooper Creek on 11 November 1860 where they formed a depot; the remaining men were expected to follow up from Menindee and so after a break, Burke decided to make a dash to the Gulf of Carpentaria. Burke split the party again and left on 16 December 1860, placing William Brahe in charge of the depot on Cooper Creek. Burke, John King and Charley Gray reached the mangroves on the estuary of the Flinders River, near where the town of Normanton now stands, on 9 February 1861. Flooding rains and swamps meant. Weakened by starvation and exposure, progress on the return journey was slow and hampered by the tropical monsoon downpours of the wet season. Gray died four days before they reached the depot at Cooper Creek and the other three took a day to bury him, they reached the depot on 21 April 1861 to find the men had not arrived from Menindee, that Brahe and the Depot Party had given up waiting and left just 9 hours earlier.
Brahe had waited 18 weeks for their return and had buried a note and some food underneath a tree, now known as
The Argus (Melbourne)
The Argus was a morning daily newspaper in Melbourne, Australia, established in 1846 and closed in 1957. It was considered to be the general Australian newspaper of record for this period. Known as a conservative newspaper for most of its history, it adopted a left-leaning approach from 1949; the Argus's main competitor was The Age. The newspaper was owned by William Kerr, a journalist who had worked with The Sydney Gazette before moving to Melbourne in 1839 to work on John Pascoe Fawkner's newspaper, the Port Phillip Patriot; the first edition was published on 2 June 1846, with the paper soon known for its scurrilous abuse and sarcasm, such that by 1853, Kerr had lost ownership after a series of libel suits. The paper was published under the name of Edward Wilson. By the 1880s, Richard Twopeny regarded it as "the best daily paper published out of England." The paper become a stablemate to the weekly, The Australasian, to become The Australasian Post in 1946. During the Depression in 1933, it launched the Melbourne Evening Star in competition with The Herald newspaper of The Herald and Weekly Times Ltd, but was forced to close the venture in 1936.
In 1949 the paper was acquired by the London-based Daily Mirror newspaper group. On 28 July 1952, The Argus became the first newspaper in the world to publish colour photographs in a daily paper; the paper had interests in radio and, in 1956, the new medium of television, being part of the consortium General Telecasters Victoria and its television station GTV-9. The company's newspaper operation experienced a severe loss of profitability in the 1950s, attributable to increased costs of newsprint and acute competition for newspaper circulation in Melbourne. In 1957, the paper was discontinued and sold to the Herald and Weekly Times group, which undertook to re-employ Argus staff and continue publication of selected features, HWT made an allocation of shares to the UK owners; the final edition was published on 19 January 1957. The company's other print and broadcasting operations were unaffected; the takeover of The Argus by the powerful Mirror Group, of Fleet Street, led to hopes of a renaissance for The Argus.
Fresh capital, new ideas, new strategies from London. But instead, the new arrivals from England finished up destroying their new possession. Frederick William Haddon – Argus sub-editor in 1863, editor 1867–1898 Edward Wilson Andrew Murray, editor in 1855 and 1856 Howard Willoughby Julian Howard Ashton, journalist and critic Roy Curthoys, editor 1929–1935 List of newspapers in Australia Argus Building Argus finals system, a series of systems for determining the Premiers of the Victorian Football League and other Australian rules football competitions in the early 20th century Australasian Sketcher with Pen and Pencil Don Hauser, The Printers of the Streets and Lanes Of Melbourne Nondescript Press, Melbourne 2006 Jim Usher The Argus – life and death of a newspaper Australian Scholarly Publishing, Melbourne 2008 The Melbourne Argus at Trove The Argus at Trove The Argus: Special War Edition – 1 May 1915 Digitised World War I Victorian newspapers from the State Library of Victoria
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a
The Fitzroy Gardens are 26 hectares located on the southeastern edge of the Melbourne Central Business District in East Melbourne, Australia. The gardens are bounded by Clarendon Street, Albert Street, Lansdowne Street, Wellington Parade with the Treasury Gardens across Lansdowne street to the west; the gardens are one of the major Victorian era landscaped gardens in Australia and add to Melbourne's claim to being the garden city of Australia. Set within the gardens are an ornamental lake, a scarred tree, a visitor information centre and cafe, a conservatory, Cooks' Cottage, tree-lined avenues, a model Tudor village, a band pavilion, a rotunda, the "Fairies' Tree", fountains and sculptures; the most notable feature of the Gardens is the trees. The land was swampy with a creek draining into the Yarra River; the gardens were designed by Clement Hodgkinson and planted by park gardener, James Sinclair, as a dense woodland with meandering avenues. The creek was landscaped with ferns and 130 willows, but that did not stop it smelling foul from the sewage from the houses of East Melbourne.
