Carousel is the second musical by the team of Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II. The 1945 work was adapted from Ferenc Molnárs 1909 play Liliom, the story revolves around carousel barker Billy Bigelow, whose romance with millworker Julie Jordan comes at the price of both their jobs. He attempts a robbery to provide for Julie and their child, after it goes wrong. A secondary plot line deals with millworker Carrie Pipperidge and her romance with ambitious fisherman Enoch Snow, the show includes the well-known songs If I Loved You, June Is Bustin Out All Over and Youll Never Walk Alone. Richard Rodgers wrote that Carousel was his favorite of all his musicals, following the spectacular success of the first Rodgers and Hammerstein musical, Oklahoma. The pair sought to collaborate on another piece, knowing that any resulting work would be compared with Oklahoma, after acquiring the rights, the team created a work with lengthy sequences of music and made the ending more hopeful. The musical required considerable modification during out-of-town tryouts, but once it opened on Broadway on April 19,1945, Carousel initially ran for 890 performances and duplicated its success in the West End in 1950.
Though it has never achieved as much success as Oklahoma. The piece has been revived, and has been recorded several times. A production by Nicholas Hytner enjoyed success in 1992 in London, in 1994 in New York, in 1999, Time magazine named Carousel the best musical of the 20th century. Ferenc Molnárs Hungarian-language drama, premiered in Budapest in 1909, the audience was puzzled by the work, and it lasted only thirty-odd performances before being withdrawn, the first shadow on Molnárs successful career as a playwright. Liliom was not presented again until after World War I, when it reappeared on the Budapest stage, it was a tremendous hit. Except for the ending, the plots of Liliom and Carousel are very similar, andreas Zavocky, a carnival barker, falls in love with Julie Zeller, a servant girl, and they begin living together. With both discharged from their jobs, Liliom is discontented and contemplates leaving Julie, but decides not to do so on learning that she is pregnant. A subplot involves Julies friend Marie, who has fallen in love with Wolf Biefeld and he dies, and his spirit is taken to heavens police court.
As Ficsur suggested while the two waited to commit the crime, would-be robbers like them do not come before God Himself. Liliom is told by the magistrate that he may go back to Earth for one day to attempt to redeem the wrongs he has done to his family, on his return to Earth, Liliom encounters his daughter, who like her mother is now a factory worker. Saying that he knew her father, he tries to give her a star he stole from the heavens, when Louise refuses to take it, he strikes her
The Mahābhārata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa. The Mahābhārata is a narrative of the Kurukṣetra War and the fates of the Kaurava. It contains philosophical and devotional material, such as a discussion of the four goals of life or puruṣārtha, the authorship of the Mahābhārata is attributed to Vyāsa. There have been attempts to unravel its historical growth and compositional layers. The oldest preserved parts of the text are thought to be not much older than around 400 BCE, the text probably reached its final form by the early Gupta period. The title may be translated as the tale of the Bhārata dynasty. According to the Mahābhārata itself, the tale is extended from a version of 24,000 verses called simply Bhārata. The Mahābhārata is the longest known epic poem and has described as the longest poem ever written. Its longest version consists of over 100,000 śloka or over 200,000 individual verse lines, and long prose passages. About 1.8 million words in total, the Mahābhārata is roughly ten times the length of the Iliad and the Odyssey combined, or about four times the length of the Rāmāyaṇa. W. J.
Johnson has compared the importance of the Mahābhārata in the context of civilization to that of the Bible, the works of Shakespeare. The epic is traditionally ascribed to the sage Vyāsa, who is a character in the epic. Vyāsa described it as being itihāsa and he describes the Guru-shishya parampara, which traces all great teachers and their students of the Vedic times. The first section of the Mahābhārata states that it was Gaṇeśa who wrote down the text to Vyasas dictation, the epic employs the story within a story structure, otherwise known as frametales, popular in many Indian religious and non-religious works. It is recited by the sage Vaiśampāyana, a disciple of Vyāsa, the text has been described by some early 20th-century western Indologists as unstructured and chaotic. Hermann Oldenberg supposed that the poem must once have carried an immense tragic force. Moritz Winternitz considered that only unpoetical theologists and clumsy scribes could have lumped the parts of disparate origin into an unordered whole, Research on the Mahābhārata has put an enormous effort into recognizing and dating layers within the text.
