English Gothic architecture
English Gothic is an architectural style originating in France, before flourishing in England from about 1180 until about 1520. As with the Gothic architecture of other parts of Europe, English Gothic is defined by its pointed arches, vaulted roofs, large windows, spires; the Gothic style was introduced from France, where the various elements had first been used together within a single building at the choir of the Basilique Saint-Denis north of Paris, built by the Abbot Suger and dedicated on 11 June 1144. The earliest large-scale applications of Gothic architecture in England are at Canterbury Cathedral and Westminster Abbey. Many features of Gothic architecture had evolved from Romanesque architecture; this evolution can be seen most at the Norman Durham Cathedral, which has the earliest pointed ribbed high vault known. English Gothic was to develop along lines that sometimes paralleled and sometimes diverged from those of continental Europe. Historians traditionally divide English Gothic into a number of different periods, which may be further subdivided to define different styles.
Gothic architecture continued to flourish in England for a hundred years after the precepts of Renaissance architecture were formalised in Florence in the early 15th century. The Gothic style gave way to the Renaissance in the 16th and 17th centuries, but was revived in the late 18th century as an academic style and had great popularity as Gothic Revival architecture throughout the 19th century. Many of the largest and finest works of English architecture, notably the medieval cathedrals of England, are built in the Gothic style. So are castles, great houses and many smaller unpretentious secular buildings, including almshouses and trade halls. Another important group of Gothic buildings in England are the parish churches, like the medieval cathedrals, are of earlier, Norman foundation; the designation of styles in English Gothic architecture follow conventional labels given them by the antiquary Thomas Rickman, who coined the terms in his Attempt to Discriminate the Style of Architecture in England.
Historians sometimes refer to the styles as "periods", e.g. "Perpendicular period" in much the same way as an historical era may be referred to as the "Tudor period". The various styles are seen at their most developed in the cathedrals, abbey churches and collegiate buildings, it is, however, a distinctive characteristic of the cathedrals of England that all but one of them, Salisbury Cathedral, show great stylistic diversity and have building dates that range over 400 years. Early English Decorated Perpendicular The Early English Period of English Gothic lasted from the late 12th century until midway through the 13th century, according to most modern scholars, such as Nikolaus Pevsner. According to the originator of the term in 1817, Thomas Rickman, the period ran from 1189 to 1307. In the late 12th century, the Early English Gothic style superseded the Romanesque or Norman style. During the late 13th century, it developed into the Decorated Gothic style, which lasted until the mid-14th century.
With all of these early architectural styles, there is a gradual overlap between the periods. As fashions changed, new elements were used alongside older ones in large buildings such as churches and cathedrals, which were constructed over long periods of time, it is customary, therefore, to recognise a transitional phase between the Romanesque and Early English periods from the middle of the 12th century. Although known as Early English, this new Gothic style had originated in the area around Paris before spreading to England. There it was first known as "the French style", it was first used in the choir or "quire" of the abbey church of St Denis, dedicated in June 1144. Before that, some features had been included in Durham Cathedral, showing a combination of Romanesque and proto-Gothic styles. By 1175, with the completion of the Choir at Canterbury Cathedral by William of Sens, the style was established in England; the most significant and characteristic development of the Early English period was the pointed arch known as the lancet.
Pointed arches were used universally, not only in arches of wide span such as those of the nave arcade, but for doorways and lancet windows. Romanesque builders used round arches, although they had occasionally employed pointed ones, notably at Durham Cathedral, where they are used for structural purposes in the Nave aisles. Compared with the rounded Romanesque style, the pointed arch of the Early English Gothic looks more refined, it allows for much greater variation in proportions, whereas the strength of round arches depends on semicircular form. Through the use of the pointed arch, architects could design less massive walls and provide larger window openings that were grouped more together, so they could achieve a more open and graceful building; the high walls and vaulted stone roofs were supported by flying buttresses: half arches which transmit the outward thrust of the superstructure to supports or buttresses visible on the exterior of the building. The barrel vaults and groin vaults characteristic of Romanesque building were replaced by rib vaults, which made possible a wider range of proportions between height
Sainte-Chapelle de Vincennes
The Sainte-Chapelle de Vincennes is a Gothic chapel within the fortifications of the château de Vincennes near Paris, France. It was founded in 1379 by Charles V of France to house relics of the passion of Christ, its design by Raymond du Temple and Pierre de Montereau was based on that of the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris, although the version at Vincennes only had a single level compared to the two levels of the Paris version. On Charles V's death in 1380, work on the chapel continued under his successor Charles VI, under whose rule the choir, the two oratories, the sacristy and the treasury were all completed, with the treasury housing the relics; the nave's construction continued. The facade was only completed by Louis XI of France. Under Francis I of France, the ordinary almoner to the king, Guillaume Crétin served as the chapel's treasurer, before becoming cantor at the main Sainte-Chapelle in Paris; the interior decoration was only finished under Henry II of France, who in 1551 moved the order of Saint Michael's base from Mont-Saint-Michel to Vincennes.