The creek was used for irrigation of the western side of the gardens for fifty years. In the early 1900s the creek water improved when sewerage mains were installed to the residences of East Melbourne. In the early years quick growing blue gums and wattles were planted to provide wind breaks. Elm trees were planted to create avenues along pathways, which created a pattern in resemblance to the Union Flag. Clement Hodgkinson described the landscaping design:...the chief desiderata were shade along the numerous paths therein forming important lines of traffic, such dense and continuous masses of foliage as would tend to check the inroad of dust from the adjacent streets. In such reserves, strict adherence to the rules of landscape gardening, with regard to the grouping of trees, etc. had to be abandoned in favour of the formal lining of the paths with rows of umbrageous trees, the planting in the background of dense masses of conifers, evergreen shrubs, fern trees, etc. small flowering shrubs and bedding flowers being introduced to mask the unsightly aspect of the grass in such reserves during summer During the 1880s and 1890s many of the blue gums were removed to create more room for existing trees, as well as sweeping lawns and ornamental flowerbeds.
Sub Tropical planting became a feature of the Gardens with the creation of new planting in areas like the Mound and the Grey Street Walk. Further major changes occurred in the 1930s and 40's with the establishment of the Conservatory and the arrival of Cooks' Cottage in the Gardens. In 2014 an area used for depot activities was re- claimed as garden space and features a major stormwater harvesting system, a café and visitor centre which provides tourism information about Melbourne as well as specific information and services for Cooks' Cottage and Fitzroy Gardens; the listing on the Victorian Heritage Register states in part: The Fitzroy Gardens are of historical, architectural and social significance to the State of Victoria. Why is it significant? The Fitzroy Gardens are of historical significance as one of a ring of public reserves around Melbourne established in the nineteenth century to provide respite and relaxation for the city's residents; the Fitzroy Gardens have been viewed as the flagship of this group of city gardens, which includes the Flagstaff, Treasury and Alexandra Gardens and the Kings Domain.
In a statewide context, while not as intact as the Royal Botanic Gardens or the Ballarat Botanical Gardens, the Fitzroy Gardens are an important remnant of the city's nineteenth-century garden heritage. They are a reminder of the city's large investment in public gardens, a reflection of 19th century beliefs about the moral and health benefits of green spaces in dirty and overcrowded cities; the Fitzroy Gardens are of social significance because, from their establishment in the early 1860s, the Gardens have been a place of relaxation, passive recreation and entertainment. A scarred tree in the gardens has been preserved; the plaque at the bottom of the tree reads: The scar on this tree was created when Aboriginal people removed bark to make canoes, shields and water containers, baby carriers and other items. Please respect this site, it is important to the Wurundjeri people as traditional custodians of the land and is part of the heritage of all Australians. All Aboriginal cultural sites are protected by law.
The gardens are home to brushtail and ringtail possums, rainbow lorikeets and microbats. They are visited at night by powerful owls; the presence of Australian wildlife make the city gardens enjoyable for overseas visitors and locals alike. 1848 the Fitzroy Gardens were permanently reserved as public gardens, with title shared by the State Government and City of Melbourne. The gardens were known as Fitzroy Square until 1862, named after Sir Charles Augustus FitzRoy, a governor of New South Wales. 1857 James Sinclair appointed head gardener, worked in the gardens until his death in 1881. 1860 responsibility for Fitzroy Gardens taken over by the Lands Department. Clement Hodgkinson, the head of the Lands Department, takes a detailed interest in the planning and development of the city parks, including Fitroy Gardens. 1862 Path network established and band pavilion built 1864 Sinclair's Cottage and Small Tudor style gate keepers lodge built 1873 Neo-classical rotunda "Temple of Winds" built
In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves in the autumn. The term deciduous means "the dropping of a part, no longer needed" and the "falling away after its purpose is finished". In plants, it is the result of natural processes. "Deciduous" has a similar meaning when referring to animal parts, such as deciduous antlers in deer, deciduous teeth in some mammals. Wood from deciduous trees is used in a variety of ways in several industries including lumber for furniture and flooring, bowling pins and baseball bats and furniture, cabinets and paneling. In botany and horticulture, deciduous plants, including trees and herbaceous perennials, are those that lose all of their leaves for part of the year; this process is called abscission. In some cases leaf loss coincides with winter -- namely in polar climates. In other parts of the world, including tropical and arid regions, plants lose their leaves during the dry season or other seasons, depending on variations in rainfall.
The converse of deciduous is evergreen, where foliage is shed on a different schedule from deciduous trees, therefore appearing to remain green year round. Plants that are intermediate may be called semi-deciduous. Other plants are semi-evergreen and lose their leaves before the next growing season, retaining some during winter or dry periods; some trees, including a few species of oak, have desiccated leaves that remain on the tree through winter. Many deciduous plants flower during the period when they are leafless, as this increases the effectiveness of pollination; the absence of leaves improves wind transmission of pollen for wind-pollinated plants and increases the visibility of the flowers to insects in insect-pollinated plants. This strategy is not without risks, as the flowers can be damaged by frost or, in dry season regions, result in water stress on the plant. There is much less branch and trunk breakage from glaze ice storms when leafless, plants can reduce water loss due to the reduction in availability of liquid water during cold winter days.
