Flaris LAR01

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LAR01
Flaris LAR01.png
Role Very light jet
National origin Poland
Manufacturer Metal-Master
Designer Rafał Ładziński, Andrzej Frydrychewicz[1]
First flight Planned for 2016[2]
Status Under development[3]
Unit cost
€1.8 million ($2 m, 2018)[4]

Flaris LAR01 , also variously called the LAR 1 and LAR-1, is a Polish five-seat very light jet, currently under development by Metal-Master of Jelenia Góra.[5] It is the only single-engined very light jet currently being developed by a non-American aircraft manufacturer.[6]

The programme was publicly unveiled at the 2013 Paris Air Show, and has been promoted to private owner-operators and corporate customers, as well as commercial operators.[6] Originally intended to perform its maiden flight as early as 2015, this milestone has been repeatedly delayed.

Development[edit]

Origins[edit]

The Flaris LAR01 project was started by Sylwia and Rafał Ładzińscy with the assistance of the Instytut Lotnictwa, Instytut Techniczny Wojsk Lotniczych, Politechnika Warszawska, Politechnika Wrocławska and Wojskowa Akademia Techniczna.[7][8] According to Ładziński, the aircraft had emerged from an ambition to produce an affordable aircraft that would be well-suited to short-haul point-to-point routes and operated by a variety of commercial, corporate, and private owners that sought to progress from operating piston engine and turboprop-powered aircraft.[6] Rafał Ładziński, who had co-originated the aircraft's design with Sylwia Ładziński, serves as the head of the FLARIS project and the chief of Research and Development.[9][10] The chief designer is Andrzej Frydrychewicz.[11] Significant work on the aircraft's aerodynamics was perofrmed by Krzysztof Kubryński.[12]

In June 2013, the existence of the LAR01 programme was publicly unveiled at the 2013 Paris Air Show.[8][13][14] Among the attributes of the aircraft emphasised during its initial announcement were its unique and previously-unserved role in the general aviation market, ease of flight, lightweight construction, low operational cost, safety, and versatility.[15] The company has forecast a demand for the type of hundreds of aircraft per year.[16]

During the 2013 event, at which a prototype of the aircraft was displayed, it was announced that the LAR01 would be the first of three aircraft that manufacturer planned to launch; while few details were stated, it was said that of the two future aircraft, one would be smaller than the LAR01 while the other would be larger.[13] In June 2015, at which point the subject of future family members was discussed in greater detail by the manufacturer, it was revealed that there were future ambitions for a series of business jets to be produced, and that the next design following on from the LAR01 was to adopt a twin-engine configuration.[15]

Prototypes[edit]

During the 2013 reveal at the Paris airshow, it was stated that an initial prototype of the aircraft would fly later that same year, as well as speculation on the delivery of a batch of 20 aircraft during 2014.[13][17] During March 2014, the non-flying first prototype was being used for non-destructive load testing, while the second prototype was announced as being intended to perform the type's maiden flight later that year; however, it was acknowledged at the time that there was a lack of certainty over exact dates.[18][17] The order book is intended to be opened shortly after the maiden flight taking place.[16][6] By May 2014, the company was already in the process of establishing an assembly line for the type, as well as beginning the construction of the third and fourth prototypes.[19]

The second prototype was powered by a single Pratt & Whitney Canada PW610, although alternative powerplants were already under consideration to power subsequent production aircraft. Aerospace publication Aviation Week has attributed uncertainty over the engine as a reason for delays in the programme.[17][19] Once in flight, the second prototype would participate in the certification programme, along with a further two prototypes; in December 2014, the manufacturer envisioned the construction of a total of five prototypes.[18] Final CS-23 certification for the LAR01 from the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) was anticipated to occur roughly three years following the first flight.[20][6] In February 2015, the second prototype commenced a series of taxi tests while it reportedly approached the end of ground-based testing.[21][22]

