Woodcut is a relief printing technique in printmaking. An artist carves an image into the surface of a block of wood—typically with gouges—leaving the printing parts level with the surface while removing the non-printing parts. Areas that the artist cuts away carry no ink, while characters or images at surface level carry the ink to produce the print; the block is cut along the wood grain. The surface is covered with ink by rolling over the surface with an ink-covered roller, leaving ink upon the flat surface but not in the non-printing areas. Multiple colors can be printed by keying the paper to a frame around the woodblocks; the art of carving the woodcut can be called "xylography", but this is used in English for images alone, although that and "xylographic" are used in connection with block books, which are small books containing text and images in the same block. They became popular in Europe during the latter half of the 15th century. A single-sheet woodcut is a woodcut presented as a single image or print, as opposed to a book illustration.
Since it's origins in China, the practice of woodcut has spread across the world from Europe, to other parts of Asia, to Latin America. In both Europe and the Far East, traditionally the artist only designed the woodcut, the block-carving was left to specialist craftsmen, called block-cutters, or Formschneider in Germany, some of whom became well-known in their own right. Among these, the best-known are the 16th-century Hieronymus Andreae, Hans Lützelburger and Jost de Negker, all of whom ran workshops and operated as printers and publishers; the formschneider in turn handed the block on to specialist printers. There were further specialists; this is why woodcuts are sometimes described by museums or books as "designed by" rather than "by" an artist. The division of labour had the advantage that a trained artist could adapt to the medium easily, without needing to learn the use of woodworking tools. There were various methods of transferring the artist's drawn design onto the block for the cutter to follow.
Either the drawing would be made directly onto the block, or a drawing on paper was glued to the block. Either way, the artist's drawing was destroyed during the cutting process. Other methods were used, including tracing. In both Europe and the Far East in the early 20th century, some artists began to do the whole process themselves. In Japan, this movement was called sōsaku-hanga, as opposed to shin-hanga, a movement that retained traditional methods. In the West, many artists used the easier technique of linocut instead. Compared to intaglio techniques like etching and engraving, only low pressure is required to print; as a relief method, it is only necessary to ink the block and bring it into firm and contact with the paper or cloth to achieve an acceptable print. In Europe, a variety of woods including boxwood and several nut and fruit woods like pear or cherry were used. There are three methods of printing to consider: Stamping: Used for many fabrics and most early European woodcuts; these were printed by putting the paper/fabric on a table or other flat surface with the block on top, pressing or hammering the back of the block.
Rubbing: Apparently the most common method for Far Eastern printing on paper at all times. Used for European woodcuts and block-books in the fifteenth century, widely for cloth. Used for many Western woodcuts from about 1910 to the present; the block goes face up with the paper or fabric on top. The back is rubbed with a "hard pad, a flat piece of wood, a burnisher, or a leather frotton". A traditional Japanese tool used for this is called a baren. In Japan, complex wooden mechanisms were used to help hold the woodblock still and to apply proper pressure in the printing process; this was helpful once multiple colors were introduced and had to be applied with precision atop previous ink layers. Printing in a press: presses only seem to have been used in Asia in recent times. Printing-presses were used from about 1480 for European prints and block-books, before that for woodcut book illustrations. Simple weighted presses may have been used in Europe before the print-press, but firm evidence is lacking.
A deceased Abbess of Mechelen in 1465 had "unum instrumentum ad imprintendum scripturas et ymagines... cum 14 aliis lapideis printis"—"an instrument for printing texts and pictures... with 14 stones for printing". This is too early to be a Gutenberg-type printing press in that location. Main articles Old master print for Europe, Woodblock printing in Japan for Japan, Lubok for Russia Woodcut originated in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and on paper; the earliest woodblock printed fragments to survive are from China, from the Han dynasty, are of silk printed with flowers in three colours. "In the 13th century the Chinese technique of blockprinting was transmitted to Europe." Paper arrived in Europe from China via al-Andalus later, was being manufactured in Italy by the end of the thirteenth century, in Burgundy and Germany by the end of the fourteenth. In Europe, woodcut is the oldest technique used for old master prints, developing about 1400, by using, on paper, existing techniques for printing.