Some elements of the present Mahābhārata can be traced back to Vedic times, the background to the Mahābhārata suggests the origin of the epic occurs after the very early Vedic period and before the first Indian empire was to rise in the third century B. C
John Ford was an American film director. His four Academy Awards for Best Director remain a record, one of the films for which he won the award, How Green Was My Valley, won Best Picture. In a career spanned more than 50 years, Ford directed more than 140 films and he is widely regarded as one of the most important. Fords work was held in regard by his colleagues, with Orson Welles. Ford made frequent use of shooting and long shots, in which his characters were framed against a vast, harsh. Ford was born John Martin Jack Feeney in Cape Elizabeth, Maine to John Augustine Feeney and Barbara Abbey Curran and his father, John Augustine, was born in Spiddal, County Galway, Ireland in 1854. Barbara Curran had been born in the Aran Islands, in the town of Kilronan on the island of Inishmore, John A. Feeneys grandmother, Barbara Morris, was said to be a member of a local gentry family, the Morrises of Spiddal. John Augustine and Barbara Curran arrived in Boston and Portland respectively in May and they married in 1875 and became American citizens five years on September 11,1880.
John Augustine lived in the Munjoy Hill neighborhood of Portland, Maine with his family, and would try farming, working for the gas company, running a saloon, and being an alderman. Feeney attended Portland High School, Maine, where he was a successful fullback and he earned the nickname Bull because of the way he would lower his helmet and charge the line. A Portland pub is named Bull Feeneys in his honor and he moved to California and in 1914 began working in film production as well as acting for his older brother Francis, adopting Jack Ford as a professional name. In addition to credited roles, he appeared uncredited as a Klansman in D. W. Griffiths 1915 The Birth of a Nation and he married Mary McBride Smith on July 3,1920, and they had two children. His daughter Barbara was married to singer and actor Ken Curtis from 1952 to 1964, what difficulty was caused by the two marrying is unclear as the level of John Fords commitment to the Catholic faith is disputed. A strain would have been Fords many extramarital relationships, John Ford began his career in film after moving to California in July 1914.
He followed in the footsteps of his older brother Francis Ford, twelve years his senior. John Ford started out in his brothers films as an assistant, handyman and occasional actor, frequently doubling for his brother, Francis gave his younger brother his first acting role in The Mysterious Rose. Despite an often combative relationship, within three years Jack had progressed to become Francis chief assistant and often worked as his cameraman, by the time Jack Ford was given his first break as a director, Francis profile was declining and he ceased working as a director soon after. One notable feature of John Fords films is that he used a company of actors
The Power and the Glory (1933 film)
The Power and the Glory is a 1933 Pre-Code film starring Spencer Tracy and Colleen Moore, written by Preston Sturges, and directed by William K. Howard. The pictures screenplay was Sturges first script, which he delivered complete in the form of a shooting script, for which he received $17,500. Profit-sharing arrangements, now a practice in Hollywood, were unusual. The film, told through flashbacks, was cited by Pauline Kael in her essay Raising Kane, Tracys performance in a boardroom scene remains widely considered one of his most thrilling sequences as an actor. The Power and the Glory was loosely based by Sturges on the life of C. W. Post, his wifes grandfather, who founded the Postum Cereal Company. Like Tom Garner, the character of the film, Post worked his way up from the bottom. Otherwise, according to Sturges, their lives did not correspond, in 2014, The Power and the Glory was deemed culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant by the Library of Congress and selected for preservation in the National Film Registry.
