Flamenco, in its strictest sense, is an art form based on the various folkloric music traditions of southern Spain in the autonomous community of Andalusia and Murcia. In a wider sense, the term is used to refer to a variety of Spanish musical styles; the oldest record of flamenco music dates to 1774 in the book Las Cartas Marruecas by José Cadalso. Flamenco has been associated with the Romani people in Spain; the exact origin of flamenco is the subject of many hypotheses. The most widespread is that flamenco was developed through the cross-cultural interchange between native Andalusians, Castilians and Sephardic Jews in Andalusia during the Moorish occupation.. Federico García Lorca wrote that the presence of flamenco in Andalusia predates the arrival of Romani people to the region. However, the Diccionario de la lengua española attributes the creation of the style directly to the Spanish Romani. Flamenco has become popular all over the world the United States and Japan. In Japan, there are more flamenco academies.
On November 16, 2010, UNESCO declared flamenco one of the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. There are many suggestions for the origin of the word flamenco as a musical term, but no solid evidence for any of them; the word is Spanish for "Flemish". The word was not recorded as a musical and dance term until the late 18th century, in the book Las Cartas Marruecas by José Cadalso. One theory, proposed by Andalusian historian Blas Infante, is that the word is derived from the Hispano-Arabic term fellah mengu, meaning "expelled peasant", referring to the Andalusians of Islamic faith and the remaining Moriscos who fled with the Roma newcomers. Another theory is that the Spanish word flamenco is a derivative of the Spanish word, meaning "fire" or "flame"; the word flamenco may have been used for fiery behaviour, which could have come to be applied to the Gitano players and performers. Palos are flamenco styles, classified by criteria such as rhythmic pattern, chord progression, stanzaic form and geographic origin.
There are over 50 different palos, some are sung unaccompanied while others have guitar or other accompaniment. Some forms are danced; some are reserved for men and others for women while some may be performed by either, though these traditional distinctions are breaking down: the Farruca, for example, once a male dance, is now performed by women too. There are many ways to categorize Palos but they traditionally fall into three classes: the most serious is known as cante jondo, while lighter, frivolous forms are called cante chico. Forms that do not fit either category are classed as cante intermedio; these are the best known palos: Alegrías Bulerías Bulerías por soleá Caracoles Cartageneras Fandango Fandango de Huelva Fandango Malagueño Farruca Granaínas Guajiras Malagueñas Martinete Mineras Nanas Peteneras Rondeñas Saeta Seguiriyas Soleá Tangos Tanguillos Tarantos Tientos Villancicos A typical flamenco recital with voice and guitar accompaniment comprises a series of pieces in different palos.
Each song is a set of verses, punctuated by guitar interludes. The guitarist provides a short introduction setting the tonality, compás and tempo of the cante. In some palos, these falsetas are played with a specific structure too. Flamenco uses the Flamenco mode, in addition to the major and minor scales used in modern Western music; the Phrygian mode occurs in palos such as soleá, most bulerías, siguiriyas and tientos. A typical chord sequence called the "Andalusian cadence" may be viewed as in a modified Phrygian: in E the sequence is Am–G–F–E. According to Manolo Sanlúcar E is here the tonic, F has the harmonic function of dominant while Am and G assume the functions of subdominant and mediant respectively. Guitarists tend to use only two basic inversions or "chord shapes" for the tonic chord, the open 1st inversion E and the open 3rd inversion A, though they transpose these by using a capo. Modern guitarists such as Ramón Montoya, have introduced other positions: Montoya himself started to use other chords for the tonic in the modern Dorian sections of several palos.
Montoya created a new palo as a solo for guitar, the rondeña in C♯ with scordatura. Guitarists have further extended the repertoire of tonalities, chord positions and scordatura. There are palos in major mode; the minor mode is restricted to the Farruca, the milongas, some styles of tangos, bulerías, etc. In general traditional palos in major and minor mode are limited harmonically to two-chord or three-chord progressions; however modern guitarists have introduced chord substitution, transition chords, modulation. Fandangos and derivative
A Temporal Raster Plot is a graphic representation of occurrences in a certain temporal relation. Temporal Raster Plots are sometimes referred to as carpet plots; each occurrence is registered in a Cartesian coordinate system, in which both axes show time, have different time resolutions: one axis shows slices of data, the other some sensible interval. A common example would be that one axis shows hours in the other days in a year. In a 2D plot, the value to be plotted is coded with a color. In the 3D variant of the plot, it is coded as a height; when visualized the color-coded variant of the plot may show a carpet-like pattern. Temporal Raster Plots make it easy to show time-based relations within a large sets of time-interval data and make it easy to recognize local maxima and minima. Assuming the chosen time division is related to the events, it is easy to recognize global and local patterns, such as recurrent events. In the following example, the data is one year's worth of measurements of the outdoor temperatures in Augsburg, with four samples taken per hour.
In the according carpet diagram, each column represents a day in the year and contains the values for that day. Despite the high number of measure points it is easy to distinguish global patterns. Media related to Temporal Raster Plot at Wikimedia Commons Matlab Script to create temporal-raster carpet plots
Richard Cotsman Wright was a Canadian architect who served as Chief Dominion Architect from 1918-1927. As chief government architect he was responsible for many of the federal buildings constructed in this period, he embraced the Collegiate Gothic architecture. He was born in London, Ontario on 5 January 1860, he was educated in Ontario. He received private tutoring as an construction engineer, he articled with Tracy & Durand, in London, Ontario from 1877 to 1881. He spent from 1881-1896 working as an assistant in New York to Richard M. Hunt, Bruce Price, Charles C. Haight, he became an associate of Clarence S. Luce, in New York. In 1906, he became Assistant Chief Architect in the Department of Public Works in Ontario, he serving directly under David Ewart Chief Dominion Architect. In June 1914 he retired to work in the private sector. In October 1915, he returned to his post as Assistant Chief Architect in the Department of Public Works in Ottawa, Ontario. In early 1918 he succeeded Edgar Lewis Horwood as Chief Dominion Architect.
As Chief Dominion Architect, he supervised the design and construction of every post office, customs building and federal government building erected in Canada between 1918 until 1927. His most significant work was the Confederation Building, in the Chateau Style. After Wright died in office, in January 1927, he was succeeded by Thomas W. Fuller, he designed a number of buildings in Ontario. These include: The Hunter Building, Queen Street at Albert Street and O'Connor Street, 1918–19, he designed two major additions at Royal Military College of Canada in Kingston Ontario. Known as the Currie Building, the Education Block, with west wing, assembly hall, tower is in the Collegiate Gothic style, he designed an addition to the Royal Military College of Canada Dormitory Building. He designed a number of Dominion Public Buildings: Alberta, he designed a number of post offices across Canada. Hamilton, Postal Station B, Barton Street at Stirton Avenue, he designed a Customs Examining Warehouse in Ontario.
Richard Cotsman Wright