One of the more ancient woodcuts on paper that can be seen today is The Fire Madonna, in the Cat
Pytheas of Massalia was a Greek geographer and explorer from the Greek colony of Massalia. He made a voyage of exploration to northwestern Europe in about 325 BC, but his account of it, known in Antiquity, has not survived and is now known only through the writings of others. On this voyage, he circumnavigated and visited a considerable part of modern-day Great Britain and Ireland, he was the first known scientific visitor to see and describe the Arctic, polar ice, the Celtic and Germanic tribes. He is the first person on record to describe the Midnight Sun; the theoretical existence of some Northern phenomena that he described, such as a frigid zone, temperate zones where the nights are short in summer and the sun does not set at the summer solstice, was known. Reports of a country of perpetual snow and darkness had reached the Mediterranean some centuries before. Pytheas introduced the idea of distant Thule to the geographic imagination, his account of the tides is the earliest one known that suggests the moon as their cause.
He may have reached Iceland. Pliny says. First century BC Strabo says; that is all the information. Presuming that Timaeus would not have written until after he was 20 years old in about 330 BC and Dicaearchus would have needed time to write his most mature work, after 300 BC, there is no reason not to accept Henry Fanshawe Tozer's interval of 330–300 BC for the voyage; some would give Timaeus an extra 5 years, bringing the voyage to 325 BC at earliest. There is no further evidence. If one presumes that Pytheas would not have written before reaching age 20, he would have been a contemporary and competitor of Timaeus and Dicaearchus; as they read his writings he must have written toward the earlier years of the interval. Pytheas described his travels in a work. Most of the ancients, including the first two just mentioned, refer to his work by his name: "Pytheas says …" Two late writers give titles: the astronomical author Geminus of Rhodes mentions τὰ περὶ τοῦ Ὠκεανοῦ "things about the Ocean", sometimes translated as "Description of the Ocean", "On the Ocean" or "Ocean".
Scholars of the 19th century tended to interpret these titles as the names of distinct works covering separate voyages. As is common with ancient texts, multiple titles may represent a single source, for example, if a title refers to a section rather than the whole. Presently periplus is recognized as a genre of navigational literature. Mainstream consensus is that there was only one work, "on the Ocean", based on a periplus. Diodorus does not mention Pytheas by name; the association is made as follows: Pliny reports that "Timaeus says there is an island named Mictis … where tin is found, to which the Britons cross." Diodorus says. The last link is supplied by Strabo, who says that an emporium on the island of Corbulo in the mouth of the river Loire was associated with the Britain of Pytheas by Polybius. Assuming that Ictis and Corbulo are the same, Diodorus appears to have read Timaeus, who must have read Pytheas, whom Polybius read. Pytheas was the first documented Mediterranean mariner to reach the British Isles.
The start of Pytheas's voyage is unknown. The Carthaginians had closed the Strait of Gibraltar to all ships from other nations; some historians of the late 19th century and before, therefore speculated that he must have traveled overland to the mouth of the Loire or the Garonne. Others believed that, to avoid the Carthaginian blockade, he may have stayed close to land and sailed only at night, or taken advantage of a temporary lapse in the blockade. An alternate theory is that by the 4th century BC, the western Greeks the Massaliotes, were on amicable terms with Carthage. In 348 BC, Carthage and Rome came to terms over the Sicilian Wars with a treaty defining their mutual interests. Rome could use Sicilian markets, Carthage could buy and sell goods at Rome, slaves taken by Carthage from allies of Rome were to be set free. Rome was to stay out of the western Mediterranean, but these terms did not apply to Massalia, which had its own treaty. During the second half of the 4th century BC, the time of Pytheas' voyage, Massaliotes were free to operate as they pleased.
The early part of Pytheas' voyage is outlined by statements of Eratosthenes that Strabo says are false because taken from Pytheas. Pytheas said that tides ended at the "sacred promontory", from there to Gades is said to be 5 days' sail. Strabo complains about this distance, about Pytheas' portrayal of the exact location of Tartessos. Mention of these places in a journal of the voyage indicates that P
Neil deGrasse Tyson
Neil deGrasse Tyson is an American astrophysicist and science communicator. Since 1996, he has been the Frederick P. Rose Director of the Hayden Planetarium at the Rose Center for Earth and Space in New York City; the center is part of the American Museum of Natural History, where Tyson founded the Department of Astrophysics in 1997 and has been a research associate in the department since 2003. Tyson studied at the University of Texas at Austin and Columbia University. From 1991 to 1994 he was a postdoctoral research associate at Princeton University. In 1994, he joined the Hayden Planetarium as a staff scientist and the Princeton faculty as a visiting research scientist and lecturer. In 1996, he became director of the planetarium and oversaw its $210 million reconstruction project, completed in 2000. From 1995 to 2005, Tyson wrote monthly essays in the "Universe" column for Natural History magazine, some of which were published in his books Death by Black Hole and Astrophysics for People in a Hurry.
