A flat-six engine known as a horizontally opposed-six, is a six-cylinder piston engine with three cylinders on each side of a central crankshaft. The most common type of flat-six engine is the boxer-six engine, where each pair of opposed cylinders moves inwards and outwards at the same time; the advantages of the flat-six layout are good engine balance, a low center of gravity, short length and being well suited to air-cooling. The disadvantages are a large width, a large intake manifold being required when a central carburetor is used, duplication of the inlet and outlet connections for water-cooled engines; the first production flat-six engine was in the 1904 Wilson-Pilcher 18/24 HP car. The most notable use of flat-six engines is the Porsche 911 sports car, which has used flat-six engines continuously since 1963. Several other car manufacturers, including Subaru, have produced flat-six engines at times. Flat-six engines have occasionally been used in aircraft and motorcycles. A flat-six engine is able to have perfect secondary balance.
As per other six-cylinder engines, the overlapping power strokes of the cylinders reduces the pulsating power delivery seen on engines with fewer cylinders. When used in a boxer configuration, a flat-six engine does not have the rocking couple, present on flat-four engines; these characteristics result in low vibration for flat-six engines when compared with the imbalances that are present in V6 engines with a 90-degree bank angle. Early flat-six engines include the Franklin O-265 which began production in 1940, the Lycoming O-435 which began production in 1942. Several manufacturers use the letter "O" in the model code for flat-six engines, as an abbreviation for the opposed cylinder layout; the Franklin O-335 was used in the Bell 47 light helicopter. Flat engines replaced the more popular radial engines in small aircraft after World War II because they were less expensive to manufacture; the smaller frontal area compared with a radial engine results in less drag. Some aircraft have used flat-six engines designed for cars.
The Porsche PFM 3200 engine, produced from 1985-1991, was based on the engine used in the Porsche 911 sports car. Several examples of the Pietenpol Air Camper homebuilt monoplane aircraft have used the air-cooled engine from the Chevrolet Corvair compact car. Compared with the engines used in cars, flat-six engines used by helicopters have large displacements and are low revving, producing more torque and less power; the flat-six engine is associated with the Porsche 911, a rear-engined sports car which has used flat-six engines since 1963. The engines were air-cooled until the 1997. Other Porsche models to use flat-six engines are the 1970-1972 Porsche 914/6, the 1986-1993 Porsche 959, the 1996-2016 Porsche Boxster/Cayman; the first car to use a flat-six engine was the 1904–1907 Wilson-Pilcher 18/24 HP, which used an engine based on a flat-four engine with two cylinders added. The Wilson-Pilcher was a front-engined car with the crankshaft in-line with the chassis and the cylinders between the chassis rails.
Reports on this car quote it as being "remarkably silent and smooth running" and "almost total absence of vibration". Two American manufacturers produced cars with flat-six engines— the 1948 Tucker 48 and the 1959-1969 Chevrolet Corvair. Both are rear-engined cars with rear-wheel drive. Japanese manufacturer Subaru produced water-cooled flat-6 engines from 1988–1996 and 2001–2019, their first flat-6 engine, the Subaru ER27, was added to the model range of the Subaru XT coupe. In 1991, the Subaru EG33 engine was used in the Subaru Alcyone SVX, the replacement for the Subaru XT. Following a hiatus of flat-6 engine production for four years, the Subaru EZ30 engine was introduced in the 2000 Subaru Legacy/Outback; the Subaru EZ36 engine was introduced in 2007 and was produced until 2019. All engines were used in front-engine cars with all-wheel drive, plus the XT and Alcyone SVX were available with front-wheel drive. Most motorcycles use engines with four or fewer cylinders, however the Honda Gold Wing touring motorcycle has used a water-cooled flat-six engine since 1987.
The engine had a displacement of 1.5 L, until it was enlarged to 1.8 L in 2001. The Honda Valkyrie F6C was a cruiser based on the GL1500 Gold Wing; the limited edition 2004 Valkyrie Rune was based on the GL1800. Inline-six engine V6 engine
Zero Liquid Discharge is a treatment process designed to remove all the liquid waste from a system. The focus of ZLD is to reduce wastewater economically and produce clean water, suitable for reuse, thereby saving money and being beneficial to the environment. ZLD systems employ advanced wastewater/desalination treatment technologies to purify and recycle all of the wastewater produced. ZLD technologies help plants meet discharge and water reuse requirements, enabling businesses to: Meet stringent government discharge regulations Reach higher water recovery Treat and recover valuable materials from the wastewater streams, such as potassium sulfate, caustic soda, sodium sulfate and gypsumThe conventional way to reach ZLD is with thermal technologies such as evaporators and crystallizers and recover their condensate. Thus, ZLD plants produce solid waste. ZLD technology includes pre-treatment and evaporation of the industrial effluent until the dissolved solids precipitate as crystals; these crystals are dewatered with a filter press or a centrifuge.