The film is unrelated to the 1940 novel of the title by Graham Greene. Some 400 extras were used in the railroad roundhouse scene, Sturges originally wrote the script as a freelance project after being let go by Universal Pictures. He told the story to producer Jesse L. Lasky, who had his own unit at Fox, who requested a treatment. Sturges refused to do a treatment, and instead delivered a finished shooting script, such a percentage deal was highly unusual at that time, and caused an uproar among producers and writers. Both director William K. Howard and Spencer Tracy were supposed to have worked on Marie Galante, but when it was postponed, they were transferred to The Power, irene Dunne and Mary Astor were both considered for the part of Sally Garner, eventually played by Colleen Moore. Moore was lent to Fox by MGM, as was Helen Vinson, the film was in production from 23 March to late April 1933, with some re-shooting in June 1933. It had originally set to begin in late February 1933. During filming, Sturges served as the director, working with the actors much as he had done in stage rehearsals as a playwright.
When this did not satisfy the censors and more extensive re-editing was done to alleviate their concerns, the film was premiered in New York City on 16 August 1933, and was generally released on 6 October of that year. Fox coined the word narratage to describe the non-chronological narration of the story, although the film was well received by critics, and Spencer Tracys performance was especially praised, the film did not do well at the box office, except in New York City. By the end of 1940, it had grossed a little over a half-million dollars, by 1957 it had grossed around a million
Sinbad the Sailor
Sinbad the Sailor is a fictional sailor and the hero of a story-cycle of Middle Eastern origin, he is described as living in Baghdad, during the Abbasid Caliphate. During his voyages throughout the seas east of Africa and south of Asia, he has fantastic adventures going to places, meeting monsters. The first known point at which they are associated with the Nights is a Turkish collection dated 1637, One of several possible etymologies of the name is Sindh and the Persian word bâd, which means wind. This would give a meaning of India-wind. More recent sources include Abbasid works such the Wonders of the Created World, the Sinbad cycle is set in the reign of the Abbasid Caliph Harun al-Rashid. It first appeared in English as tale 120 in Volume 6 of Sir Richard Burtons 1885 translation of The Book of One Thousand, the owner of the house hears and sends for the porter, finding that they are both named Sinbad. The rich Sinbad tells the poor Sinbad that he became wealthy by Fortune and Fate in the course of seven wondrous voyages, after dissipating the wealth left to him by his father, Sinbad goes to sea to repair his fortune.
He sets ashore on what appears to be an island, but this island proves to be a gigantic sleeping whale on which trees have taken root ever since the world was young. Awakened by a fire kindled by the sailors, the whale dives into the depths, the ship departs without Sinbad and he is washed ashore on a densely wooded island. While exploring the island he comes across one of the kings grooms. When Sinbad helps save the Kings mare from being drowned by a sea horse, the king befriends Sinbad and so he rises in the kings favour and becomes a trusted courtier. One day, the ship on which Sinbad set sail docks at the island. Sinbad gives the king his goods and in return the king gives him rich presents, Sinbad sells these presents for a great profit. Sinbad returns to Baghdad where he resumes a life of ease, with the ending of the tale, Sinbad the sailor makes Sinbad the porter a gift of a hundred gold pieces, and bids him return the next day to hear more about his adventures. Accidentally abandoned by his shipmates again, he finds himself stranded in an island which contains roc eggs and he attaches himself to a roc and is transported to a valley of giant snakes which can swallow elephants, these serve as the rocs natural prey.
The wily Sinbad straps one of the pieces of meat to his back and is carried back to the nest along with a sack full of precious gems. Rescued from the nest by the merchants, he returns to Baghdad with a fortune in diamonds, restless for travel and adventure, Sinbad sets sail again from Basra. Moreover, he had long loose lips like camels, hanging down upon his breast and this monster begins eating the crew, beginning with the Reis, who is the fattest
Ford Madox Ford
Ford is now remembered for his novels The Good Soldier, the Parades End tetralogy and The Fifth Queen trilogy. Ford was born in Wimbledon to Catherine Madox Brown and Francis Hueffer, Fords father, who became music critic for The Times, was German and his mother English. His paternal grandfather Johann Hermann Hüffer was first to publish Westphalian poet, Ford used the name of Ford Madox Hueffer, but in 1919 he changed it to Ford Madox Ford in honour of his grandfather, the Pre-Raphaelite painter Ford Madox Brown, whose biography he had written. In 1889, after the death of his father, Ford graduated from the University College School in London, but never attended university. In 1894, Ford eloped with his school girlfriend Elsie Martindale, the couple were married in Gloucester and moved to Bonnington. In 1901, the moved to Winchelsea. The couple had two daughters and Katharine, Fords neighbors in Winchelsea included the authors Henry James and H. G. Wells. In 1904, Ford suffered a breakdown due to financial and marital problems.
