The Tatra 97 is a Czechoslovak mid-size car built by Tatra in Kopřivnice, Moravia from 1936 to 1939. The Tatra 97 was designed to complement two full-size cars in the Tatra range: the Tatra 77 launched in 1934 and the Tatra 87 launched in 1936 along with the Type 97; each of the three models has an air-cooled rear engine and share similar aerodynamic fastback four-door sedan bodies. But whereas types 77 and 87 each have a large V8 engine, Type 97 has a flat-four engine; the Type 97 is distinguished by having two headlights and a one-piece windscreen, whereas the 77 and 87 have three headlights and a three-piece windscreen. The Type 97's flat-four engine displaces 1,759 cc and produces 40 horsepower, giving it top speed of 130 km/h. Tatra had a mid-size car in the same class, the more conventional 1,688 cc Tatra 75 that it had launched in 1933. Tatra continued to produce the Type 75 alongside the futuristic Type 97. In fact production of the Type 75 outlived that of the Type 97 and continued until 1942.
Kopřivnice is in a part of northern Moravia that Nazi Germany annexed after the Munich Agreement in September 1938. Production of the Type 97 was terminated in 1939 to avoid comparison with the KdF-Wagen. Production of the Type 97 was 508 cars in total. In 1946 Tatra resumed car production, replaced the Type 97 with the larger and more modern Tatra 600 "Tatraplan". In both streamlined design and technical specifications the engine design and position, the Type 97 has a striking resemblance to Volkswagen's KdF-Wagen. Adolf Hitler is reported to have said of Tatra's cars, "This is the car for my roads.". Ferdinand Porsche was accused of using Tatra designs to design the Volkswagen and cheaply. In Ledwinka's words, "Well, sometimes Porsche looked over my shoulder and sometimes I looked over his."Tatra sued Porsche for damages, Porsche was willing to settle. But Hitler cancelled this, saying he "would settle the matter". Soon after Germany occupied the Sudetenland, Tatra stopped production of the Type 97 and the lawsuit was discontinued.
After the Second World War Tatra resumed its lawsuit. In 1965 Volkswagen settled it by paying Tatra 1,000,000 Deutsche Mark in compensation. Mantle, Jonathan. Car Wars: Fifty Years of Greed and Skulduggery in the Global Marketplace. New York: Arcade Publishing. ISBN 978-1559703338. Margolius, Ivan. Poundbury: Veloce Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-1-845847-99-9. Schmarbeck, Wolfgang. Hans Ledwinka: Seine Autos Sein Leben. Graz: H Weishaupt Verlag. P. 174. ISBN 3-900310-56-4. Tuček, Jan. Auta první republiky 1918–1938. Prague: Grada Publishing. Pp. 294–295. ISBN 978-80-271-0466-6
A drive shaft, driving shaft, propeller shaft, or Cardan shaft is a mechanical component for transmitting torque and rotation used to connect other components of a drive train that cannot be connected directly because of distance or the need to allow for relative movement between them. As torque carriers, drive shafts are subject to torsion and shear stress, equivalent to the difference between the input torque and the load, they must therefore be strong enough to bear the stress, while avoiding too much additional weight as that would in turn increase their inertia. To allow for variations in the alignment and distance between the driving and driven components, drive shafts incorporate one or more universal joints, jaw couplings, or rag joints, sometimes a splined joint or prismatic joint; the term drive shaft first appeared during the mid 19th century. In Stover's 1861 patent reissue for a planing and matching machine, the term is used to refer to the belt-driven shaft by which the machine is driven.
The term is not used in his original patent. Another early use of the term occurs in the 1861 patent reissue for the Watkins and Bryson horse-drawn mowing machine. Here, the term refers to the shaft transmitting power from the machine's wheels to the gear train that works the cutting mechanism. In the 1890s, the term began to be used in a manner closer to the modern sense. In 1891, for example, Battles referred to the shaft between the transmission and driving trucks of his Climax locomotive as the drive shaft, Stillman referred to the shaft linking the crankshaft to the rear axle of his shaft-driven bicycle as a drive shaft. In 1899, Bukey used the term to describe the shaft transmitting power from the wheel to the driven machinery by a universal joint in his Horse-Power. In the same year, Clark described his Marine Velocipede using the term to refer to the gear-driven shaft transmitting power through a universal joint to the propeller shaft. Crompton used the term to refer to the shaft between the transmission of his steam-powered Motor Vehicle of 1903 and the driven axle.