During the same period, he wrote a monthly column in StarDate magazine, answering questions about the universe under the pen name "Merlin". Material from the column appeared in his books Merlin's Tour of the Universe and Just Visiting This Planet. Tyson served on a 2001 government commission on the future of the U. S. aerospace industry, on the 2004 Moon and Beyond commission. He was awarded the NASA Distinguished Public Service Medal in the same year. From 2006 to 2011, he hosted the television show NOVA ScienceNow on PBS. Since 2009, Tyson has hosted the weekly podcast StarTalk. A spin-off called StarTalk, began airing on National Geographic in 2015. In 2014, he hosted the television series Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey, a successor to Carl Sagan's 1980 series Cosmos: A Personal Voyage; the U. S. National Academy of Sciences awarded Tyson the Public Welfare Medal in 2015 for his "extraordinary role in exciting the public about the wonders of science." Tyson was born in Manhattan into a family living in the Bronx.
His mother, Sunchita Maria Tyson, was a gerontologist for the U. S. Department of Health and Welfare, is of Puerto Rican descent, his African-American father, Cyril deGrasse Tyson, was a sociologist, human resource commissioner for New York City mayor John Lindsay, the first Director of Harlem Youth Opportunities Unlimited. Tyson has two siblings: Lynn Antipas Tyson. Tyson's middle name, deGrasse, is from the maiden name of his paternal grandmother, born as Altima de Grasse in the British West Indies island of Nevis. Tyson grew up in the Castle Hill neighborhood of the Bronx, in Riverdale. From kindergarten throughout high school, Tyson attended public schools in the Bronx: P. S. 36, P. S. 81, the Riverdale Kingsbridge Academy, The Bronx High School of Science where he was captain of the wrestling team and editor-in-chief of the Physical Science Journal. His interest in astronomy began at the age of nine after visiting the sky theater of the Hayden Planetarium, he recalled that "so strong was that imprint that I'm certain that I had no choice in the matter, that in fact, the universe called me."
During high school, Tyson attended astronomy courses offered by the Hayden Planetarium, which he called "the most formative period" of his life. He credited Dr. Mark Chartrand III, director of the planetarium at the time, as his "first intellectual role model" and his enthusiastic teaching style mixed with humor inspired Tyson to communicate the universe to others the way he did. Tyson obsessively studied astronomy in his teen years, even gained some fame in the astronomy community by giving lectures on the subject at the age of fifteen. Astronomer Carl Sagan, a faculty member at Cornell University, tried to recruit Tyson to Cornell for undergraduate studies. In his book, The Sky Is Not the Limit, Tyson wrote: My letter of application had been dripping with an interest in the universe; the admission office, unbeknownst to me, had forwarded my application to Carl Sagan's attention. Within weeks, I received a personal letter... Tyson revisited this moment on his first episode of Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey.
Pulling out a 1975 calendar belonging to the famous astronomer, he found the day Sagan invited the 17-year-old to spend a day in Ithaca. Sagan had offered to put him up for the night. Tyson said, "I knew I wanted to become a scientist, but that afternoon, I learned from Carl the kind of person I wanted to become."Tyson chose to attend Harvard where he majored in physics and lived in Currier House. He was a member of the crew team during his freshman year, but returned to wrestling, lettering in his senior year, he was active in dance, in styles including jazz, Afro-Caribbean, Latin Ballroom. Tyson earned an AB degree in physics at Harvard College in 1980 and began his graduate work at the University of Texas at Austin, from which he received an MA degree in astronomy in 1983. By his own account, he did not spend as much time in the research lab, his professors encouraged him to consider alternate careers and the committee for his doctoral dissertation was dissolved, ending his pursuit of a doctorate from the University of Texas.
