A hanger steak known as butcher's steak, is a cut of beef steak prized for its flavor. Derived from the diaphragm of a steer or heifer, it weighs about 450 to 675 grams; this cut is taken from the plate, the lower belly of the animal. In the past it was sometimes known as "butcher's steak", because butchers would keep it for themselves rather than offer it for sale. Hanger steak resembles flank steak in flavor, it is a vaguely V-shaped pair of muscles with a inedible membrane running down the middle. The hanger steak is the tenderest cut on an animal. Anatomically speaking, the hanger steak is legs, of the diaphragm; the steak is said to steer. The diaphragm is one muscle cut into two separate cuts of meat: the hanger steak, traditionally considered more flavorful, the outer skirt steak, composed of tougher muscle from the dome of the diaphragm; the hanger is attached to the front of several of the lumbar vertebrae. The right side is stronger than the left. Seen on menus as a "bistro steak", hanger steak is very traditional in Mexican cuisine in the north where it is known as arrachera, is marinated and served with a squeeze of lime juice, salsa and tortillas to roll tacos.
In South Texas this cut of beef is known as fajitas arracheras. It is sometimes incorrectly referred to as flap steak or flap meat, a distinctly different cut; the hanger steak has been more popular in Europe. In Britain it is referred to as "skirt", not to be confused with the American skirt steak. In French it is known as the onglet, in Italian the lombatello, in Flanders the longhaas, in Spanish the solomillo de pulmón or entrama or entécula", its U. S. meat-cutting classification is NAMP 140. Dyce, K. M.. Textbook of Veterinary Anatomy. Philadelphia: Saunders. ISBN 0-7216-8966-3. OCLC 265038957
Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle skeletal muscle. Humans have been eating beef since prehistoric times. Beef is a source of high-quality protein and nutrients. Beef skeletal muscle meat can be used as is by cutting into certain parts roasts, short ribs or steak, while other cuts are processed. Trimmings, on the other hand, are mixed with meat from older, leaner cattle, are ground, minced or used in sausages; the blood is used in some varieties called blood sausage. Other parts that are eaten include other muscles and offal, such as the oxtail, tongue, tripe from the reticulum or rumen, the heart, the brain, the kidneys, the tender testicles of the bull; some intestines are cooked and eaten as is, but are more cleaned and used as natural sausage casings. The bones are used for making beef stock. Beef from steers and heifers is similar. Depending on economics, the number of heifers kept for breeding varies; the meat from older bulls, because it is tougher, is used for mince. Cattle raised for beef may be allowed to roam free on grasslands, or may be confined at some stage in pens as part of a large feeding operation called a feedlot, where they are fed a ration of grain, roughage and a vitamin/mineral preblend.
Beef is the third most consumed meat in the world, accounting for about 25% of meat production worldwide, after pork and poultry at 38% and 30% respectively. In absolute numbers, the United States and the People's Republic of China are the world's three largest consumers of beef. According to the data from OECD, the average Uruguayan ate over 42 kg of beef or veal in 2014, representing the highest beef/veal consumption per capita in the world. In comparison, the average American consumed only about 24 kg beef or veal in the same year, while African countries, such as Mozambique and Nigeria, consumed the least beef or veal per capita. In 2015, the world's largest exporters of beef were India and Australia. Beef production is important to the economies of Uruguay, Paraguay, Argentina and Nicaragua; the word beef is from the Latin bōs, in contrast to cow, from Middle English cou. After the Norman Conquest, the French-speaking nobles who ruled England used French words to refer to the meats they were served.
Thus, various Anglo-Saxon words were used for the animal by the peasants, but the meat was called boef by the French nobles — who did not deal with the live animal — when it was served to them. This is one example of the common English dichotomy between the words for animals and their meat, found in such English word-pairs as pig/pork, deer/venison, sheep/mutton and chicken/poultry. Beef is cognate with bovine through the Late Latin bovīnus. People have eaten the flesh of bovines from prehistoric times. People domesticated cattle around 8000 BC to provide ready access to beef and leather. Most cattle originated in the Old World, with the exception of bison hybrids, which originated in the Americas. Examples include the Wagyū from Japan, Ankole-Watusi from Egypt, longhorn Zebu from the Indian subcontinent, it is unknown when people started cooking beef. Cattle were used across the Old World as draft animals, for milk, or for human consumption. With the mechanization of farming, some breeds were bred to increase meat yield, resulting in Chianina and Charolais cattle, or to improve the texture of meat, giving rise to the Murray Grey and Wagyū.