The pioneering automobile industry company, was the first to use a drive shaft in a gasoline-powered car. Built in 1901, today this vehicle is in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution. An automobile may use a longitudinal shaft to deliver power from an engine/transmission to the other end of the vehicle before it goes to the wheels. A pair of short drive shafts is used to send power from a central differential, transmission, or transaxle to the wheels. In front-engined, rear-drive vehicles, a longer drive shaft is required to send power the length of the vehicle. Two forms dominate: The torque tube with a single universal joint and the more common Hotchkiss drive with two or more joints; this system became known as Système Panhard after the automobile company Panhard et Levassor patented it. Most of these vehicles have a clutch and gearbox mounted directly on the engine, with a drive shaft leading to a final drive in the rear axle; when the vehicle is stationary, the drive shaft does not rotate.
Some vehicles, seeking improved weight balance between rear, use a rear-mounted transaxle. In some non-Porsche models, this places the clutch and transmission at the rear of the car and the drive shaft between them and the engine. In this case the drive shaft rotates continuously with the engine when the car is stationary and out of gear. However, the Porsche 924/944/928 models have the clutch mounted to the back of the engine in a bell housing and the drive shaft from the clutch output, located inside of a hollow protective torque tube, transfers power to the rear mounted transaxle, thus the Porsche driveshaft only rotates when the rear wheels are turning as the engine-mounted clutch can decouple engine crankshaft rotation from the driveshaft. So for Porsche, when the driver is using the clutch while briskly shifting up or down, the engine can rev with the driver's accelerator pedal input, since with the clutch disengaged, the engine and flywheel inertia is low and is not burdened with the added rotational inertia of the driveshaft.
The Porsche torque tube is solidly fastened to both the engine's bell housing and to the transaxle case, fixing the length and alignment between the bell housing and the transaxle and minimizing rear wheel drive reaction torque from twisting the transaxle in any plane. A drive shaft connecting a rear differential to a rear wheel may be called a half-shaft; the name derives from the fact. Early automobiles used chain drive or belt drive mechanisms rather than a drive shaft; some used electrical motors to transmit power to the wheels. In British English, the term "drive shaft" is restricted to a transverse shaft that transmits power to the wheels the front wheels. A drive shaft connecting the gearbox to a rear differential is called a propeller shaft, or prop-shaft. A prop-shaft assembly consists of a slip joint and one or more universal joints. Where the engine and axles are separated from each other, as on four-wheel drive and rear-wheel drive vehicles, it is the propeller shaft that serves to transmit the drive force generated by the engine to the axles.
Several different types of drive shaft are used in the automotive industry: One-piece drive shaft Two-piece drive shaft Slip-in-tube drive shaftThe slip-in-tube drive shaft is a new type that improves crash safety. It can be compressed to absorb energy in the event of a crash, so is known as a collapsible drive shaft
Honda Gold Wing
The Honda Gold Wing is a series of touring motorcycles manufactured by Honda. Gold Wings feature shaft drive, a flat engine. Introduced at the Cologne Motorcycle Show in October 1974, the Gold Wing went on to become a popular model in North America, Western Europe and Australia, as well as Japan. Total sales are more than 640,000, most of them in the U. S. market. Gold Wings were manufactured in Marysville, Ohio from 1980 until 2010, when motorcycle production there was halted. No Gold Wings were produced for the 2011 model year; the Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan includes a Honda Gold Wing GL1000 manufactured in 1974 as one of their 240 Landmarks of Japanese Automotive Technology. Through 2012, Honda GL models have appeared eighteen times in the Cycle World list of Ten Best bikes. Over the course of its production history, the Gold Wing had many design changes. Beginning in 1975 with a 999 cc flat-four engine, by 2001 this had grown to a 1,832 cc flat-six; the 2012 model had anti-lock braking, cruise control, electrically-assisted reverse gear, an optional airbag, a fairing with heating and an adjustable windscreen, panniers and a trunk, a pillion backrest, a six-speaker radio/audio system with MP3/iPod connectivity.
