A flaming drink is a cocktail or other mixed drink that contains flammable, high-proof alcohol, ignited prior to consumption. The alcohol may be an integral part of the drink, or it may be floated as a thin layer across the top of the drink; the flames are for dramatic flair. However, in combination with certain ingredients, the flavor of the drink is altered; some flavors are enhanced, it may impart a toasted flavor to some drinks. Combining fire with alcohol can be dangerous. Proper precautions must be taken to ensure the safety of both the bartender and the patrons consuming the drink; the fire should always be lit away from the area in which the patrons are located to ensure their safety. The drink should not be consumed; the drinkware may become quite hot to hold or to sip from, that could result in burns. Additionally, there is always a risk of spills or catching other items on fire if the patrons are intoxicated. Servers must carry lit shots or drinks when delivering to tables. In addition, only an experienced bartender should light the given shot before serving or handing off to a server.
Untrained bartenders should refrain from handling fire. Alcohol has been consumed as a drink for millennia, it has been used as a fuel for fire for a long time as well. When people began combining alcohol in drink with fire is uncertain. Many traditional recipes for food incorporate flaming alcohol as a key ingredient; this method of cooking is referred to as flambé. Bananas Foster, cherries jubilee, bombe Alaska, crêpe Suzette, steak Diane, coq au vin are a few well-known dishes that utilize this method for both imparting complex flavors in the food and, in the case of all but the last, a spectacle performed at the tableside. During the Victorian era, flaming steamed puddings became a tradition. In the mid-1800s, a typical saloon would serve basic spirits, such as brandy, or gin. For a sweet variation, a little sugar might be added. For special occasions and depending on availability of the ingredients, various punches, egg nogs, grogs, or mulled wines might be provided at social events. Somewhere between at least the 1600s and the 1860s, people began to light the alcohol on fire.
The first bartender's manual, written by Jerry Thomas and published in 1862, contains the recipe for the first flaming cocktail, the Blue Blazer. The book, How to Mix Drinks, describes how to turn a hot toddy made with Scotch into a "blazing stream of liquid fire": 1 wine-glass of Scotch whisky. 1 do. Boiling water. Put the whisky and the boiling water in one mug, ignite the liquid with fire, while blazing mix both ingredients by pouring them four or five times from one mug to the other, as represented in the cut. If well done this will have the appearance of a continued stream of liquid fire. Sweeten with one teaspoonful of pulverized white sugar, serve in a small bar tumbler, with a piece of lemon peel; the "blue blazer" does not have a euphonious or classic name, but it tastes better to the palate than it sounds to the ear. A beholder gazing for the first time upon an experienced artist, compounding this beverage, would come to the conclusion that it was a nectar for Pluto rather than Bacchus.
The novice in mixing this beverage should be careful not to scald himself. To become proficient in throwing the liquid from one mug to the other, it will be necessary to practise for some time with cold water. Bars have been shut down due to failure to follow fire codes and reckless endangerment of patrons. Bartenders have suffered burns from flaming drinks; the art of preparing mixed drinks with style and pizazz, as opposed to pouring sedately from a bottle, is referred to as flair bartending. A little flair, such as a quick flip or spin of a bottle, is a common way for bartenders to impress patrons and enhance the drinking experience. However, preparing a flaming drink for a patron is a whole other level of flair. Bars and nightclubs that specialize in this style of bartending tend to develop reputations for it, people visit the establishment as much for the show as they do for the drinks; the skin of most citrus fruits oranges and lemons, contains flammable volatile oils. When a slice of peel is squeezed over a drink above a flame, such as from a match or a lighter, the resulting spray passes through the flame and is caramelized and produces a sparkle effect.
