A flashback is an interjected scene that takes the narrative back in time from the current point in the story. Flashbacks are used to recount events that happened before the stories primary sequence of events to fill in crucial backstory. In the opposite direction, a flashforward reveals events. Both flashback and flashforward are used to cohere a story, develop a character, or add structure to the narrative. In literature, internal analepsis is a flashback to an earlier point in the narrative. In film, flashbacks depict the subjective experience of a character by showing a memory of a previous event and they are used to "resolve an enigma". Flashbacks are important in film melodrama films. In movies and television, several camera techniques, editing approaches and special effects have evolved to alert the viewer that the action shown is a flashback or flashforward; the scene may fade or dissolve with the camera focused on the face of the character and there is a voice-over by a narrator. An early example of analepsis is in the Ramayana and Mahabharata, where the main story is narrated through a frame story set at a time.
Another ancient example occurs in the Odyssey, in which the tale of Odysseus' wanderings is told in flashback by Odysseus to a listener. Another early use of this device in a murder mystery was in "The Three Apples", an Arabian Nights tale; the story begins with the discovery of a young woman's dead body. After the murderer reveals himself, he narrates his reasons for the murder in a series of flashbacks leading up to the discovery of her dead body at the beginning of the story. Flashbacks are employed in several other Arabian Nights tales such as "Sinbad the Sailor" and "The City of Brass". Analepsis was used extensively by author Ford Madox Ford, by poet, author and mythologist Robert Graves; the 1927 book The Bridge of San Luis Rey by Thornton Wilder is the progenitor of the modern disaster epic in literature and film-making, where a single disaster intertwines the victims, whose lives are explored by means of flashbacks of events leading up to the disaster. Analepsis is used in Night by Elie Wiesel.
If flashbacks are extensive and in chronological order, one can say that these form the present of the story, while the rest of the story consists of flash forwards. If flashbacks are presented in non-chronological order, the time at which the story takes place can be ambiguous: An example of such an occurrence is in Slaughterhouse-Five where the narrative jumps back and forth in time, so there is no actual present time line. Os Lusíadas is a story about voyage of Vasco da Gama to India and back; the narration starts when they were arriving Africa but it flashes back to the beginning of the story, when they were leaving Portugal. The Harry Potter series employs a magical device called a Pensieve, which changes the nature of flashbacks from a mere narrative device to an event directly experienced by the characters, who are thus able to provide commentary; the creator of the flashback technique in cinema was Histoire d’un crime directed by Ferdinand Zecca in 1901. Flashbacks were first employed during the sound era in Rouben Mamoulian's 1931 film City Streets, but were rare until about 1939 when, in William Wyler's Wuthering Heights as in Emily Brontë's original novel, the housekeeper Ellen narrates the main story to overnight visitor Mr. Lockwood, who has witnessed Heathcliff's frantic pursuit of what is a ghost.
More famously in 1939, Marcel Carné's movie Le Jour Se Lève is told entirely through flashback: the story starts with the murder of a man in a hotel. While the murderer, played by Jean Gabin, is surrounded by the police, several flashbacks tell the story of why he killed the man at the beginning of the movie. One of the most famous examples of a flashback is in the Orson Welles' film Citizen Kane; the protagonist, Charles Foster Kane, dies at the beginning. The remainder of the film is framed by a reporter's interviewing Kane's friends and associates, in a futile effort to discover what the word meant to Kane; as the interviews proceed, pieces of Kane's life unfold in flashback, but Welles' use of such unconventional flashbacks was thought to have been influenced by William K. Howard's The Power and the Glory. Lubitsch used. Though used to clarify plot or backstory, flashbacks can act as an unreliable narrator; the multiple and contradictory staged reconstructions of a crime in Errol Morris's 1988 documentary The Thin Blue Line are presented as flashbacks based on divergent testimony.
Akira Kurosawa's 1950 Rashomon does this in the most celebrated fictional use of contested multiple testimonies. Sometimes a flashback is inserted into a film though there was none in the original source from which the film was adapted; the 1956 film version of Rodgers and Hammerstein's stage musical Carousel used a flashback device which somewhat takes the impact away from a dramatic plot development in the film. This was done because the plot of Carousel was considered unusually strong for a film musical. In the film version of Camelot, according to Alan Jay Lerner, a flashback was added not to soften the blow of a plot development but because the stage show had been criticiz
Donald J. Kurth, Jr. is a physician, businessowner and former mayor of the City of Rancho Cucamonga, California. He was elected President of the Rancho Cucamonga Chamber of Commerce in 1994, Director of the Cucamonga County Water District in 1996, appointed to the Rancho Cucamonga City Council in 2002, elected mayor of Rancho Cucamonga on November 7, 2006. Donald James Kurth, Jr. was born in Newport, Rhode Island where his father named Donald James Kurth, was stationed in the United States Navy. Kurth's father and mother, both served in the hospital corps in the Navy throughout World War II, his mother taught Navy carrier pilots. His father served on the heavy cruiser, the USS New Orleans, in battles including Pearl Harbor, Coral Sea, Eastern Solomons and Tassafaronga. During the night Battle of Tassafaronga in November 1942, the New Orleans engaged the “Tokyo Express” troop convoy, supplying troops and supplies to block the United States Marine invasion of Gaudalcanal. During the battle, the New Orleans was hit and cut nearly in half by an enemy submarine torpedo, losing her bow and two hundred seamen.