In 1972, following the success of the ground-breaking CB750 superbike, the company assembled an R&D design team to explore concepts for a new flagship motorcycle. The project leader was Shoichiro Irimajiri, who in the 1960s had designed Honda’s multi-cylinder MotoGP engines and their Formula One V12 engine; the 1974 Gold Wing with its flat-four shaft-drive powertrain used technologies both from earlier motorcycle and automotive designs. Although preceded by the 1971 water-cooled Suzuki GT750 two-stroke triple, the Gold Wing was the first Japanese production motorcycle with a water-cooled four-stroke engine; the first four-cylinder boxer engine was produced in 1900. During its development, the CB750 was known within Honda as their "King of Motorcycles". Honda first envisaged the Gold Wing as a large sport motorcycle, but on learning that customers were "piling miles on touring", Honda reconsidered the bike’s design objectives, realising that the primary market for the Gold Wing was the long-distance motorcyclist.
In North America a motorcycle suitable to that task would need comfort for the long haul, wind protection, a smooth ride, a comfortable seat, luggage storage, power in abundance. In American in the early 1970s, long-distance motorcyclists had only a few manufacturers to choose from: Harley-Davidson, Moto Guzzi and BMW; the H-D Electra Glide was a comfortable, high-maintenance and high-vibration motorcycle with a loyal cult following. It faced strong competition from Moto Guzzi's 850cc Eldorado. BMW motorcycles were more reliable, if expensive. Other large Japanese motorcycles, such as the Honda CB750 and the Kawasaki Z1 were cheaper but were not ideal tourers with their small fuel tanks and rear drive-chains needing regular maintenance; the Gold Wing was aimed at a newly-emerging market segment namely, a new kind of American long distance rider not to buy a Harley-Davidson or BMW but who would open their wallets for an affordable machine offering comfort, low-maintenance and a smooth, quiet engine.
The Gold Wing's secondary target market was Europe, where riders prioritised handling and performance over luxury.. In 1972, the project team broke from Honda practice to produce an experimental prototype motorcycle, code-named "M1". Instead of the usual transverse engine layout with a chain final drive, the M1 had a longitudinal engine suitable for shaft drive; the M1 had a 1470cc liquid-cooled flat-six engine. Instead of seeking high performance the M1 engine was designed to have a broad torque output and to produce 80 horsepower at 6700 rpm, with a top speed of 220 kilometres per hour; the brainstorming team's M1 project was never intended as a production prototype. Nonetheless, the M1 should be seen as the primordial Gold Wing because so many of its distinctive features appeared on the GL1000; the flat-six gave the M1 a low center of gravity, enhancing stability, but the extreme length of the engine/gearbox unit resulted in a cramped riding position. Instead, the project team chose to build a bike with a compact one liter flat-four engine.
This bike was code-named "Project 371", Toshio Nozue took over from Irimajiri as project leader. The Project 371 team settled on a layout that became the characteristic Gold Wing: a liquid-cooled flat-four SOHC engine, with a gear-driven generator that contra-rotated to counteract the engine's torque reaction. Cylinder blocks and crankcase were integral, with the transmission situated beneath the crankcase to keep the unit construction engine as short as possible. Final drive was by shaft. Before going on sale in the US and in Europe in 1975, the Gold Wing was revealed to dealers in September 1974 at American Honda's annual dealer meeting in Las Vegas, shown to the public the following month at the IFMA in Cologne. Small fairings had been mounted on two of the show models at the US dealer show in Las Vegas; these Honda-designed fairings were to be manufactured in the US by the Vetter Fairing Company and sold as Hondaline accessories. The Gold Wing was born into the world naked, lacking sa
The Subaru Impreza is a compact car, manufactured since 1992 by Subaru, introduced as a replacement for the Leone, with the predecessor's EA series engines replaced by the new EJ series. Now in its fifth generation, Subaru has offered four-door sedan and five-door body variants since 1992. Mainstream versions have received "boxer" flat-four engines ranging from 1.5- to 2.5-liters, with the performance-oriented Impreza WRX and WRX STI models uprated with the addition of turbochargers. Since the third generation series, some markets have adopted the abbreviated Subaru WRX name for these high-performance variants; the first three generations of Impreza in North America were available with an off-road appearance package called the Outback Sport. For the fourth generation, this appearance package was renamed the XV, unlike the Outback Sport, is sold internationally; the Impreza is a major rival to the Mitsubishi Lancer. Subaru has offered both front- and all-wheel drive layouts for the Impreza. Since the late-1990s, some markets have restricted sales to the all-wheel drive model—therefore granting the Impreza a unique selling proposition in the global compact class characterized by front-wheel drive.