He went to Germany to spend time with family there and undergo cure treatments, between 1918 and 1927 he lived with Stella Bowen, an Australian artist twenty years his junior. In 1920, Ford and Bowen had a daughter, Julia Madox Ford, in the summer of 1927, The New York Times reported that Ford had converted a mill building in Avignon, France into a home and workshop that he called Le Vieux Moulin. The article implied that Ford was reunited with his wife at this point, Ford spent the last years of his life teaching at Olivet College in Olivet, Michigan. Ford died in Deauville, France, at the age of 65, one of Fords most famous works is the novel The Good Soldier. Set just before World War I, The Good Soldier chronicles the tragic lives of two perfect couples, one British and one American, using intricate flashbacks. In the Dedicatory Letter to Stella Ford” that prefaces the novel, Ford reports that a friend pronounced The Good Soldier “the finest French novel in the English language. ”Ford pronounced himself a Tory mad about historic continuity and believed the novelists function was to serve as the historian of his own time.
Ford was involved in British war propaganda after the beginning of World War I. He worked for the War Propaganda Bureau, managed by C. F. G. Masterman, along with Arnold Bennett, G. K. Chesterton, John Galsworthy, Hilaire Belloc and Gilbert Murray. After writing the two books, Ford enlisted at 41 years of age into the Welch Regiment of the British Army on 30 July 1915. Fords combat experiences and his previous propaganda activities inspired his tetralogy Parades End, set in England and on the Western Front before, Ford wrote dozens of novels as well as essays, poetry and literary criticism
Monochrome describes paintings, design, or photographs in one color or values of one color. A monochromatic object or image reflects colors in shades of limited colors or hues, images using only shades of grey are called grayscale or black-and-white. However, scientifically speaking, monochromatic light refers to light of a narrow band of wavelengths. In computing, monochrome has two meanings, it may mean having only one color which is either on or off, a monochrome computer display is able to display only a single color, often green, red or white, and often shades of that color. In film photography, monochrome is typically the use of black-and-white film, all photography was done in monochrome. Although color photography was possible even in the late 19th century, easily used color films, if the red channel is eliminated and the green and blue combined the effect will be similar to that of orthochromatic film or the use of a cyan filter on panchromatic film. The selection of weighting thus allows a range of artistic expression in the final monochromatic image.
For production of an image the original color stereogram source may first be reduced to monochrome in order to simplify the rendering of the image. This is sometimes required in cases where an image would render in a confusing manner given the colors and patterns present in the source image. In physics, monochromatic light is electromagnetic radiation of a single frequency, even very controlled sources such as lasers operate in a range of frequencies. In practice, filtered light, diffraction grating separated light and laser light are all referred to as monochromatic. Often light sources can be compared and one be labeled as “more monochromatic”
Harry Potter is a series of fantasy novels written by British author J. K. Rowling. The novels chronicle the life of a wizard, Harry Potter. Since the release of the first novel, Harry Potter and the Philosophers Stone, on 26 June 1997, the series has now been translated into multiple languages including French, Spanish and Swedish to name a few. They have attracted a wide audience as well as younger readers. The series has had its share of criticism, including concern about the dark tone as the series progressed, as well as the often gruesome. As of May 2013, the books have more than 500 million copies worldwide, making them the best-selling book series in history. The series was published in English by two major publishers, Bloomsbury in the United Kingdom and Scholastic Press in the United States. The original seven books were adapted into a film series by Warner Bros. Pictures, which has become the second highest-grossing film series of all time as of August 2015, in 2016, the total value of the Harry Potter franchise was estimated at $25 billion, making Harry Potter one of the highest-grossing media franchises of all time.