Some breeds have been selected for both milk production, such as the Brown Swiss. In the United States, the growth of the beef business was due to expansion in the Southwest. Upon the acquisition of grasslands through the Mexican–American War of 1848, the expulsion of the Plains Indians from this region and the Midwest, the American livestock industry began, starting with the taming of wild longhorn cattle. Chicago and New York City were the first to benefit from these developments in their stockyards and in their meat markets. Beef cattle are raised and fed using a variety of methods, including feedlots, free range, ranching and Intensive animal farming. Beef is first divided into primal cuts, pieces of meat butchering; these are basic sections from which other subdivisions are cut. The term "primal cut" is quite different from "prime cut", used to characterize cuts considered to be of higher quality. Since the animal's legs and neck muscles do the most work, they are the toughest. Different countries and cuisines have different cuts and names, sometimes use the same name for a different cut.
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
A rib steak is a beef steak sliced from the rib primal of a beef animal, with rib bone attached. In the United States, the term rib eye steak is used for a rib steak with the bone removed. S. the terms are used interchangeably. The rib eye or "ribeye" was as the name implies, the center portion of the rib steak, without the bone, it is considered a more flavorful cut than other steaks, such as the fillet, due to the muscle being exercised by the animal during its life. Its marbling of fat makes this suitable for slow roasting or grilling cooked to different degrees of doneness. Marbling increases tenderness, which plays a key role in consumers' rib steak purchase choices; the short ribs: several ribs cut from the rib and plate primals and a small corner of the square-cut chuck. In the United States cuisine a bone-attached beef rib can be called "rib steak", "beef rib", "bone-in beef rib", "bone-in rib steak", "ribeye steak" or "cowboy cut". "Tomahawk steak" has recently become a popular term for this cut owing to its appearance being similar to that of a tomahawk axe.
In Australia and New Zealand a bone-in rib steak is called a "ribeye". When the bone is removed and New Zealanders call the resulting piece of meat a "Scotch fillet" or "whiskey fillet". In French cuisine the rib steak is a popular dish and it is not uncommon to find French restaurants where a massive single côte de bœuf is served for two or more dinner guests; the French entrecôte corresponds to the rib eye steak. In Argentine cuisine roast short ribs are called indistinctly asado de tira de asado; the rib steak is known as ancho de bife for the entire cut, served with or without the bone, ojo de bife for the rib eye. In Spanish cuisine, in Spain, a bone-attached rib steak is called chuletón, while the same cut of meat, when its bone is removed, is called, in Spain, entrecot, a word originated in the French entrecôte. In British cuisine, the terms cote de boeuf, tomahawk steak, have been adopted to refer to the bone-attached rib steak In the Middle East, Beef Ribs are found in Rib Restaurants instead of the non Halal Pork Ribs.
Pork ribs Cotoletta
Colombia the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and Peru, it shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Honduras, Jamaica and the Dominican Republic. Colombia is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments, with the capital in Bogota. Colombia has been inhabited by various indigenous peoples since 12,000 BCE, including the Muisca and the Tairona, along with the Inca Empire that expanded to the southwest of the country; the Spanish arrived in 1499 and by the mid-16th century conquered and colonized much of the region, establishing the New Kingdom of Granada, with Santafé de Bogotá as its capital. Independence from Spain was achieved in 1819, but by 1830 the "Gran Colombia" Federation was dissolved, with what is now Colombia and Panama emerging as the Republic of New Granada.
The new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation, the United States of Colombia, before the Republic of Colombia was declared in 1886. Panama seceded in 1903. Beginning in the 1960s, the country suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict and rampant political violence, both of which escalated in the 1990s. Since 2005, there has been significant improvement in security and rule of law. Colombia is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world, with its rich cultural heritage reflecting influences by indigenous peoples, European settlement, forced African migration, immigration from Europe and the Middle East. Urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes mountains and the Caribbean coast. Colombia is among the world's 17 megadiverse countries, the most densely biodiverse per square kilometer. Colombia is a middle power and regional actor in Latin America, it is part of the CIVETS group of six leading emerging markets and a member of the UN, the WTO, the OAS, the Pacific Alliance, other international organizations.