Any change in flavor is subtle, but the act of setting a spray of orange oil is performance more than culinary enhancement. This technique can be done anytime. Since, after squeezing, the peel will be rubbed around the edge of the glass and placed in the drink, it is best to use clean fruits; the fresher the fruit, the more oil there will be within the skin. A lemon, lime, or small orange is cut in half, hollowed out, typically floated inside an ornate tiki bowl filled with mixed liquors and fruit juices, or placed inside a large brandy snifter. A small amount of overproof rum is poured into the hollowed out shell and set on fire. Placing a sugar cube inside the shell helps in two ways. First, it acts as a wick to present a better flame, secondly, it adds weight to the shell and helps to prevent it from tipping into the drink; the caramelized sugar cube is edible. A fruit shell with flaming sugar may be placed on a drink for presentation or for delaying the lighting of flaming shots. A smaller fruit slice or peel may be used instead of a citrus half if th
The Maillard reaction is a chemical reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars that gives browned food its distinctive flavour. Seared steaks, pan-fried dumplings and other kinds of biscuits, toasted marshmallows, many other foods undergo this reaction, it is named after French chemist Louis-Camille Maillard, who first described it in 1912 while attempting to reproduce biological protein synthesis. The reaction is a form of non-enzymatic browning which proceeds from around 140 to 165 °C. Many recipes call for an oven temperature high enough to ensure. At higher temperatures and subsequently pyrolysis become more pronounced; the reactive carbonyl group of the sugar reacts with the nucleophilic amino group of the amino acid, forms a complex mixture of poorly characterized molecules responsible for a range of aromas and flavors. This process is accelerated in an alkaline environment, as the amino groups are deprotonated, hence have an increased nucleophilicity; the type of the amino acid determines the resulting flavor.
This reaction is the basis for many of the flavoring industry's recipes. At high temperatures, a potential carcinogen called. In the process, hundreds of different flavor compounds are created; these compounds, in turn, break down to form yet more new flavor compounds, so on. Each type of food has distinctive flavor compounds that are formed during the Maillard reaction. Flavor scientists have used these same compounds over the years to make artificial flavors. In 1912, Maillard published a paper to explain what happens when amino acids react with sugars at elevated temperatures. However, chemist John E. Hodge, working at the U. S. Department of Agriculture in Peoria, published a paper in 1953 that established a mechanism for the Maillard reaction; the Maillard reaction is responsible for many colors and flavors in foods, such as the browning of various meats when seared or grilled, the browning and umami taste in fried onions, coffee roasting. It is responsible for the darkened crust of baked goods, the golden-brown color of French fries and other crisps, of malted barley as found in malt whiskey and beer, the color and taste of dried and condensed milk, dulce de leche, the Sri Lankan confection milk toffee, black garlic and roasted peanuts.
6-Acetyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridine is responsible for the biscuit or cracker-like flavor present in baked goods such as bread and tortilla products. The structurally related compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline has a similar smell, occurs without heating and gives varieties of cooked rice and the herb pandan their typical smells. Both compounds have odor thresholds below 0.06 ng/l. The browning reactions that occur when meat is roasted or seared are complex, occur by Maillard browning with contributions from other chemical reactions, including the breakdown of the tetrapyrrole rings of the muscle protein myoglobin. Caramelization is an different process from Maillard browning, though the results of the two processes are sometimes similar to the naked eye. Caramelization may sometimes cause browning in the same foods in which the Maillard reaction occurs, but the two processes are distinct, they are both promoted by heating, but the Maillard reaction involves amino acids, as discussed above, whereas caramelization is the pyrolysis of certain sugars.
In making silage, excess heat causes the Maillard reaction to occur, which reduces the amount of energy and protein available to the animals that feed on it. The carbonyl group of the sugar reacts with the amino group of the amino acid, producing N-substituted glycosylamine and water The unstable glycosylamine undergoes Amadori rearrangement, forming ketosamines Several ways are known for the ketosamines to react further: Produce two water and reductones Diacetyl and other short-chain hydrolytic fission products can be formed. Produce brown nitrogenous polymers and melanoidins The open-chain Amadori products undergo further dehydration and deamination to produce dicarbonyls; this is a crucial intermediate. Dicarbonyls react with amines to produce Strecker aldehydes through Strecker degradation. Acrylamide, a possible human carcinogen, can be generated as a byproduct of Maillard reaction between reducing sugars and amino acids asparagine, both of which are present in most food products; the Maillard reaction occurs in the human body.