However, Japanese models remain available in either configuration. A 2019 iSeeCars study named the Impreza as the lowest-depreciating sedan after five years. Announced on 22 October 1992, the Impreza was released in Japan in November and offered in either front-wheel drive or all-wheel drive versions and as a four-door sedan or five-door hatchback/wagon; the car used a shortened version of the Legacy's floor pan. According to a Motor Trend article written March 1992 on page 26, the name of Subaru's new compact was to be called the Loyale, displaying an official photograph of the four-door sedan. In late 1995, a two-door coupe was introduced. Initial engine choices included 1.5, 1.6, 1.8, 2.0 liter aspirated engines. Subaru chose to continue their longstanding use of the boxer engine in the Impreza. According to Subaru, their configuration of the engine inline with the transmission minimizes body roll due to the lower center of gravity compared with offset engines in most other vehicles; the boxer design provides good vibration mitigation due to the principles of a balanced engine because the movement of each piston is countered by a piston in the opposing cylinder bank, eliminating the need for a counter-weighted rotating crankshaft, but with some vibration from offsets.
Torque steer is reduced with this type of powertrain layout since the front drive shafts are of equal length and weight. At the time of introduction, the Japanese and European market aspirated models received an unusual grille with a small central opening. Only the WRX and regular North American models received a conventional "full" grille until the 1994 facelift, when the regular models' appearance was brought in line with that of the sporting models; the Outback Sport was introduced to North America in 1994 for the 1995 model year as an updated Impreza "L" Sports Wagon. It was the top trim level of the Impreza wagon model with no significant mechanical or performance changes from the lower trim levels aside from a lifted suspension. Subaru found some sales success with the Outback Sport as a smaller companion with similar ride height changes, body colors and trim levels to the larger, more successful selling Legacy-based Outback. For the first time, the 2.2-liter engine was used in the American Impreza.
The 2.5-liter engine was introduced. In Japan, the Impreza WRX Sports Wagon was offered with a similar approach to the Outback Sport, calling it the "Impreza Gravel Express". Subaru discontinued the Gravel Express when the second generation Impreza was introduced due to limited sales; the hood-scoop found on the American Outback Sport was non-functional but was included because the American and Japanese versions were built at the same factory in Japan. The Outback Sport was offered with optional equipment, such as a gauge pack installed on top of the dashboard, that included a digital compass, outside temperature and barometer or altimeter readings. Trim levels were GL and Sport generation. LX models were front-wheel drive, powered by a 1.6-liter engine. GL trim levels were either front-wheel all-wheel-drive. From 1996, the 1.8-liter versions were dropped, replaced by a 2.0-liter engine. Sport versions had alloy wheels, a 2.0-liter engine only. During this generation, Subaru offered a limited edition Impreza Sports Wagon called the Casa Blanca, which had a retro-inspired front and rear end treatment, inspired by the popular kei car Subaru Vivio Bistro styling package and Subaru Sambar Dias Classic.
The Impreza received an external facelift for the 1997 model year, followed by an interior redesign in 1998, using the new redesigned dashboard from the Forester. Subaru of North America offered the Impreza with the 1.8-liter engine only, with either front- or all-wheel drive. For the 1995 model year, the 1.8/EJ18 was available with a 5-speed manual or a 4-speed automatic transmission on the'base' model only. The 2.2/EJ22 was only available with an automatic transmission for the L
The Volkswagen Beetle—officially the Volkswagen Type 1, informally in German the Käfer, in parts of the English-speaking world the Bug, known by many other nicknames in other languages—is a two-door, rear-engine economy car, intended for five occupants, manufactured and marketed by German automaker Volkswagen from 1938 until 2003. The need for a people's car, its concept and its functional objectives were formulated by the leader of Nazi Germany, Adolf Hitler, who wanted a cheap, simple car to be mass-produced for his country's new road network. Lead engineer Ferdinand Porsche and his team took until 1938 to finalise the design; the influence on Porsche's design of other contemporary cars, such as the Tatra V570, the work of Josef Ganz remains a subject of dispute. The result was the first Volkswagen, one of the first rear-engined cars since the Brass Era. With 21,529,464 produced, the Beetle is the longest-running and most-manufactured car of a single platform made. Although designed in the 1930s, due to World War II, civilian Beetles only began to be produced in significant numbers by the end of the 1940s.