Colombia's diversified economy is the fourth largest in Latin America, with macroeconomic stability and favorable long-term growth prospects. The name "Colombia" is derived from the last name of Christopher Columbus, it was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, but to those portions under Spanish rule. The name was adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1819, formed from the territories of the old Viceroyalty of New Granada; when Venezuela and Cundinamarca came to exist as independent states, the former Department of Cundinamarca adopted the name "Republic of New Granada". New Granada changed its name in 1858 to the Granadine Confederation. In 1863 the name was again changed, this time to United States of Colombia, before adopting its present name – the Republic of Colombia – in 1886. To refer to this country, the Colombian government uses the terms Colombia and República de Colombia. Owing to its location, the present territory of Colombia was a corridor of early human migration from Mesoamerica and the Caribbean to the Andes and Amazon basin.
The oldest archaeological finds are from the Pubenza and El Totumo sites in the Magdalena Valley 100 kilometres southwest of Bogotá. These sites date from the Paleoindian period. At Puerto Hormiga and other sites, traces from the Archaic Period have been found. Vestiges indicate that there was early occupation in the regions of El Abra and Tequendama in Cundinamarca; the oldest pottery discovered in the Americas, found at San Jacinto, dates to 5000–4000 BCE. Indigenous people inhabited the territory, now Colombia by 12,500 BCE. Nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes at the El Abra, Tibitó and Tequendama sites near present-day Bogotá traded with one another and with other cultures from the Magdalena River Valley. Between 5000 and 1000 BCE, hunter-gatherer tribes transitioned to agrarian societies. Beginning in the 1st millennium BCE, groups of Amerindians including the Muisca, Zenú, Tairona developed the political system of cacicazgos with a pyramidal structure of power headed by caciques; the Muisca inhabited the area of what is now the Departments of Boyacá and Cundinamarca high plateau where they formed the Muisca Confederation.
They farmed maize, potato and cotton, traded gold, blankets, ceramic handicrafts and rock salt with neighboring nations. The Tairona inhabited northern Colombia in the isolated mountain range of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta; the Quimbaya inhabited regions of the Cauca River Valley between the Western and Central Ranges of the Colombian Andes. Most of the Amerindians practiced agriculture and the social structure of each indigenous community was different; some groups of indigenous people such as the Caribs lived in a state of permanent war, but others had less bellicose attitudes. The Incas expanded their empire onto the southwest part of the country. Alonso de Ojeda reached the Guajira Peninsula in 1499. Spanish explorers, led by Rodrigo de Bastidas, made the first exploration
The Ranch steak comes from the chuck cut of a cow, namely the shoulder. Technically it is called a "boneless chuck shoulder center cut steak", but supermarkets use the shorter and more memorable term: "Ranch steak". A ranch steak is cut no thicker than one inch, weighs 10 ounces or less, is trimmed of all excess fat. Ranch steak is flavorful, but a bit tough; the best results are achieved if the steak is not cooked beyond medium when using dry heat cooking methods. It is best.
Top sirloin is a cut of beef from the primal loin or subprimal sirloin. Top sirloin steaks differ from sirloin steaks in that the bone and the tenderloin and bottom round muscles have been removed; some American butchers call a thick top sirloin steak a chateaubriand, although the French reserve that term for a more premium cut from the tenderloin. The USDA NAMP / IMPS codes related to this subprimal cut are 181A and 184. 181A is obtained from 181 after removing the butt tender. 184 is obtained from 182 after removing the bottom sirloin. The foodservice cuts from 184 are 184A through 184F, its portion cut is 1184 and, the "subportion" cuts from 1184 are 1184A through 1184F. 181A is not further divided into foodservice cuts. In Australia, this cut is called D-rump in the Handbook of Australian Meat and assigned code 2100; the word comes from the Middle English surloine, which itself was derived from the Old French word surlonge, meaning sur la longe or above the loin. In Modern French, the term evolved to become faux-filet.
An quoted false etymology suggests that sirloin comes from the knighting by an English king of a piece of meat. However, the English cut of Sirloin includes the large portion of beef which includes the short loin, top sirloin and bottom sirloin. Top sirloin steak is served grilled, sautéed, or pan-fried. List of steak dishes Chart of beef cuts Top sirloin description from Certified Angus Beef Bovine myology & muscle profile