It is a step in the formation of advanced glycation endproducts. It is tracked by measuring pentosidine. Although the Maillard reaction has been studied most extensively in foods, it has shown a correlation in numerous different diseases in the human body, in particular degenerative eye diseases. In general, these diseases are due to the accumulation of AGEs on nucleic acids and lipids. Though AGEs have numerous origins, they can form from the oxidation and dehydration of Amadori adducts, which themselves are products of nonenzymatic Maillard reactions. Apart from ocular diseases, whose correlation with Maillard chemistry has been more studied, the formation of AGEs has proven to contribute to a wide range of human diseases that include diabetic complications, pulmonary fibrosis, neurodegeneration; the positron emission tomography imaging agent fluorodeoxyglucose has been shown to undergo the Maillard reaction to form fluorodeoxyglycosylamine. Receptor systems in the body have been suggested to have evolved to remove glycation-modified molecules, such as AGEs, to eliminate their effects.
Crêpes Suzette is a French dessert consisting of a crêpe with beurre Suzette, a sauce of caramelized sugar and butter, tangerine or orange juice and Grand Marnier, triple sec or orange Curaçao liqueur on top, prepared in a tableside performance, flambé. The origin of the dish and its name is disputed. One claim is that it was created from a mistake made by a fourteen-year-old assistant waiter Henri Charpentier in 1895 at the Maitre at Monte Carlo's Café de Paris, he was preparing a dessert for the Prince of Wales, the future King Edward VII of the United Kingdom, whose guests included a beautiful French girl named Suzette. This story was told by Charpentier himself in Life à la Henri, his autobiography, although contradicted by the Larousse Gastronomique, it was quite by accident. I thought; the Prince and his friends were waiting. How could I begin all over? I tasted it, it was, I thought, the most delicious medley of sweet flavors I had tasted. I still think so; that accident of the flame was what was needed to bring all those various instruments into one harmony of taste...
He ate the pancakes with a fork. He asked me the name of that. I told him, he recognized that the pancake controlled the gender and that this was a compliment designed for him. She was alert and rose to her feet and holding her little skirt wide with her hands she made him a curtsey. "Will you," said His Majesty, "change Crêpes Princesse to Crêpes Suzette?" Thus was born and baptized this confection, one taste of which, I believe, would reform a cannibal into a civilized gentleman. The next day I received a present from a jeweled ring, a panama hat and a cane. Different sources however doubt that Charpentier, rather than the head waiter, was serving the prince, because he would have been too young. A less fantastical version emerges from Elsie Lee's interview with him in the 1950s. There, Charpentier explained at length that his complicated version began as the dish of pancakes with fruit sauce his foster mother made on special occasions; the addition of liqueur was au courant among chefs in Paris at the time.
The other claim states that the dish was named in honour of French actress Suzanne Reichenberg, who worked professionally under the name Suzette. In 1897, Reichenberg appeared in the Comédie Française in the role of a maid, during which she served crêpes on stage. Monsieur Joseph, owner of Restaurant Marivaux, provided the crêpes, he decided to flambé the thin pancakes to attract the audience's attention and keep the food warm for the actors consuming them. Joseph was subsequently director of the Paillard Restaurant in Paris and was with the Savoy Hotel in London. In 1896, Oscar Tschirky published the recipe as "Pancakes, Casino Style" with everything in place except the final flambée. Escoffier described Crêpes Suzette in the English version of his Guide Culinaire in 1907 the same way without the final flambée; the dish was a specialty of the French restaurant Marie's by 1898
A Christmas Carol
A Christmas Carol. In Prose. Being a Ghost Story of Christmas known as A Christmas Carol, is a novella by Charles Dickens, first published in London by Chapman & Hall in 1843 and illustrated by John Leech. A Christmas Carol recounts the story of Ebenezer Scrooge, an elderly miser, visited by the ghost of his former business partner Jacob Marley and the spirits of Christmas Past and Yet to Come. After their visits, Scrooge is transformed into a gentler man. Dickens wrote A Christmas Carol during a period when the British were exploring and re-evaluating past Christmas traditions, including carols and newer customs such as Christmas trees, he was influenced by the experiences of his own youth and by the Christmas stories of other authors including Washington Irving and Douglas Jerrold. Dickens had written three Christmas stories prior to the novella, was inspired following a visit to the Field Lane Ragged School, one of several establishments for London's street children; the treatment of the poor and the ability of a selfish man to redeem himself by transforming into a more sympathetic character are the key themes of the story.