Tyson was a lecturer in astronomy at the University of Maryland from 1986 to 1987 and in 1988, he was accepted into the astronomy graduate program at Columbia University, where he earned an MPhil degree in astrophysics in 1989, a PhD degree in astrophysics in 1991 under the supervision of Professor R. Michael Rich. Rich obtained funding to support Tyson's doctoral re
Daniel J. Boorstin
Daniel Joseph Boorstin was an American historian at the University of Chicago who wrote on many topics in American and world history. He was appointed the twelfth Librarian of the United States Congress in 1975 and served until 1987, he was instrumental in the creation of the Center for the Book at the Library of Congress. Repudiating his youthful membership in the Communist Party while a Harvard undergraduate, Boorstin became a political conservative and a prominent exponent of consensus history, he argued in The Genius of American Politics that ideology and political theory are foreign to America. His writings were linked with such historians as Richard Hofstadter, Louis Hartz and Clinton Rossiter as a proponent of the "consensus school", which emphasized the unity of the American people and downplayed class and social conflict. Boorstin praised inventors and entrepreneurs as central to the American success story. Boorstin was born in 1914, in Atlanta, into a Jewish family, his father, was a lawyer who participated in the defense of Leo Frank, a Jewish factory superintendent, accused of the rape and murder of a teenage girl.
After Frank's 1915 lynching led to a surge of anti-Semitic sentiment in Georgia, the family moved to Tulsa, where Boorstin was raised. He graduated from Tulsa's Central High School in 1930, at the age of 15. Although Samuel wanted his son to go to the University of Oklahoma, become an attorney and join his own law firm, Daniel wanted to go to Harvard Law School, he graduated with highest honors from Harvard in 1937, studied at Balliol College, Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar, receiving BA and BCL degrees. The American National Biography Online states that he joined the Communist Party in 1938 left it in 1939, when Russia and Germany invaded Poland. In 1940, he earned a SJD degree at Yale University, he was hired as an assistant professor at Swarthmore College in 1942. In 1944, he became a professor at the University of Chicago for 25 years and was the Pitt Professor of American History and Institutions at the University of Cambridge in 1964, he served as director and senior historian of the National Museum of History and Technology of the Smithsonian Institution from 1973 to 1975.
President Gerald Ford nominated Boorstin to be Librarian of Congress, in 1975. On April 9, 1941, he married Ruth Carolyn Frankel, she became his partner and editor for his first book, The Mysterious Science of the Law, published in the same year. Boorstin, with Ruth as his collaborator, wrote more than 20 books, including two major trilogies, one on the American experience and the other on world intellectual history; the Americans: The Democratic Experience, the final book in the first trilogy, received the 1974 Pulitzer Prize in history. Boorstin's second trilogy, The Discoverers, The Creators and The Seekers, examines the scientific and philosophic histories of humanity, respectively. In his “Author’s Note” for The Daniel J. Boorstin Reader, he wrote, “Essential to my life and work as a writer was my marriage in 1941 to Ruth Frankel who has since been my companion and editor for all my books.” Her obituary in The Washington Post quotes Boorstin as saying, “Without her, I think my works would have been twice as long and half as readable.”
Within the discipline of social theory, Boorstin's 1961 book The Image: A Guide to Pseudo-events in America is an early description of aspects of American life that were termed hyperreality and postmodernity. In The Image, Boorstin describes shifts in American culture – due to advertising – where the reproduction or simulation of an event becomes more important or "real" than the event itself, he goes on to coin the term pseudo-event, which describes events or activities that serve little to no purpose other than to be reproduced through advertisements or other forms of publicity. This book describes what many today call "fake news"; the idea of pseudo-events anticipates work by Jean Baudrillard and Guy Debord. The work is an used text in American sociology courses, Boorstin's concerns about the social effects of technology remain influential. Boorstin has been credited with saying, "“Ideas need no passports from their place of origin, nor visas for the countries they enter…. We, the librarians of the world, are servants of an indivisible world… Books and ideas make a boundless world.”When President Ford nominated Boorstin to be Librarian of Congress in 1975, the nomination was supported by the Authors Guild but opposed by liberals, who objected to his perceived conservatism and his opposition to the social revolution of the late 1960s and early 1970s.