The car was internally designated the Volkswagen Type 1, marketed as the Volkswagen. Models were designated Volkswagen 1200, 1300, 1500, 1302, or 1303, the former three indicating engine displacement, the latter two derived from the model number; the car became known in its home country as the Käfer and was marketed under that name in Germany, as the Volkswagen in other countries. For example, in France it was known as the Coccinelle; the original 25 hp Beetle was designed for a top speed around 100 km/h, which would be a viable cruising speed on the Reichsautobahn system. As Autobahn speeds increased in the postwar years, its output was boosted to 36 40 hp, the configuration that lasted through 1966 and became the "classic" Volkswagen motor; the Beetle gave rise to multiple variants: the 1950 Type 2'Bus', the 1955 Karmann Ghia, as well as the 1961 Type 3'Ponton' and the 1968 Type 4 family cars forming the basis of an rear-engined VW product range. The Beetle thus marked a significant trend, led by Volkswagen, by Fiat and Renault, whereby the rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout increased from 2.6 percent of continental Western Europe's car production in 1946 to 26.6 percent in 1956.
In 1959 General Motors launched an air-cooled, rear-engined car, the Chevrolet Corvair — which shared the Beetle's flat engine and swing axle architecture. Over time, front-wheel drive, hatchback-bodied cars would come to dominate the European small-car market. In 1974, Volkswagen's own front-wheel drive Golf hatchback succeeded the Beetle. In 1994, Volkswagen unveiled the Concept One, a "retro"-themed concept car with a resemblance to the original Beetle, in 1998 introduced the "New Beetle", built on the contemporary Golf platform with styling recalling the original Type 1, it remained in production through 2010, was succeeded in 2011 by the Beetle, more reminiscent of the original Beetle. In the 1999 Car of the Century competition, to determine the world's most influential car in the 20th century, the Type 1 came fourth, after the Ford Model T, the Mini, the Citroën DS; the originating concept behind the first Volkswagen, the company, its name, is the notion of a people’s car – a car affordable and practical enough for common people to own.
Hence the name, "people's car" in German, pronounced ). Although the Volkswagen was the brainchild of Ferdinand Porsche and Adolf Hitler, the idea is much older than Nazism, existed since mass-production of cars was introduced. Contrary to the United States, where the Ford Model T had become the first car to motorize the masses, contributing to household car ownership of about 33% in 1920 and some 46% in 1930, in the early 1930s, the German auto industry was still limited to luxury models, few Germans could afford anything more than a motorcycle: one German out of 50 owned a car. In April 1934, Hitler gave the order to Porsche to develop a Volkswagen; the epithet Volks- "people's-" had been applied to other Nazi-sponsored consumer goods as well, such as the Volksempfänger. In May 1934, at a meeting at Berlin's Kaiserhof Hotel, Chancellor Hitler insisted on a basic vehicle that could transport two adults and three children at 100 km/h while not using more than 7 litres of fuel per 100 km; the engine had to be powerful enough for sustained cruising on Germany's new Autobahnen.
Everything had to be designed to ensure parts could be and inexpensively exchanged. The engine had to be air-cooled because, as Hitler explained, not every country doctor had his own garage; the "People's Car" would be available to citizens of Germany through a savings scheme, or Sparkarte, at 990 Reichsmark, about the price of a small motorcycle. Ferdinand Porsche developed the Type 12, or "Auto für Jedermann" for Zündapp in 1931. Porsche preferred the flat-four engine, selected a swing axle rear suspension, while Zündapp insisted on a water-cooled five-cylinder radial engine. In 1932 three prototypes were r
Subaru FA engine
The Subaru FA engine is a gasoline boxer-4 engine used in Subaru and Toyota automobiles. It is a derivative of the FB engine, efforts to reduce weight while maintaining durability were the main goals of the FA engine. While the FA and FB engines share a common platform, the FA shares little in dedicated parts with the FB engine, with a different block, connecting rods, pistons; the FA series engine was developed for the Subaru BRZ and the first FA engine, the FA20D, was designed to be mounted as low as possible and to minimize the polar moment of the chassis to improve dynamic response and handling. The FA engine features a shallower oil pan and shorter intake manifold to reduce overall engine height compared to the Subaru FB engine; the FA and FB engines share few parts. A direct injection-only turbo variant of the FA20, the FA20F, was introduced in late 2012 with the 2012 Legacy GT and in the United States, the 2014 model year Subaru Forester. Compression ratio for the turbo engine falls to 10.6:1 from 12.5:1 for the FA20D.