The following year he inaugurated the chapel. In 1793, during the French Revolution, the interior decoration was destroyed, the stained glass windows smashed and the Baptistery of Saint Louis moved to the Louvre Museum; the chapel houses Louis Antoine, Duke of Enghien. The latter was executed in 1804 in the moat of the Château de Vincennes, near a grave, prepared.
Abbeville is a commune in the Somme department and in Hauts-de-France region in northern France. It is the chef-lieu of one of the arrondissements of Somme. Located on the River Somme, it was the capital of Ponthieu, its inhabitants are called the Abbevillois. Abbeville is located on 20 km from its modern mouth in the English Channel; the majority of the town is located on the east bank of the Somme, as well as on an island. It is located at the head of the Abbeville Canal, is 45 km northwest of Amiens and 200 kilometres from Paris, it is 10 kilometres as the crow flies from the Bay of Somme and the English Channel. In the medieval period, it was the lowest crossing point on the Somme and it was nearby that Edward III's army crossed shortly before the Battle of Crécy in 1346. Just halfway between Rouen and Lille, it is the historical capital of the County of Ponthieu and maritime Picardy. Émonville Park takes its name from one of its owners Arthur Foulc d'Émonville, an amateur botanist, who bought a part of the Priory of Saints Peter and Paul in order to accommodate a garden and to construct a mansion, which now houses the study and heritage section of the Robert Mallet municipal library.
The remains of the priory include the entrance arch, current main entrance of the garden located on Place Clemenceau, as well as some buildings which make up the Saint-Pierre School, including the remarkable Chapel of Saint-Pierre-Saint-Paul. This place is considered by some to be the origin of Abbeville, because it was the location of the first château of the Counts of Ponthieu, called castrum, it is assumed that this place could have been the location of the farm of Abbatisvilla, dependent upon the Abbey of Saint-Riquier. The suburbs of La Bouvaque and Thuison are located to the north of the city; the municipal park of La Bouvaque, bordered by the Boulevard de la République, consists of the La Bouvaque pond and Collart meadows, former settling ponds of the Béghin-Say sugar factory. It was in Thuison that the Carthusian monastery of Saint-Honoré was founded in 1301 by William of Mâcon, Bishop of Amiens; this was a property of the Order of the Temple, sold to the latter by Gérard de Villars, the last master of the province of France.
The sale was confirmed by Hugues de Pairaud visitor of France. The suburb of Saint Gilles Rouvroy is to the west, the origin of the name comes from Rouvray indicates the presence of an oak wood or a remarkable oak. Mautort, beside Rouvroy, is a former stronghold located between Abbeville, it is at the origin of the noble name of de Mautort, surviving in the name of the Tillette de Mautort family or, for example, of Georges-Victor Demautort. The name tort is attested in Old French with the sense of Mau; the Church of Saint-Silvin de Mautort, emblematic of the quarter, was a simple chapel of sailors founded in the 11th century and underwent many changes during the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. Menchecourt, in the north-west, is known for its football club. Abbeville is served by trains on the line between Boulogne-sur-Mer and Amiens and between Calais and Paris. Abbeville was the southern terminus of the Réseau des Bains de Mer, the line to Dompierre-sur-Authie opened on 19 June 1892 and closed on 10 March 1947.
Abbeville is located just near the A16 autoroute, is about 1 hour 50 minutes by car from Paris. Abbeville has an oceanic climate due to its proximity to the ocean; the summers and winters are temperate and rainy, days of snow are common. There are 26 days of storm per year with a maximum in the months of July and August, the rains are frequent and distributed in the year with precipitation totalling 781.3 millimetres and 128 days with precipitation. The sunshine is average because of its position in the north and the oceanic influence helps to prevent temperatures from being too high with only three days of intense heat and from being too cold with 6 days of heavy frost; the highest temperature was 37.8 °C on 1 July 1952 and the record low is −17.4 °C, which occurred during a cold spell on 17 January 1985. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses carried out in the town since 1793. From the 21st century, the communes with more than 10,000 inhabitants have a census take place every year as a result of a sample survey, unlike the other communes which have a real census every five years.