In March 2015, it was stated that the type was expected to receive type certification during 2018.[23] During 2015, it was stated that initial deliveries, then forecast to take place in 2016, would be validated under the Polish civil aviation authority’s S-1 experimental aircraft designation, prior to full EASA certification being issued.[24] In February 2016, it was stated that the first flight of the LAR01 was set to take place within the following months.[25] In July 2016, engine ground tests of a LAR-1 equipped with the Williams FJ33-5A, which is to be used in production aircraft, commenced.[16][26] In February 2017, it was reported that the LAR01 has entered the final stage of ground testing and would perform its first flight within the first half of the year. According to the company, it has been working closely with the Polish civil aviation authority on tests of the onboard systems, including the final tests of the aircraft's detachable wing and cabin pressurisation system.[6]

In June 2018, ground testing was completed before a maiden flight in July, the first 50-100h of flight testing will happen at Zielona Góra Airport in western Poland before a transfer to Copernicus Airport Wrocław. The Polish Civil Aviation Authority S-1 experimental certification should be granted after 150h of flight testing within 12 months, before 10 local deliveries, and before full EASA CS-23 type certification between 18 and 24 months after. The orderbook will be open in 2019 and it will exhibited in May at EBACE in Geneva and in July at EAA AirVenture Oshkosh.[4]

Design[edit]

The Flaris LAR01 is a Polish five-seat very light jet, intended for general aviation use.[18][14] It is made largely of carbon fiber reinforced polymers and powered by a single turbojet engine - the production version of the LAR01 is to be powered by a single Williams FJ33-5A engine.[27][24] The LAR01 is intended to be affordable and accessible to individual private owners.[18] Proposed uses for it include air taxi operations, personal transport, emergency medical services and aerial surveillance, as well as its potential modification into a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV).[15]

The LAR01 has been optimised for use by private pilots. Where possible, the cockpit is deliberately designed to mimic that of a traditional car.[17] The designers intend to provide removable elliptical wings for the aircraft; this measure is to enable the type to be readily parked within typical garages; sections of the tailplane can be similarly detached for the same purpose.[28][18] Fuel is housed within a tank mounted on the fuselage, deliberately avoiding the use of the wings for fuel storage.[14] The LAR01 is also reported as being relatively easy to control.[17]

Various features for safety and convenience are to be incorporated into the LAR01's design. Unlike many jet-powered aircraft, it is claimed to be readily capable of being operable from unpaved runways and grass strips.[15] For safety purposes, the LAR01 has been designed to use a ballistic rescue parachute system, one parachute being installed within the tail and the other within the nose, which is intended to assist in the safe recovery of the aircraft.[15][20] It can be equipped with various models of Garmin glass cockpits.[18] An electric de-icing system is also fitted.[14]

The €1.8 million ($2 million) aircraft should have direct operating costs (fuel, maintenance and insurance) of $450/h and have a Garmin G600 TXi flight deck. It should cruise at 370kt (760km/h), have a range of 1,730nmi (3,200km) with a MTOW of 1,500kg (3,300lb), and could take off and land on grass airstrips and short runways of less than 250m (820ft).[4]

Specifications (projected)[edit]

Data from Company[29][30][31][27]

General characteristics

  • Crew: one
  • Capacity: four passengers
  • Length: 8.32 m (27 ft 4 in)
  • Wingspan: 8.68 m (28 ft 6 in)
  • Height: 2.43 m (8 ft 0 in)
  • Wing area: 10.0 m2 (108 sq ft)
  • Empty weight: 700 kg (1,543 lb)
  • Gross weight: 1,500 kg (3,307 lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 1,500 kg (3,307 lb)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Williams FJ33-5A turbofan engine, 8.5 kN (1,900 lbf) thrust

Performance

  • Cruise speed: 700 km/h (435 mph; 378 kn)
  • Stall speed: 115 km/h (71 mph; 62 kn)
  • Range: 3,200 km (1,988 mi; 1,728 nmi)
  • Service ceiling: 14,000 m (46,000 ft)
  • Maximum glide ratio: 18:1
  • Rate of climb: 30 m/s (5,900 ft/min)
  • Wing loading: 150 kg/m2 (31 lb/sq ft)