The ship travelled backwards to port in Sidney and was repaired and returned to action. Following the war, Kurth's father was stationed first in Newport Rhode Island and subsequently transferred to the Brooklyn Naval Yard when Kurth was less than a year old and the family bought a home in northern New Jersey, where Kurth was raised. Kurth graduated from Westwood High School in 1967, he completed his undergraduate studies at Columbia University, graduating cum laude and Phi Beta Kappa in 1975 before attending medical school at the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, from which he graduated in 1979. Following a fellowship in orthopedic surgery at Oxford University, he returned to the United States to complete his medical education. After completing his internship at Johns Hopkins University, he trained at the UCLA Hospital Medical Center and became Board Certified first in Emergency Medicine and in Addiction Medicine. Dr. Kurth subsequently received his Masters in Business Administration from the Loma Linda University School of Public Health and his Masters in Public Administration from the Harvard University Kennedy School of Government.
Dr. Kurth has been a prolific writer and advocate regarding matters of healthcare public policy in the area of substance dependence and abuse. In 1999, he founded California Legislative Day for the California Society of Addiction Medicine, in 2003 the National Legislative Day for the American Society of Addiction Medicine, he and his colleagues were instrumental in the repeal of the Uniform Policy Provision Law in California and passage of the bipartisan Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008. In 2003, Dr. Kurth received the prestigious Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Fellowship for Developing Leadership in Reducing Substance Abuse, he served as President of the California Society of Addiction Medicine from 2002 to 2004, was elected President Elect of the American Society of Addiction Medicine in 2008. In 2002 Dr. Kurth's peers awarded him the title of Fellow of the American Society of Addiction Medicine, an honor given to less than 300 physicians worldwide. Dr. Kurth served as the California State Healthcare Coalition Chairperson for Presidential Candidate John McCain in 2008.
In this capacity, he served as a speaker on national healthcare issues in the state of California. Dr. Kurth serves on the faculty of Loma Linda University School of Medicine as an assistant professor with appointments in both Preventive Medicine and Psychiatry. In addition, he holds a faculty appointment in the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Loma Linda University School of Public Health. Kurth owns the Urgent Care Alta Loma Medical Group in Rancho Cucamonga, California, he is founder of the Children's Free Immunization Clinic, which has provided free immunizations to many thousands of local children since 1983. He has served as a medical volunteer with the Flying Samaritans, a group of physicians and other volunteers who use private airplanes to bring free medical care to underserved children in inaccessible regions of rural Mexico. Kurth is married to Dee Matreyek, Ph. D., the founder and president of the Restorative Justice Center of the Inland Empire
Sampson Simson was an American philanthropist most remembered as "the father of Mount Sinai Hospital" and as benefactor, posthumously, to the North American Relief Society for Indigent Jews in Jerusalem, Israel. Simson was born in Connecticut, he studied under Aaron Burr, attended Columbia University in New York City, graduated in 1800 with a degree in law, becoming one of the first Jewish lawyers in New York City. After a few years practice, Simson abandoned his law career and retired to his Yonkers farm to devote himself to charitable work. Described as a pious man with a "New England conscience", a combination of a "public-spirited citizen" and "conformist Jew", Simson received great pleasure from his charitable contributions, be they to a Catholic church, a Protestant church or a synagogue. From 1825 until 1832, Simson served as Grand Commander of the Scottish Rite of Freemasonry. In 1852, along with eight other men representing various Hebrew charitable organizations, came together to establish the "Jew's Hospital", the institution that became Mount Sinai Hospital.
Its location, West 28th Street between 7th and 8th Avenues in New York City, was on land donated by Simson. "The Jew's Hospital" opened two years before his death. That same year, Simson joined Samuel Myer Isaacs and Adolphus Simeon Solomons to help found the Beth Hamedrash Hagodol. Simson's estate bequeathed large sums of money to Jewish and general institutions, including $50,000 that, after the death of a niece, should be paid "to any responsible corporation in this city whose permanent fund is established by its charter for the purpose of ameliorating the condition of the Jews in Jerusalem, Palestine." In 1888, the New York State Supreme Court decided that the sum, plus 30 years' interest, was to be paid to the North American Relief Society for Indigent Jews in Jerusalem. However, the niece's heir appealed the ruling, the New York State Court of Appeals overturned it on what would today be considered a technicality, awarding the full amount to the heir. Mount Sinai Hospital was ranked as one of the best hospitals in the United States by U.