A revised variant of the FA20F was introduced for the 2015 model year Subaru WRX. Compared to the FB20 engine, undersquare with a 84 mm × 90 mm bore and stroke for 2.0 L swept displacement, the FA20 is square with a 86 mm × 86 mm bore and stroke for 2.0 L swept displacement. The 86 mm bore and stroke are reminders of the heritage Toyota model AE86; the FA20D features both direct and port injection and Subaru AVCS variable valve timing system. It is used in the Subaru BRZ, is identified by a Toyota engine family code known as the 4U-GSE, installed in the Toyota 86 and the Scion FR-S. According to Subaru, 0W-20 oil is recommended. Wards Auto put the FA20D on their "10 Best Engines" list for 2013. Bore: 86 mm Stroke: 86 mm Displacement: 2.0 L Compression Ratio: 12.5:1 Application: 2012-2016 Subaru BRZ/Toyota GT86 Power: 200 PS at 7,000 RPM Torque: 20.9 kg⋅m at 6,400-6,600 RPM Application: 2017+ Subaru BRZ/Toyota GT86 Power: 205 hp at 7,000 RPM Torque: 156 lb⋅ft at 6,400 RPM A version with Subaru's own direct fuel injection and twin-scroll turbocharger was introduced in 2012.
The FA20F was named to the Wards Auto "10 best engines" list in 2015 and 2016. Displacement: 2.0 L Bore: 86 mm Stroke: 86 mm Compression Ratio: 10.6:1 Assembly: Oizumi, Japan Firing Order: 1-3-2-4 2012+ JDM Subaru Legacy 2.0GT DIT and 2014+ Subaru Levorg Power: 300 PS at 5,600 RPM Torque: 40.8 kg⋅m at 2,000-4,800 RPM 2014-2018 USDM Subaru Forester XT: Power: 250 hp at 5,600 RPM Torque: 258 lb⋅ft at 2,000-4,800 RPM 2014+ JDM Subaru Forester XT: Power: 276 hp at 5,600 RPM Torque: 258 lb⋅ft at 2,000-5,200 rpm 2015+ USDM Subaru WRX: Power: 268 hp at 5,600 RPM Torque: 258 lb⋅ft at 2,000-5,200 RPM Rev Limit: 6700 RPM The FA24F was introduced in 2018 for the 2019 model year Subaru Ascent. The bore is increased compared to prior FA20 engines, increasing displacement to 2.4 L. Direct injection and a turbocharger are used to provide output comparable to a 6-cylinder aspirated engine, the FA24 uses "regular" fuel. At the 2019 Chicago Auto Show, Subaru unveiled the 2020 model year Subaru Legacy sedan, available starting in fall 2019 and featuring the FA24 as the uplevel engine option.
Displacement: 2.4 L Bore: 94 mm Stroke: 86 mm Compression Ratio: 10.6:1 2019+ USDM Subaru Ascent and 2020+ USDM Subaru Legacy Power: 260 hp at 5,600 RPM Torque: 277 lb⋅ft at 2,000-4,800 RPM Fukada, Masayuki. "「スバル歴史講座」で語られたスバルのクルマづくりの原点と水平対向エンジン開発". Car Watch. Retrieved 28 February 2018. "Technology: Performance — The Subaru Boxer Engine". Subaru Global. Retrieved 28 February 2018. "What's The Difference Between Subaru Engines?". Subaru of Australia. Retrieved 28 February 2018. Hannon, Brian. "Tearing Down and Assessing the FA20 & 4U-GSE". Revvolution. Retrieved 28 February 2018. "TOMEI POWERED Dissects the FA20 | Flat Four". DSport. Retrieved 28 February 2018. "FA20 DIT Engine Specs". Come and Drive It. Retrieved 12 March 2018
Wilson-Pilcher is a historic British car brand. The company Wilson-Pilcher was founded in 1901 by Walter Gordon Wilson in London to produce automobiles. In 1904 it was acquired by Sir WG Taken Armstrong Co.. Limited and production moved to Newcastle upon Tyne. Percy Pilcher had died in a gliding accident in 1899, Wilson had been working with him on the engine for an attempt at powered flight. According to Bonhams there is photographic evidence of a wooden mock-up of the car in 1899, a photo of a working car taken at Stanhope Hall in 1900. Production stopped in 1907; the first model had a 9 hp four cylinder flat engine of 2400 cc displacement. In 1903 this was replaced by the 12/16 hp engine of 2694 cc capacity. In 1904 a six-cylinder 18/24 HP engine of 4041 cc capacity was added to the range. In April 1904 The Automotor Journal gave a detailed report on the Wilson-Pilcher car, by being built by Armstrong Whitworth in Newcastle; this report states that the cylinders of both models were of stroke. This gives capacities of 4072cc for the six-cylinder engine.