References[edit]

  1. ^ "FLARIS LAR 1 - General characteristic".
  2. ^ "FLARIS LAR 1 - FAQ". flaris.pl. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
  3. ^ "FLARIS LAR 1 - FAQ". flaris.pl. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
  4. ^ a b c Kate Sarsfield (26 June 2018). "Flaris LAR 1 personal jet poised for maiden sortie". Flightglobal.
  5. ^ "Flaris Brand | Flaris". Flaris.pl. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Sarsfield, Kate. "Metal Master readies LAR-1 personal jet for second-quarter first flight." Flight International, 13 February 2017.
  7. ^ "Family jet – professional partners | Flaris". Flaris.pl. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  8. ^ a b "Polski mini-odrzutowiec zrewolucjonizuje rynek! - Tech - WP.PL". Tech. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  9. ^ "We are testing the landing gear on Flaris".
  10. ^ "We are approaching our destination".
  11. ^ "Personal jet aircraft LAR 1 – the design team | Flaris". Flaris.pl. Archived from the original on 1 July 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  12. ^ Grupa Wirtualna Polska. "Firma spod Jeleniej Góry skonstruowała statek powietrzny". funduszeue.wp.pl. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
  13. ^ a b c Sarsfield, Kate. "PARIS: Metal Master launches Flaris LAR-1 very light personal jet." Flight International, 19 June 2013.
  14. ^ a b c d Trautvetter, Chad. "Start-up Flaris Unveils All-composite Single-engine Very Light Jet at Paris Air Show." AIN Online, 19 June 2016.
  15. ^ a b c d e Sarsfield, Kate. "PARIS: Metal Metal Master plans family of Flaris LAR business jets." Flight International, 15 June 2015.
  16. ^ a b c Sarsfield, Kate. "Metal Master begins engine ground runs on Flaris LAR-1 personal jet." Flight International, 6 July 2016.
  17. ^ a b c d e Jackson, Paul. "Personal Jets About To Enter The Marketplace." Aviation Week, 2 November 2016.
  18. ^ a b c d e f Sarsfield, Kate. "Metal Master prepares Flaris LAR 1 for first flight." Flight International, 12 March 2014.
  19. ^ a b Trautvetter, Chad. "Engine Change Causes Slight Delay for Flaris LAR 1 VLJ." AIN Online, 27 May 2014.
  20. ^ a b Sarsfield, Kate. "Metal Master prepares Flaris LAR-1 jet for year-end first flight." Flight International, 1 December 2014.
  21. ^ Metal Master Flaris LAR-1 ultra-light jet begins taxi tests. YouTube. 12 March 2015. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
  22. ^ "Polish VLJ Now In Final Testing". AVweb. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
  23. ^ Sarsfield, Kate (12 March 2015), "New Polish ultra-light jet begins taxi tests", Flightglobal, Reed Business Information, archived from the original on 14 March 2015, retrieved 14 March 2015
  24. ^ a b Sarsfield, Kate. "Poland's Metal Master selects Williams FJ33 to power Flaris LAR-1 personal jet." Flight International, 9 June 2015.
  25. ^ Trautvetter, Chad. "Flaris Preps To Fly Conforming LAR 1 Jet this Spring." AIN Online, 10 February 2016.
  26. ^ Trautvetter, Chad. "Flaris Starts FJ33 Runs as LAR 01 Nears First Flight." AIN Online, 30 June 2016.
  27. ^ a b "FLARIS LAR 1 - Powerplant". flaris.pl. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
  28. ^ Bergqvist, Pia (7 May 2015). "Polish Single-Engine Jet Nears First Flight". Flying. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
  29. ^ "Promising start | Flaris". Flaris.pl. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  30. ^ "FLARIS LAR 1 – modern private jet | Flaris". Flaris.pl. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  31. ^ "Personal jet LAR 1 – Aearial Virtuoso | Flaris". Flaris.pl. Retrieved 2 July 2013.

External links[edit]