A series of genres, including fantasy, coming of age and the British school story. According to Rowling, the theme is death. Other major themes in the series include prejudice, Rowling updates the series with new information and insight, and a pentalogy of spin-off films premiering in November 2016, among many other developments. Most recently, themed attractions, collectively known as The Wizarding World of Harry Potter, have built at several Universal Parks & Resorts amusement parks around the world. The wizarding world exists parallel to the Muggle world, albeit hidden and his magical ability is inborn and children with such abilities are invited to attend exclusive magic schools that teach the necessary skills to succeed in the wizarding world. Harry becomes a student at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, each novel chronicles one year in Harrys life during the period from 1991 to 1998. The books contain many flashbacks, which are experienced by Harry viewing the memories of other characters in a device called a Pensieve.
The environment Rowling created is intimately connected to reality, the full background to this event and Harry Potters past is revealed gradually through the series. After the introductory chapter, the book leaps forward to a time shortly before Harry Potters eleventh birthday, Harrys first contact with the wizarding world is through a half-giant, Rubeus Hagrid, Keeper of Keys and Grounds at Hogwarts
Robert von Ranke Graves was an English poet, novelist and classicist. He produced more than 140 works, Irish literature deeply affected Graves White Goddess theories, specifically the genre aisling. He earned his living from writing, particularly historical novels such as I, King Jesus, The Golden Fleece. He was a prominent translator of Classical Latin and Ancient Greek texts, his versions of The Twelve Caesars and The Golden Ass remain popular, for their clarity, Graves was awarded the 1934 James Tait Black Memorial Prize for both I, Claudius and Claudius the God. Graves was born into a family in Wimbledon, part of Surrey. Gravess mother was from a recently ennobled German family, the eldest daughter of Heinrich von Ranke, a professor of medicine at the University of Munich and she was a greatniece of the German historian Leopold von Ranke. At school, Graves was enrolled as Robert von Ranke Graves and in Germany his books are published under that name but before and during the First World War, the name caused him difficulties.
In August 1916 an officer who disliked him spread the rumour that he was a spy, the problem resurfaced in a minor way in the Second World War, when a suspicious rural policeman blocked his appointment to the Special Constabulary. Gravess eldest half-brother, Philip Perceval Graves, achieved note as a journalist and his brother, Charles Patrick Graves, was a writer. Among the masters his chief influence was George Mallory, who introduced him to contemporary literature, in his final year at Charterhouse, he won a classical exhibition to St Johns College, Oxford but did not take his place there until after the war. At the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914, Graves enlisted almost immediately and he published his first volume of poems, Over the Brazier, in 1916. He developed a reputation as a war poet and was one of the first to write realistic poems about experience of frontline conflict. In years, he omitted his war poems from his collections, at the Battle of the Somme, he was so badly wounded by a shell-fragment through the lung that he was expected to die and was officially reported as having died of wounds.
He gradually recovered and, apart from a spell back in France. One of Gravess friends at this time was the poet Siegfried Sassoon, in 1917, Sassoon rebelled against the conduct of the war by making a public antiwar statement. Graves feared Sassoon could face a court martial and intervened with the authorities, persuading them that Sassoon was suffering from shell shock. As a result, Sassoon was sent to Craiglockhart, a hospital in Edinburgh. Graves suffered shell shock, or neurasthenia as it was called, but he was never hospitalised for it, I thought of going back to France
Marnie is a 1964 American psychological thriller film directed by Alfred Hitchcock. The screenplay by Jay Presson Allen was based on the 1961 novel of the name by Winston Graham. The film stars Tippi Hedren and Sean Connery, the music was composed by Bernard Herrmann, his last of seven critically acclaimed film scores for Hitchcock. Marnie marked the end of Hitchcocks collaborations with cinematographer Robert Burks, margaret Marnie Edgar steals $10,000 from her employers company safe and flees. She had used her charms on Sidney Strutt, a tax consultant, though Bernice seems to care more for a young neighbor named Jessie than she ever did to her own daughter, Marnie shows love for her and gives her money. When Mark Rutland, a widower who owns a publishing company in Philadelphia, sees Strutt on business. He recalls Marnie from a previous visit, unaware of this, Marnie applies for a job at Marks company, intrigued, he hires her as a typist, and they see each other socially. When Marnie has an attack during a thunderstorm, he hugs her.