There is discussion among academics as to whether this was a secular story, or if it is a Christian allegory. Published on 19 December, the first edition sold out by Christmas Eve. Most critics reviewed the novella favourably; the story was illicitly copied in January 1844. He went on to write four other Christmas stories in subsequent years. In 1849 he began public readings of the story which proved so successful he undertook 127 further performances until 1870, the year of his death. A Christmas Carol has been translated into several languages. A Christmas Carol captured the zeitgeist of the mid-Victorian revival of the Christmas holiday. Dickens had acknowledged the influence of the modern Western observance of Christmas and inspired several aspects of Christmas, including family gatherings, seasonal food and drink, games and a festive generosity of spirit; the book is divided into five chapters, which Dickens titled "staves". A Christmas Carol opens on a bleak, cold Christmas Eve in London, seven years after the death of Ebenezer Scrooge's business partner, Jacob Marley.
Scrooge, an ageing miser, dislikes Christmas and refuses a dinner invitation from his nephew Fred—the son of Fan, Scrooge's dead sister. He turns away two men who seek a donation from him to provide food and heating for the poor and only grudgingly allows his overworked, underpaid clerk, Bob Cratchit, Christmas Day off with pay to conform to the social custom; that night Scrooge is visited at home by Marley's ghost, who wanders the Earth entwined by heavy chains and money boxes forged during a lifetime of greed and selfishness. Marley tells Scrooge that he has a single chance to avoid the same fate: he will be visited by three spirits and must listen or be cursed to carry much heavier chains of his own; the first spirit, the Ghost of Christmas Past, takes Scrooge to Christmas scenes of Scrooge's boyhood, reminding him of a time when he was more innocent. The scenes reveal Scrooge's lonely childhood at boarding school, his relationship with his beloved sister Fan, a Christmas party hosted by his first employer, Mr Fezziwig, who treated him like a son.
Scrooge's neglected fiancée Belle is shown ending their relationship, as she realises that he will never love her as much as he loves money. They visit a now-married Belle with her large, happy family on the Christmas Eve that Marley died. Scrooge, upset by hearing Belle's description of the man that he has become, demands that the ghost remove him from the house; the second spirit, the Ghost of Christmas Present, takes Scrooge to a joyous market with people buying the makings of Christmas dinner and to celebrations of Christmas in a miner's cottage and in a lighthouse. Scrooge and the ghost visit Fred's Christmas party. A major part of this stave is taken up with Bob Cratchit's family feast and introduces his youngest son, Tiny Tim, a happy boy, ill; the spirit informs Scrooge. Before disappearing, the spirit shows Scrooge two hideous, emaciated children named Ignorance and Want, he mocks Scrooge's concern for their welfare. The third spirit, the Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come, shows Scrooge a Christmas Day in the future.