A 4-cylinder example of this car survives, registration number "BB96", has been displayed in various museums, was sold at auction in 2012 for £203,100, having been on display in the Coventry Transport Museum. The auctioneers description of the car state that photographs exist showing a wooden mock-up in 1899, a complete car at Stanhope Hall in 1900; the details of the Wilson-Pilcher car were considered sufficiently advanced and novel that the make was the subject of a detailed article spanning three editions of the Automotor Journal of 1904, from which the information and images below are extracted. The engine was suspended in the conventional location at the front of the car at a slight angle to allow straight drive to the rear axle, with the cylinders lying between the frames of the chassis; the mountings above the engine allowed it to rock sideways to some extent, this being limited by a pair of helical springs at the front and by diagonal radius rods connecting the rear of the gearbox to the ends of the rear axle.
In this way the mechanical vibration of the engine and transmission was isolated from the chassis and occupants. Images below are for the 1904 six-cylinder version of the car. Wilson-Pilcher Layout with Bodywork Removed Both the four cylinder and six cylinder engines had identical cylinders of 3.75 inches bore and stroke. Each cylinder was bolted onto the aluminium crankcase, with the cylinders offset to allow each to have its own crank pin. Intermediate crankshaft bearings were provided between each pair of cylinders; the inlet valves were automatic on the top of the cylinders, the exhaust valves were beneath the cylinders, operated by a camshaft beneath the crankshaft. The engine ratings of 12-16 hp for the four cylinder, 18-24 for the six cylinder are described as "the lower powers mentioned in both cases are those which can be obtained on the road-wheels under average running conditions - hill-climbing - whilst the higher powers mentioned are those developed by the respective engines on the brake, when running at a speed of 1,000 revs. per min."
The single gear-driven camshaft is arranged so that each lobe operates the exhaust valves on a pair of cylinders. Roller cam followers are used. In the middle of the camshaft is a speed governor; the governor causes lengthwise movement of the camshaft, the cam-lobes are widened to allow for this. The speed-regulation caused by the governor is set by a lever on the steering column and the same mechanism advances the spark with increased engine speed; the operation of the governor is overridden by the foot throttle, but for normal running the governor offers an early form of cruise control. Wilson-Pilcher Engines The gearbox was housed in an aluminium casing and bolted directly onto the engine, it contained two epicyclic gears, allowing four forward speeds. All gears are helical which reduces gear noise, the drive is direct through in top gear. Tha main foot-operated clutch could be latched in the disengaged position by depressing and moving the foot pedal to one side, allowing the engine to be started and idled without driving the wheels.
Once the clutch pedal was released gear changes were made using a hand lever without the need to use the main clutch. This image shows the gearbox attached to the four-cylinder engine and shows the offset between the cylinders, the flywheel at the front of the engine which doubled as a fan; the epicyclic gear next to the clutch has a reduction ratio of 2.7:1, the other has a reduction ratio of 1.7:1. The latter is used to give 3rd gear, the former to give 2nd gear, both together give 1st gear, all operated by a single hand lever; the fact that reverse is not provided by the gearbox, but instead by the rear axle, operated by a reversing lever separate from the gearchange lever, means the cars had as many reverse gears as they did forward gears. The use of helical planetary gears became the main gear mechanism for automatic transmissions, the key difference from the Wilson-Pilcher design being that gear changes were made automatically and not by moving a gear change lever. Wilson-Pilcher Gearbox The rear axle, like the engine, was housed in an aluminium case.
In addition to the normal function of providing a differential, it provided the reverse gear, contained the rear brake. Reversing is achieved by changing which of the large bevel gears engages with the drive on the end of the propshaft. Like the gearbox, all gears within the axle are helical cut. Wilson-