Leaf drop or abscission involves complex physiological changes within plants. The process of photosynthesis degrades the supply of chlorophylls in foliage; when autumn arrives and the days are shorter or when plants are drought-stressed, deciduous trees decrease chlorophyll pigment production, allowing other pigments present in the leaf to become apparent, resulting in non-green colored foliage. The brightest leaf colors are produced when days grow short and nights are cool, but remain above freezing; these other pigments include carotenoids that are yellow and orange. Anthocyanin pigments produce red and purple colors, though they are not always present in the leaves. Rather, they are produced in the foliage in late summer, when sugars are trapped in the leaves after the process of abscission begins. Parts of the world that have showy displays of bright autumn colors are limited to locations where days become short and nights are cool. In other parts of the world, the leaves of deciduous trees fall off without turning the bright colors produced from the accumulation of anthocyanin pigments.
The beginnings of leaf drop starts when an abscission layer is formed between the leaf petiole and the stem. This layer is formed in the spring during active new growth of the leaf; the cells are sensitive to a plant hormone called auxin, produced by the leaf and other parts of the plant. When auxin coming from the leaf is produced at a rate consistent with that from the body of the plant, the cells of the abscission layer remain connected; the elongation of these cells break the connection between the different cell layers, allowing the leaf to break away from the plant. It forms a layer that seals the break, so the plant does not lose sap. A number of deciduous plants remove nitrogen and carbon from the foliage before they are shed and store them in the form of proteins in the vacuoles of parenchyma cells in the roots and the inner bark. In the spring, these proteins are used as a nitrogen source during the growth of new leaves or flowers. Plants with deciduous foliage have advantages and disadvantages compared to plants with evergreen foliage.
Since deciduous plants lose their leaves to conserve water or to better survive winter weather conditions, they must regrow new foliage during the next suitable growing season. Evergreens suffer greater water loss during the winter and they can experience greater predation pressure when small. Losing leaves in winter may reduce damage from insects. Removing leaves reduces cavitation which can damage xylem vessels in plants; this allows deciduous plants to have xylem vessels with larger diameters and therefore a greater rate of transpiration during the summer growth period
King Street, Melbourne
King Street is a main road in the central business district of Melbourne, Australia. It is considered a key hub of Melbourne's nightlife and is home to many pubs, nightclubs and adult entertainment venues. Part of the original Hoddle Grid laid out in 1837, the road has become a main traffic thoroughfare connecting Southbank and North Melbourne through the city centre. King street is named for the third Governor of New South Wales. King Street begins at Flinders Street and ends at the intersection of Hawke Street and Victoria Street in West Melbourne. Towards the northern end of King Street lay the Flagstaff Gardens, whilst the Sea Life Melbourne Aquarium and Crown Casino are at its southern tip. King Street becomes Kings Way south of Flinders Street; the street was part of National Routes 1 and 79 until the city bypass road linking the Monash Freeway with the Westgate Freeway was completed. Crossing through Melbourne's main financial district, many of Melbourne's tallest office towers line King Street.
The area was once lined with bluestone warehouses. The street has many examples of modern architecture, some designed by Yuncken Freeman who had their offices located on the street. Many King Street buildings are listed on the Victorian Heritage Register and/or classified by the National Trust of Australia, including: St James Old Cathedral, the oldest church in Melbourne 328-330 King Street, the oldest residence in Melbourne Former York Butter Factory Former F. Blight & Company Warehouse Colonial Hotel Former Zanders No 3 Warehouse Former Levicks & Piper Wholesale Ironmongers Warehouse Former Phoenix Clothing Company Langdon Building New Zealand Mercantile building Former Melbourne Wool Exchange Australian Institute of Music City Campus Other prominent buildings include: Great Western Hotel, a pub continuously operating for 150 years Rialto Towers Melbourne's tallest building The Melbourne Stock Exchange Victoria University's City King St campusAs with many of Melbourne's streets, several notable heritage buildings were demolished during the 1960s and 1970s, including: The Federal Coffee Palace Robb's Buildings During the 1980s many former warehouses at the southern end of King Street were converted into night clubs.
King Street subsequently became Melbourne's main nightclub district, with some of Melbourne's largest clubs including Clique Lounge Bar, Inflation, La Di Da, Brown Alley & Sorry Grandma along the strip. The street is considered the hub of Melbourne's adult entertainment venues, including Goldfingers, The Men's Gallery, Dallas Dancers, Bar 20, Centrefold Lounge and Spearmint Rhino; the collapse of the new King Street Bridge on 10 July 1962 Australian Roads portal