He was attacked by the American Library Association because Boorstin "was not a library administrator". The Senate confirmed the nomination without debate. Boorstin retired in 1987, he died of pneumonia February 28, 2004, in Washington D. C, he was survived by Ruth, his three sons, Paul and David, six grandchildren and three great-grandchildren. David Levy, a history professor at the University of Oklahoma, said in one of his lectures after Boorstin's death: “One can only imagine what he might have achieved, if he had only listened to his father’s advice about where to go to college.” Professor Levy delivered a lecture about Boorstin in April 2014 at an Oklahoma University event, the President’s Day of Learning. He had several observations about Boorstin's approach to American history that seem to explain why many contemporary historians opposed his appointment to head th
For other angelic hierarchies, see Hierarchy of angels. In Christianity, angels are agents of God, based on angels in Judaism; the most influential Christian angelic hierarchy was that put forward by Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite in the 4th or 5th century in his book De Coelesti Hierarchia. During the Middle Ages, many schemes were proposed about the hierarchy of demons, some drawing on and expanding on Pseudo-Dionysius, others suggesting different classifications. According to medieval Christian theologians, the angels are organized into several orders, or "Angelic Choirs". Pseudo-Dionysius and Thomas Aquinas drew on passages from the New Testament in Galatians 3:26-28, Matthew 22:24-33, Ephesians 1:21-23, Colossians 1:16, to develop a schema of three Hierarchies, Spheres or Triads of angels, with each Hierarchy containing three Orders or Choirs. Although both authors drew on the New Testament, the Biblical canon is silent on the subject, these hierarchies are considered less definitive than biblical material.
As referred to in the theological doctrine of the communion of saints, in Paradise there is a common and unique vision of the truth and contemplation of the Face of God, without any kind of difference between angels or human souls. The Summa theologiae states that there exist different degree in respect of the creation, about the power of intercession to God and of direct entrustment in the human lives; the first sphere angels serve. Seraphim translated "burning ones", the word seraph is a synonym for serpents when used in the Hebrew Bible. Mentioned in Isaiah 6:1-7, Seraphim are the highest angelic class and they serve as the caretakers of God's throne and continuously shout praises: "Holy, holy is the Lord of hosts. According to Isaiah 6:1-8, the Seraphim are described as fiery six-winged beings. Cherubim have four faces: one of a man, an ox, a lion, an eagle, they have four conjoined wings covered with eyes, a lion's body, the feet of oxen. Cherubim guard the way to the tree of life in the throne of God.
The cherubim are mentioned in Genesis 3:24. Putti are the wingless human baby/toddler-like beings traditionally used in figurative art. St. Thomas Aquinas imagined Satan as a fallen Cherub; the "Thrones", or Elders, are a class of celestial beings mentioned by Paul the Apostle in Colossians 1:16. They are living symbols of God's justice and authority, have as one of their symbols the throne, it is not unusual to find that the Thrones are associated, by some, with the Ophanim or Erelim from the Jewish angelic hierarchy. However there is little evidence, if any, to sustain this idea; the Ophanim are unusual looking compared to the other celestial beings, plus they are said to be moved by the spirit of other beings. Which raises the question if the Ophanim are spiritual beings at all or if they are purely material beings, they appear as their rims covered with hundreds of eyes. They are connected with the Cherubim instead: "When they moved, the others moved. Ezekiel 10:17 NRSV. Christian theologians that include the Thrones as one of the choirs do not describe them as wheels, describing them as adoring elder men who listen to the will of God and present the prayers of men.
The Twenty Four Elders in the Book of Revelation are thought to be part of this group of angels. Angels of the Second Sphere work as heavenly governors of the creation by subjecting matter and guiding and ruling the spirits; the "Dominions" or "Dominations" are presented as the hierarchy of celestial beings "Lordships" in some English translations of the De Coelesti Hierarchia. The Dominions regulate the duties of lower angels, it is only with extreme rarity. The Dominions are believed to look like divinely beautiful humans with a pair of feathered wings, much like the common representation of angels, but they may be distinguished from other groups by wielding orbs of light fastened to the heads of their scepters or on the pommel of their swords; these angels are those through which miracles are made in the world. The term appears to be linked to the attribute "might", from the Greek root dynamis in Ephesians 1:21, translated as "Virtue" or "Power", they are presented as the celestial Choir "Virtues", in the Summa Theologica.
From Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite's De Coelesti Hierarchia: "The name of the holy Virtues signifies a certain powerful and unshakable virility welling forth into all their Godlike energies.