The silent ghost reveals scenes involving the death of a disliked man whose funeral is attended by local businessmen only on condition that lunch is provided. His charwoman and the local undertaker steal his possessions to sell to a fence; when he asks the spirit to show a single person who feels emotion over his death, he is only given the pleasure of a poor couple who rejoice that his death gives them more time to put their finances in order. When Scrooge asks to see tenderness connected with any death, the ghost shows him Bob Cratchit and his family mourning the death of Tiny Tim; the ghost allows Scrooge to see a neglected grave, with a tombstone bearing Scrooge's name. Sobbing, Scrooge pledges to change his ways. Scrooge awakens on Christmas morning a changed man, he makes a large donation to the charity he rejected the day before, anonymously sends a large turkey to the Cratchit home for Christmas dinner and spends the afternoon with Fred's family. The following day he gives Cratchit an increase in pay and begins to become a father figure to Tiny Tim.
From on Scrooge treats everyone with kindness, generosity and co
Alexis Benoît Soyer was a French chef who became the most celebrated cook in Victorian England. He tried to alleviate suffering of the Irish poor in the Great Irish Famine, contributed a penny for the relief of the poor for every copy sold of his pamphlet The Poor Man's Regenerator, he worked to improve the food provided to British soldiers in the Crimean War. A variant of the field stove he invented at that time, known as the "Soyer stove", remained in use with the British army until 1982. Alexis Benoît Soyer was born to Emery Roche Soyer and his wife, Marie Chamberlan, at Meaux-en-Brie in France; the family had arrived in Meaux in 1799, on the advice of a relative employed as a notary in the town and attracted by its reputation as a stronghold of the Huguenot, or French Calvinist, community. His father had one of them as a grocer. There is little concrete evidence of Soyer's early life but according to François Volant his secretary and biographer, Soyer was sent by his parents at the age of nine to the Protestant seminary, as they had destined him for the ordained ministry.
Volant claims that Soyer resented the career path chosen for him and, after complaining to his parents, contrived his own dismissal. This is cannot be accurate, as his father died in Condé-Sainte-Libiaire, France, 20th August 1818. Alexis would be 8 years. Volant implicitly dates his expulsion from the seminary to 1820. Cowen points out that "there are no surviving records of his enrolment in any school." A year in 1821, he was sent to Paris to live with his elder brother, Phillipe. He became an apprentice at the restaurant of Georg Rignon in the Rue Vivienne, close to the Passage des Panoramas; the Rignon moved west to the Boulevard des Italiens close to the Café Anglais. In 1826 Soyer left to join the Maison Douix, an enormous restaurant further along the Boulevard des Italiens, where he became a chief cook within a year, heading a team of twelve. By 1830, Soyer was a second cook to the French prime minister. On 26 July 1830, while assisting in the kitchens of Polignac, armed supporters of "Les Trois Glorieuses" burst in and shot two of the staff.
Soyer escaped, fled to England where he joined the London household of Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, where his brother Philippe was head chef. He worked for various other British notables, he moved in 1832 to work as sous-chef for Henry Beresford, 3rd Marquess of Waterford, a notorious drunk and brawler. He soon moved to the household of George Leveson-Gower, 2nd Marquess of Stafford and Elizabeth Sutherland, 19th Countess of Sutherland, who were to become Duke and Duchess of Sutherland in the following year, 1833. However, the Duke died in July of that year, leaving the family's London home, Stafford House as a base for his daughter-in-law, Harriet, a glamorous Whig hostess and promoter of liberal causes: she was to remain an important friend and supporter of Soyer throughout his life. Soyer remained in the employment of the Leveson-Gower family for only a short time, moving to take charge of the kitchens of William and Louisa Lloyd, who owned three large properties around Oswestry in north Shropshire: Aston Hall, Whittington Castle and Chigwell House.
Soyer worked for the Lloyds for more than three years, becoming well-known among the Shropshire landed gentry, who vied to lure him away from the Lloyds or, at least, to borrow his services for important occasions. During his employment with the Lloyds he decided to have his portrait painted by François Simonau, a Belgian painter and teacher. Through Simonau he met a pupil, Elizabeth Emma Jones, whom he was to marry in 1837. Soyer left the Lloyds in the spring of 1836 to take over the kitchens of Archibald Kennedy, 1st Marquess of Ailsa at St Margaret's House near Twickenham, a large Thames-side residence that subsequently gave its name to its entire suburb. Ailsa had a central London base at Privy Gardens in Whitehall. A gourmet and a consistent supporter of Whig reforming legislation in the House of Lords, Ailsa was a prominent freemason and it is possible that it was he who introduced Soyer to the craft, which he pursued for the rest of his life. Ailsa took a active interest in the kitchen, discussing menus in detail with Soyer, was to remain a long term friend.