S. News & World Report. Mount Sinai Hospital homepage freemasonry.org
Dyfnwal Moelmud was accounted as an early king and lawmaker among the Welsh, credited with the codification of their standard units of measure. He figures as a legendary king of the Britons in Geoffrey of Monmouth's pseudohistorical History of the Kings of the Britons. In Geoffrey's account, Dyfnwal was the son of Cloten, the King of Cornwall, he restored order after the "Civil War of the Five Kings", his family were a cadet branch of the dynasty of Brutus, the dominant line having ended with Porrex I before the civil war. Dyfnwal was the King of Cornwall during the war created in the power vacuum left by Porrex I, he was more courageous than all the other kings in the war. He defeated the king of Loegria. In response, king of Cambria, Staterius, king of Albany, allied together and destroyed much of Dyfnwal's land; the two sides were stalemated. Dyfnwal took 600 of his men and himself and dressed themselves in the armour of the dead enemies, they led a charge deep into enemy lines. After this battle, Dyfnwal pillaged their lands.
Following the defeat of the rival kings, Dyfnwal created a crown like that of his predecessors and claimed the throne of Britain. He created a set of rules for the kingdom called the Molmutine Laws, which nearly ended robbery within his kingdom and lasted for many centuries, he reigned in peace and prosperity for forty years died and was buried in the Temple of Concord, a tribute to his laws, which resided in Trinovantum. His death sparked another civil war between his two sons and Brennius. Welsh units Lloyd, John Edward. "Moelmud, Dyfnwal". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 38. London: Smith, Elder & Co
The Committee on Publication Ethics is a nonprofit organization whose mission is to define best practice in the ethics of scholarly publishing and to assist editors, etc. to achieve this. COPE educates and support editors and those involved in publication ethics with the aim of moving the culture of publishing towards one where ethical practices become the norm, part of the publishing culture. COPE's approach is in the direction of influencing through education and support of COPE members alongside the fostering of professional debate in the wider community, it provides a forum for its members to discuss individual cases. COPE organises annual seminars. COPE has created an audit tool for members to measure compliance with its'Core Practices' and guidance in the form of flowcharts, discussion documents, guidelines and eLearning modules. COPE was established in 1997 by a small group of medical journal editors in the United Kingdom. Now it has over 12,000 members worldwide, from all academic fields.
Paid membership is open to editors of academic journals and others interested in publication ethics, varies per year depending on the membership type. COPE's first guidelines were developed after discussion at the COPE meeting in April 1999 and were published as Guidelines on Good Publication Practice in the Annual Report in 1999. On their basis, the first edition of Code of Conduct for Editors was published on the first COPE website in November 2004, with an Editorial in the BMJ; the Code was replaced in 2017 with a simplified description of expectations as COPE's Core Practices, with links to COPE's detailed guidance, to aid editors and publishers in the fight against research and publication misconduct. Previous COPE Chairs include: Michael Farthing, Fiona Godlee, Harvey Markovitch, Elizabeth Wager, Virginia Barbour, Chris Graf and Geraldine Pearson.. COPE is chaired by Deborah Poff. COPE is governed by the Trustee Board, who are responsible for the financial and business operations of COPE as a charitable business and gives authority to Council and the Executive Officer and team to manage the day to day affairs of the organization.
COPE has links with the Council of Science Editors, the European Association of Science Editors, the International Society of Managing and Technical Editors, the World Association of Medical Editors, Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association, Directory of Open Access Journals, the Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers. EASE Guidelines for Authors and Translators of Scientific Articles United States Office of Research Integrity Official website
Universals of the Central Council of Ukraine are legal acts or declarations issued by the Central Council of Ukraine in 1917-18. These documents marked the main stages of the development of the nascent Ukrainian state, from the proclamation of its autonomy to the declaration of full independence. On June 23, 1917 the I Universal declared the autonomy of Ukraine "from now on we alone will create our life", it was an answer of the Central Council of Ukraine to the Provisional Government of Russia for its negative attitude towards the autonomy of Ukraine. According to the I Universal, "not separating from the whole Russia... Ukrainian people must alone govern their lives", laws must be approved by the All-National Ukrainian Assembly; the author of the I Universal was Volodymyr Vynnychenko. After the declaration of autonomy, on June 28, 1917 there was created the General Secretariat of Ukraine. On 25 January 1918 IV Universal declared independence of Ukraine so the Ukrainian People's Republic could conclude an international treaty with the Central Powers.
It condemned Bolshevik aggression. To the 90th Anniversary of the Unification Act. Central State Archives; the 19th Anniversary of the Ukrainian independence. Central State Electronic Archives. Constitutional process in Ukraine. Historical documents. Supreme Council of Ukraine website