The population of the commune is old. The rate of persons over 60 years of age is higher than the departmental rate. Like national and departmental allocations, the female population of the commune is greater than the male population; the rate is over two points higher than the national rate. In 2007, the distribution of the population of the commune by age group is as follows: 45.6% of males 54.4% of females Abbeville is the seat of the Chambre de commerce et d'industrie d'Abbeville - Picardie maritime. It manages the aerodrome and industrial areas of the arrondissement of Abbeville. Abbeville manufactured textiles, in particular and tablecloths when the Van Robais family created la Manufacture Royale des Rames
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Notre-Dame de l'Épine
The Basilique Notre-Dame de l'Épine is a Roman Catholic basilica in the small village of L'Épine, near Châlons-en-Champagne and Verdun. It is a major masterpiece in the Flamboyant Gothic style. Started around 1405-1406, construction lasted until 1527. Elevated to a basilica from 1914, Notre-Dame-de-l'Épine takes its name from the devotion given to a statue of the Virgin holding the Child Jesus. According to a legend from the 17th century that has since evolved, the statue was found by shepherds in the Middle Ages in a burning thorn bush; the basilica is in the Gothic architectural tradition. The façade is crowned with two spires; the right spire is 55 metres high. The left spire was leveled in 1798 to allow the installation of a Claude Chappe telegraph, it was rebuilt in 1868. The basilica was classified a historic monument in 1840. In 1998 it was registered on the World Heritage List by UNESCO under the title of "roads to St Jacques de Compostela in France". Notre-Dame de l'Épine has always struck travelers and inspired writers Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas,Joris-Karl Huysmans, Paul Claudel and Paul Fort.
The basilica has remarkable gargoyles. Inside, you can admire a rood screen of the late 15th century whose right arcade houses the statue of the Virgin for which this basilica is famous. Statues include the Venerated Seated virgin and St. Jacques in wood; the altars date from 1542, the rood screen from the 17th century. The tribune and organ case are 16th century; the tribune is decorated with seven pagan gods. The choir organ is from Merklin. Stained glass is from the 19th and 20th centuries manufactured by the Champigneulle house. Citations Sources External link Page du télégraphe Chappe
Bourg-en-Bresse is a commune in eastern France, capital of the Ain department, the capital of the ancient province of Bresse. It is located 70 km north-northeast of Lyon; the inhabitants of Bourg-en-Bresse are known as Burgiens. Bourg-en-Bresse is located at the western base of the Jura mountains, on the left bank of the Reyssouze, a tributary of the Saône, it lies 70 kilometers northeast of 50 kilometers south-southwest of Lons-le-Saunier. Roman remains have been discovered at Bourg, it was pillaged by Goths in Late Antiquity. Raised to the rank of a free town in 1250, it was at the beginning of the 15th century the capital of the dukes of Savoy in the province of Bresse. In February 1535 it was conquered by France during a full-scale invasion of Savoy, but was restored to Duke Philibert Emmanuel in 1559, when he married Henri II's sister Marguerite; the duke built a strong citadel, which afterwards withstood a six-months' siege by the soldiers of Henry IV during the Franco-Savoyard War of 1600–1601.
The town was ceded to France in 1601. In 1814, the inhabitants, in spite of the defenseless condition of their town, offered resistance to the Austrians, who put the place to pillage; the church of Notre-Dame has a façade built in the Renaissance. In the interior there are stalls of the 16th century; the other public buildings, including a handsome prefecture, are modern. The town hall contains a library and the Lorin Museum with a collection of pictures, while another museum has a collection of old costumes and ornaments characteristic of Bresse. Among the statues in the town there is one of a native of Bourg; the church of Brou, a suburb of Bourg-en-Bresse, is of great artistic interest. Margaret of Bourbon, wife of Philip II of Savoy, had intended to found a monastery on the spot, but died before her intention could be carried into effect; the church was built early in the 16th century by her daughter-in-law Margaret of Austria, wife of Philibert le Beau of Savoy, in memory of her husband. The exterior the façade, is richly ornamented, but the chief interest lies in the works of art in the interior, which date from 1532.
The most important are the three mausoleums with the marble effigies of Marguerite of Bourbon, Philibert le Beau, Margaret of Austria. All three are remarkable for perfection of richness of ornamentation; the rood loft, the oak stalls, the reredos in the chapel of the Virgin are masterpieces in a similar style. In the early 20th century, the city manufactured iron goods, mineral waters, tallow and earthenware, there were flour mills and breweries; the Gare de Bourg-en-Bresse railway station offers connections to Paris, Strasbourg and Geneva by high-speed rail, several regional destinations. The A39 motorway connects the A40 with Mâcon and Geneva. Football Bourg-en-Bresse Péronnas 01 is based in the town. Bourg is the seat of a prefect and of a court of assizes, has a tribunal of first instance, a tribunal and a chamber of commerce, a branch of the Bank of France, its educational establishments include lycées, training collèges. Bourg-en-Bresse was the departure of Stage 7 in the 2007 Tour de France.