Soyer worked notably as chef of the Reform Club from 1837 to 1850, where he designed the innovative kitchens. His wife known as Emma Jones, achieved considerable popularity as a painter, chiefly of portraits, she was one of the youngest persons to exhibit at the Royal Academy. Her portrait of Soyer was engraved by Henry Bryan Hall, she died in 1842 following complications suffered in a premature childbirth brought on by a thunderstorm. Distraught, Soyer erected a monument to her at London. Soyer died on 5 August 1858. At the time of his death, he was designing a mobile cooking carriage for the British Army. On 11 August, he was buried beside his wife in Kensal Green Cemetery. In 1837 Soyer became chef de cuisine at the Reform Club in London, he designed the kitchens with Charles Barry at the newly built Club, where his salary was to be more than £1,000 a year. He instituted many innovations, including cooking with gas, refrigerators cooled by cold water, ovens with adjustable temperatures, his kitchens were so famous.
When Queen Victoria was crowned on 28 June 1838, he prepared a breakfast for 2,000 people at the Club. Soyer's eponymous Lamb Cutlets Reform are still on the Club menu. Soyer was an able self-promoter. "Soyer's Sultana's Sauce" was marketed for him through Crosse & Blackwell in an exotic
Wine is an alcoholic drink made from fermented grapes. Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol, carbon dioxide, heat. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts produce different styles of wine; these variations result from the complex interactions between the biochemical development of the grape, the reactions involved in fermentation, the terroir, the production process. Many countries enact legal appellations intended to define qualities of wine; these restrict the geographical origin and permitted varieties of grapes, as well as other aspects of wine production. Wines not made from grapes include rice wine and fruit wines such as plum, pomegranate and elderberry. Wine has been produced for thousands of years; the earliest known traces of wine are from Georgia and Sicily although there is evidence of a similar alcoholic drink being consumed earlier in China. The earliest known winery is the 6,100-year-old Areni-1 winery in Armenia. Wine reached the Balkans by 4500 BC and was consumed and celebrated in ancient Greece and Rome.
Throughout history, wine has been consumed for its intoxicating effects. Wine has long played an important role in religion. Red wine was associated with blood by the ancient Egyptians and was used by both the Greek cult of Dionysus and the Romans in their Bacchanalia; the earliest archaeological and archaeobotanical evidence for grape wine and viniculture, dating to 6000–5800 BC was found on the territory of modern Georgia. Both archaeological and genetic evidence suggest that the earliest production of wine elsewhere was later having taken place in the Southern Caucasus, or the West Asian region between Eastern Turkey, northern Iran; the earliest evidence of a grape-based fermented drink was found in China, Georgia from 6000 BC, Iran from 5000 BC, Sicily from 4000 BC. The earliest evidence of a wine production facility is the Areni-1 winery in Armenia and is at least 6100 years old. A 2003 report by archaeologists indicates a possibility that grapes were mixed with rice to produce mixed fermented drinks in China in the early years of the seventh millennium BC.
Pottery jars from the Neolithic site of Jiahu, contained traces of tartaric acid and other organic compounds found in wine. However, other fruits indigenous to the region, such as hawthorn, cannot be ruled out. If these drinks, which seem to be the precursors of rice wine, included grapes rather than other fruits, they would have been any of the several dozen indigenous wild species in China, rather than Vitis vinifera, introduced there 6000 years later; the spread of wine culture westwards was most due to the Phoenicians who spread outward from a base of city-states along the Mediterranean coast of what are today Syria, Lebanon and Palestine. The wines of Byblos were exported to Egypt during the Old Kingdom and throughout the Mediterranean. Evidence includes two Phoenician shipwrecks from 750 BC discovered by Robert Ballard, whose cargo of wine was still intact; as the first great traders in wine, the Phoenicians seem to have protected it from oxidation with a layer of olive oil, followed by a seal of pinewood and resin, similar to retsina.