Ezekiel is the central protagonist of the Book of Ezekiel in the Hebrew Bible. In Judaism and Islam, Ezekiel is acknowledged as a Hebrew prophet. In Judaism and Christianity, he is viewed as the 6th-century BCE author of the Book of Ezekiel, which reveals prophecies regarding the destruction of Jerusalem, the restoration to the land of Israel, what some call the Millennial Temple visions; the name Ezekiel means'God strengthens'. The author of the Book of Ezekiel presents himself as Ezekiel, the son of Buzzi, born into a priestly lineage. Apart from identifying himself, the author gives a date for the first divine encounter which he presents: "in the thirtieth year". If this is a reference to Ezekiel's age at the time, he was born around 622 BCE, about the time of Josiah's reforms, his "thirtieth year" is given as five years after the exile of Judah's king Jehoiachin by the Babylonians. Josephus claims that Nebuchadnezzar of Babylonia's armies exiled three thousand Jews from Judah, after deposing King Jehoiakim in 598 BCE.
According to the Bible and his wife lived during the Babylonian captivity on the banks of the Chebar River, in Tel Abib, with other exiles from Judah. There is no mention of him having any offspring. Ezekiel describes his calling to be a prophet by going into great detail about his encounter with God and four "living creatures" with four wheels that stayed beside the creatures. For the next five years he incessantly prophesied and acted out the destruction of Jerusalem and its temple, met with some opposition; however and his contemporaries like Jeremiah, another prophet, living in Jerusalem at that time, witnessed the fulfillment of their prophecies with the siege of Jerusalem by the Babylonians. On the hypothesis that the "thirtieth year" of Ezekiel 1:1 refers to Ezekiel's age, Ezekiel was fifty years old when he had his final vision. On the basis of dates given in the Book of Ezekiel, Ezekiel's span of prophecies can be calculated to have occurred over the course of about 22 years; the last dated words of Ezekiel date to April 570 BCE.
Ezekiel, like Jeremiah, is said by Talmud and Midrash to have been a descendant of Joshua by his marriage with the proselyte and former prostitute Rahab. Some statements found in rabbinic literature posit that Ezekiel was the son of Jeremiah, called "Buzi" because he was despised by the Jews. Ezekiel was said to be active as a prophet while in the Land of Israel, he retained this gift when he was exiled with Jehoiachin and the nobles of the country to Babylon. Rava states in the Babylonian Talmud that although Ezekiel describes the appearance of the throne of God, this is not because he had seen more than the prophet Isaiah, but rather because the latter was more accustomed to such visions. Ezekiel, like all the other prophets, has beheld only a blurred reflection of the divine majesty, just as a poor mirror reflects objects only imperfectly. According to the midrash Canticles Rabbah, it was Ezekiel whom the three pious men, Hananiah and Azariah asked for advice as to whether they should resist Nebuchadnezzar's command and choose death by fire rather than worship his idol.
At first God revealed to the prophet. But after they had left the house of the prophet determined to sacrifice their lives to God, Ezekiel received this revelation: "Thou dost believe indeed that I will abandon them; that shall not happen. Ezekiel is commemorated as a saint in the liturgical calendar of the Eastern Orthodox Church—and those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Byzantine Rite—on July 23. Ezekiel is commemorated on August 28 on the Calendar of Saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church, on April 10 in the Roman Martyrology. Certain Lutheran churches celebrate his commemoration on July 20. Saint Bonaventure interpreted Ezekiel's statement about the "closed gate" as a prophecy of the Incarnation: the "gate" signifying the Virgin Mary and the "prince" referring to Jesus; this is one of the readings at Vespers on Great Feasts of the Theotokos in the Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic Churches. This imagery is found in the traditional Catholic Christmas hymn "Gaudete" and in a saying by Bonaventure, quoted by Alphonsus Maria de' Liguori: "No one can enter Heaven unless by Mary, as though through a door."