Bourg-en-Bresse was the birthplace of: Claude Gaspard Bachet de Méziriac, mathematician Julien Benneteau, tennis player Georges Blanc, chef Raymond Chevallier and archaeologist François Clerc, football player for Olympique Lyonnais and the French national team Alain Giletti, ice skater Jérôme Lalande, astronomer Daniel Morelon, cyclist Jean-Bernard Gauthier de Murnan, French officer for the Continental Army and general during the French Revolution Lionel Nallet, international rugby union player Jacques Pépin, chef Edgar Quinet and man of letters Bourg-en-Bresse is twinned with: Bad Kreuznach, Germany Additionally, it has established partnerships with: Bressan Arpitania Arpitan language Communes of the Ain department Pierre-Marie Poisson INSEE City council website
The Manueline, or Portuguese late Gothic, is the sumptuous, composite Portuguese style of architectural ornamentation of the first decades of the 16th century, incorporating maritime elements and representations of the discoveries brought from the voyages of Vasco da Gama and Pedro Álvares Cabral. This innovative style synthesizes aspects of Late Gothic architecture with influences of the Spanish Plateresque style, Mudéjar, Italian urban architecture, Flemish elements, it marks the transition from Late Gothic to Renaissance. The construction of churches and monasteries in Manueline was financed by proceeds of the lucrative spice trade with Africa and India; the style was given its name, many years by Francisco Adolfo de Varnhagen, Viscount of Porto Seguro, in his 1842 book, Noticia historica e descriptiva do Mosteiro de Belem, com um glossario de varios termos respectivos principalmente a architectura gothica, in his description of the Jerónimos Monastery. Varnhagen named the style after King Manuel I.
The style was much influenced by the astonishing successes of the voyages of discovery of Portuguese navigators, from the coastal areas of Africa to the discovery of Brazil and the ocean routes to the Far East, drawing on the style and decorations of East Indian temples. Although the period of this style did not last long, it played an important part in the development of Portuguese art; the influence of the style outlived the king. Celebrating the newly maritime power, it manifested itself in architecture and extended into other arts such as sculpture, works of art made of precious metals and furniture; this decorative style is characterized by virtuoso complex ornamentation in portals, windows and arcades. In its end period it tended to become excessively exuberant as in Tomar. Several elements appear in these intricately carved stoneworks: elements used on ships: the armillary sphere, anchors, anchor chains and cables. Elements from the sea, such as shells and strings of seaweed. Botanical motifs such as laurel branches, oak leaves, poppy capsules, thistles.
Symbols of Christianity such as the cross of the Order of Christ, the military order that played a prominent role and helped finance the first voyages of discovery. The cross of this order decorated the sails of the Portuguese ships. Elements from newly discovered lands columns carved like twisted strands of rope semicircular arches of doors and windows, sometimes consisting of three or more convex curves multiple pillars eight-sided capitals lack of symmetry conical pinnacles bevelled crenellations ornate portals with niches or canopies; when King Manuel I died in 1521, he had funded 62 construction projects. However, much original Manueline architecture in Portugal was lost or damaged beyond restoration in the 1755 Lisbon earthquake and subsequent tsunami. In Lisbon, the Ribeira Palace, residence of King Manuel I, the Hospital Real de Todos os Santos were destroyed, along with several churches; the city, still has outstanding examples of the style in the Jerónimos Monastery and in the small fortress of the Belém Tower.
Both are located close to each other in the Belém neighbourhood. The portal of the Church of Nossa Senhora da Conceição Velha, in downtown Lisbon, has survived destruction. Outside Lisbon, the church and chapter house of the Convent of the Order of Christ at Tomar is a major Manueline monument. In particular, the large window of the chapter house, with its fantastic sculptured organic and twisted rope forms, is one of the most extraordinary achievements of the Manueline style. Other major Manueline monuments include the arcade screens of the Royal Cloister and the Unfinished Chapels at the Monastery of Batalha and the Royal Palace of Sintra. Other remarkable Manueline buildings include the church of the Monastery of Jesus of Setúbal, the Santa Cruz Monastery in Coimbra, the main churches in Golegã, Vila do Conde, Caminha, Olivença and portions of the cathedrals of Braga and Guarda. Civil buildings in Manueline style exist in Évora and the Castle of Évoramonte of 1531), Viana do Castelo, Guimarães and some other towns.
The style was extended to the decorative arts and spread throughout the Portuguese Empire, to the islands of the Azores, enclaves in North Africa, Goa in Portuguese India and Macau, China. Its influence is apparent in southern Spain, the Canary Islands, North Africa and the former Spanish colonies of Peru and Mexico. Diogo Boitac Mateus Fernandes Diogo de Arruda Francisco de Arruda João de Castilho Vasco Fernandes Jorge Afonso Cristóvão de Figueiredo Garcia Fernandes Gregório Lopes Neo-Manueline History of wood carving Manueline architects Atanázio, A Arte do Manuelino, Presença, 1984. Turner, J. Grove Dictionary of Art, Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 1996.