Although the nuragic Sardinians consumed wine before the arrival of the Phoenicians The earliest remains of Apadana Palace in Persepolis dating back to 515 BC include carvings depicting soldiers from Achaemenid Empire subject nations bringing gifts to the Achaemenid king, among them Armenians bringing their famous wine. Literary references to wine are abundant in Homer and others. In ancient Egypt, six of 36 wine amphoras were found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun bearing the name "Kha'y", a royal chief vintner. Five of these amphoras were designated as originating from the king's personal estate, with the sixth from the estate of the royal house of Aten. Traces of wine have been found in central Asian Xinjiang in modern-day China, dating from the second and first millennia BC; the first known mention of grape-based wines in India is from the late 4th-century BC writings of Chanakya, the chief minister of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya. In his writings, Chanakya condemns the use of alcohol while chronicling the emperor and his court's frequent indulgence of a style of wine known as madhu.
The ancient Romans planted vineyards near garrison towns so wine could be produced locally rather than shipped over long distances. Some of these areas are now world-renowned for wine production; the Romans discovered that burning sulfur candles inside empty wine vessels kept them fresh and free from a vinegar smell. In medieval Europe, the Roman Catholic Church supported wine because the clergy required it for the Mass. Monks in France made wine for years. An old English recipe that survived in various forms until the 19th century calls for refining white wine from bastard—bad or tainted bastardo wine; the English word "wine" comes from the Proto-Germanic *winam, an early borrowing from the Latin vinum, "wine" or " vine", itself derived from the Proto-Indo-European stem *win-o-. The earliest attested terms referring to wine are the Mycenaean Greek me-tu-wo ne-wo, meaning "in" or " of the new wine", wo-no-wa-ti-si, meaning "wine garden", written in Linear B inscriptions. Linear B includes, inter alia, an ideogram for wine
Caramelization is the browning of sugar, a process used extensively in cooking for the resulting sweet nutty flavor and brown colour. The brown colours are produced by three groups of polymers: caramelans and caramelins; as the process occurs, volatile chemicals such as diacetyl are released, producing the characteristic caramel flavor. Like the Maillard reaction, caramelization is a type of non-enzymatic browning. However, unlike the Maillard reaction, caramelization is pyrolytic, as opposed to being a reaction with amino acids; when caramelization involves the disaccharide sucrose, it is broken down into the monosaccharides fructose and glucose. Caramelization is a complex, poorly understood process that produces hundreds of chemical products, includes the following types of reaction: equilibration of anomeric and ring forms sucrose inversion to fructose and glucose condensation reactions intramolecular bonding isomerization of aldoses to ketoses dehydration reactions fragmentation reactions unsaturated polymer formation.
The process is temperature-dependent. Specific sugars each have their own point. Impurities in the sugar, such as the molasses remaining in brown sugar speed the reactions; the caramelization reactions are sensitive to the chemical environment. By controlling the level of acidity, the reaction rate can be altered; the rate of caramelization is lowest at near-neutral acidity, accelerated under both acidic and basic conditions. Caramelization is used to produce several foods, including: Caramel sauce, a sauce made with caramel Confiture de lait, sweetened milk Dulce de leche, sweetened milk Caramel candies Caramelized onions, which are used in dishes like French onion soup. Onions require 30 to 45 minutes of cooking to caramelize. Caramelized potatoes Caramelized pears Cola, of which some brands use caramelised sugar in small amounts for colourNote that the preparation of many "caramelized" foods involves the Maillard reaction. Media related to Caramelization at Wikimedia Commons Maillard reaction Sugar in food management