Marnie has bad dreams and a phobia of the color red, Marnie repeats her crime at Mark’s company, stealing a large sum of money and fleeing. Mark tracks her down at the stable where she keeps Forio. Shockingly, he blackmails her into marrying him and they marry, much to the chagrin of Marks former sister-in-law, who has had an eye on him ever since her sisters death. Lil learns that he is spending extravagantly on Marnie and becomes suspicious, on her honeymoon cruise, Marnie admits to Mark that she cannot stand to be touched by a man. Mark begins by respecting her wishes, but later, after days of frustration, the next morning, she attempts suicide by drowning herself in the ships pool, but Mark manages to save her in time. Upon their return home, Mark discovers that Marnies mother is still alive, Lil overhears that Mark has paid off Strutt on Marnies behalf, so she mischievously invites Strutt to a party at Marks house. There, a furious Strutt recognizes Marnie, but does not expose her after Mark threatens to take his business elsewhere, when Marnie admits to additional robberies, Mark offers to pay back all her victims to keep the police away.
Invited to ride in a fox hunt, Marnie enjoys herself, when another rider wearing a traditional scarlet coat comes into view, her phobia kicks in and she bolts on her horse Forio. After a wild gallop, the falls and suffers a catastrophic injury. Crazed with grief, Marnie goes to Marks office to rob his safe again, Mark surprises her and eggs her on to take the money, but still she cannot
William Wyler, born as Willy Wyler was an American film director and screenwriter of Ashkenazi Jewish descent. Wyler received his first Oscar nomination for directing Dodsworth in 1936, starring Walter Huston, Ruth Chatterton and Mary Astor, Film historian Ian Freer calls Wyler a bona fide perfectionist, whose penchant for retakes and an attempt to hone every last nuance, became the stuff of legend. Through his talent for staging and camera movement and he helped propel a number of actors to stardom and directing Audrey Hepburn in her Hollywood debut film, Roman Holiday, and directing Barbra Streisand in her debut film, Funny Girl. He directed Olivia de Havilland to her second Oscar in The Heiress and Laurence Olivier in Wuthering Heights, Olivier credited Wyler with teaching him how to act for the screen. And Bette Davis, who received three Oscar nominations under his direction and won her second Oscar in Jezebel, said Wyler made her a far, far better actress than she had ever been. Other popular Wyler films include, Hells Heroes, The Westerner, The Letter, Friendly Persuasion, The Big Country, The Childrens Hour, Wyler was born to a Jewish family in Mulhouse, Alsace.
His Swiss father, started as a traveling salesman which he turned into a thriving haberdashery business in Mulhouse. His mother, was German, and a cousin of Carl Laemmle, during Wylers childhood, he attended a number of schools and developed a reputation as something of a hellraiser, being expelled more than once for misbehavior. His mother often took him and his older brother Robert to concerts, sometimes at home his family and their friends would stage amateur theatricals for personal enjoyment. Wyler was supposed to take over the family business in Mulhouse. After World War I, he spent a year working in Paris at 100.000 Chemises selling shirts. He was so poor that he spent his time wandering around the Pigalle district. After realizing that Willy was not interested in the business, his mother, contacted her distant cousin, Carl Laemmle who owned Universal Studios. Laemmle was in the habit of coming to Europe each year, in 1921, while traveling as a Swiss citizen, met Laemmle who hired him to work at Universal Studios in New York.
As Wyler said, America seemed as far away as the moon, booked onto a ship to New York with Laemmle upon his return voyage, he met a young Czech man, Paul Kohner, aboard the same ship. Their enjoyment of the first class trip was short-lived, after working in New York for several years, and even serving in the New York Army National Guard for a year, Wyler moved to Hollywood to become a director. Around 1923, Wyler arrived in Los Angeles and began work on the Universal Studios lot in the gang, cleaning the stages. His break came when he was hired as an assistant editor