The imagery provides the basis for the concept that God gave Mary to humanity as the "Gate of Heaven", an idea laid out in the Salve Regina prayer. The Story of Gog and Magog is mentioned in the 18th Surah of Al Kahf. Ezekiel is recognized as a prophet in Islamic tradition. Although not mentioned in the Qur'an by the name, Muslim scholars, both classical and modern have included Ezekiel in lists of the prophets of Islam; the Qur ` an mentions. This prophet is sometimes identified with Ezekiel. Carsten Niebuhr, in his Reisebeschreibung nach Arabian, says he visited Al Kifl in Iraq, midway between Najaf and Hilla and said Kifl was the Arabic form of Ezekiel, he further
François-Marie Arouet, known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer and philosopher famous for his wit, his criticism of Christianity the Roman Catholic Church, his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech, separation of church and state. Voltaire was a versatile and prolific writer, producing works in every literary form, including plays, novels and historical and scientific works, he wrote more than 2,000 books and pamphlets. He was an outspoken advocate of civil liberties, despite the risk this placed him in under the strict censorship laws of the time; as a satirical polemicist, he made use of his works to criticize intolerance, religious dogma and the French institutions of his day. François-Marie Arouet was born in Paris, the youngest of the five children of François Arouet, a lawyer, a minor treasury official, his wife, Marie Marguerite Daumard, whose family was on the lowest rank of the French nobility; some speculation surrounds Voltaire's date of birth, because he claimed he was born on 20 February 1694 as the illegitimate son of a nobleman, Guérin de Rochebrune or Roquebrune.
Two of his older brothers—Armand-François and Robert—died in infancy, his surviving brother Armand and sister Marguerite-Catherine were nine and seven years older, respectively. Nicknamed "Zozo" by his family, Voltaire was baptized on 22 November 1694, with François de Castagnère, abbé de Châteauneuf, Marie Daumard, the wife of his mother's cousin, standing as godparents, he was educated by the Jesuits at the Collège Louis-le-Grand, where he was taught Latin and rhetoric. By the time he left school, Voltaire had decided he wanted to be a writer, against the wishes of his father, who wanted him to become a lawyer. Voltaire, pretending to work in Paris as an assistant to a notary, spent much of his time writing poetry; when his father found out, he sent Voltaire to study law, this time in Normandy. But the young man continued producing essays and historical studies. Voltaire's wit made him popular among some of the aristocratic families with. In 1713, his father obtained a job for him as a secretary to the new French ambassador in the Netherlands, the marquis de Châteauneuf, the brother of Voltaire's godfather.
At The Hague, Voltaire fell in love with a French Protestant refugee named Catherine Olympe Dunoyer. Their affair, considered scandalous, was discovered by de Châteauneuf and Voltaire was forced to return to France by the end of the year. Most of Voltaire's early life revolved around Paris. From early on, Voltaire had trouble with the authorities for critiques of the government; as a result, he was twice sentenced once to temporary exile to England. One satirical verse, in which Voltaire accused the Régent of incest with his daughter, resulted in an eleven-month imprisonment in the Bastille; the Comédie-Française had agreed in January 1717 to stage his debut play, Œdipe, it opened in mid-November 1718, seven months after his release. Its immediate critical and financial success established his reputation. Both the Régent and King George I of Great Britain presented Voltaire with medals as a mark of their appreciation, he argued for religious tolerance and freedom of thought. He campaigned to eradicate priestly and aristo-monarchical authority, supported a constitutional monarchy that protects people's rights.
The author adopted the name Voltaire following his incarceration at the Bastille. Its origin is unclear, it is an anagram of AROVET LI, the Latinized spelling of his surname and the initial letters of le jeune. According to a family tradition among the descendants of his sister, he was known as le petit volontaire as a child, he resurrected a variant of the name in his adult life; the name reverses the syllables of Airvault, his family's home town in the Poitou region. Richard Holmes supports the anagrammatic derivation of the name, but adds that a writer such as Voltaire would have intended it to convey connotations of speed and daring; these come from associations with words such as voltige, volte-face, volatile. "Arouet" was not a noble name fit for his growing reputation given that name's resonance with à rouer and roué. In a letter to Jean-Baptiste Rousseau in March 1719, Voltaire concludes by asking that, if Rousseau wishes to send him a return letter, he do so by addressing it to Monsieur de Voltaire.
A postscript explains: "J'ai été si malheureux sous le nom d'Arouet que j'en ai pris un autre surtout pour n'être plus confondu avec le poète Roi", This refers to Adenes le Roi, the'oi' diphthong was pronounced like modern'ouai', so the similarity to'Arouet' is clear, thus, it could well have been part of his rationale. Voltaire is known to have used at least 178 separate pen names during his lifetime. Voltaire's next play, Artémire, set in ancient Macedonia, opened on 15 February 1720, it was a flop and only fragments of the text survive. He instead turned to an epic poem about Henry IV of France that he had begun in early 1717. Denied a licence to publish, in August 1722 Voltaire headed north to find a publisher outside France. On the journey, he was acco