The water vapor from evaporation is returned to the process. In the last decades though, there has been an effort from the water treatment industry to revolutionize the high water recovery and ZLD technologies; this has led to processes like forward osmosis and membrane distillation. A quick overview and comparison can be seen by the following table, Table 1, Specific Energy Consumptions of Brine Treatment Technologies, Multistage Flash, Multi-Effect Distillation, Mechanical Vapor Compression, Forward Osmosis, Membrane Distillation; the energy consumption values are the average of 13 comparative studies on ZLD technologies ranging from 2002 -2017. Clarifications are needed for ED/EDR, FO and MD. 1) ED/EDR SEC depends on the salinity of the feed as higher salinities require higher SECs, 2) FO SEC depends on the Draw Solution and the Regeneration Method. Most papers assume their regeneration at a 60oC temperature. 90% of the thermal energy needed can be acquired by waste heat if it’s available, 3) MD SEC depends on the configuration.
Most common MD configuration in the studies is Direct Contact MD due to its simplicity. 90% of the thermal energy needed can be acquired by waste heat if it’s available and 4) the total electrical equivalent was taken using the following, Total El. Equivalent = El. Energy + 0.45 x Thermal Energy due to modern power plant efficiency. Despite the variable sources of a wastewater stream, a ZLD system is comprised by two steps Pre-Concentration; these technologies concentrate the stream to a high salinity and are able to recover up to 60–80% of the water. Evaporation/Crystallization; the waste, left behind goes to a crystallizer which boils all the water until all the impurities crystallize and are filtered out as a solid. Effluent guidelines Effluent limitation ZLD Treatment Process Stages
The Lars Vilks Muhammad drawings controversy began in July 2007 with a series of drawings by Swedish artist Lars Vilks that depicted the Islamic prophet Muhammad as a roundabout dog. Several art galleries in Sweden declined to show the drawings, citing security concerns and fear of violence; the controversy gained international attention after the Örebro-based regional newspaper Nerikes Allehanda published one of the drawings on 18 August as part of an editorial on self-censorship and freedom of religion. While several other leading Swedish newspapers had published the drawings this particular publication led to protests from Muslims in Sweden as well as official condemnations from several foreign governments including Iran, Afghanistan and Jordan, as well as by the inter-governmental Organisation of the Islamic Conference; the controversy occurred about a year and a half after the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy in Denmark in early 2006. On 11 June 2007, Vilks was invited to participate in an art exhibition on the theme "The Dog in Art", to be held in the small town of Tällerud in Värmland.
Vilks submitted three ink drawings on A4 paper depicting Muhammad as a roundabout dog. At this time, Vilks was participating with drawings of Muhammad in another exhibition in Vestfossen, Norway, on the theme "Oh, My God". Vilks, a known proponent of institutional art, has stated that his original intention with the drawings was to "examine the political correctness within the boundaries of the art community". According to Vilks, the art and culture communities in Sweden criticize the United States and Israel, whereas Muslim values are even questioned. On 20 July, the day before the opening of the exhibition in Tällerud, the organizers decided to withdraw Vilks's drawings from the exhibition due to security concerns and fear of violence from Islamic extremists. Märta Wennerström, the exhibition's organizer, said that at first she "didn't realize the gravity of the situation" and that she made the decision to remove the drawings after consulting Swedish government agencies and private persons.
Following the first refusal to publish the drawings, Vilks submitted his drawings to the Gerlesborg School of Fine Art in Bohuslän for a special teachers' exhibition, going to be opened on 18 August. On 13 August, the school announced that they had decided to reject the drawings due to security concerns; this second rejection started an intense debate in the Swedish media about self-censorship and freedom of expression. On 18 August, the Örebro-based regional newspaper Nerikes Allehanda published one of Vilks's drawings in an editorial on freedom of expression; the editorial defended "Muslims' right to freedom of religion" but said it must be permitted to "ridicule Islam's most foremost symbols — just like all other religions' symbols." On the same day, the drawings were published in several other Swedish newspapers including Aftonbladet, Dagens Nyheter and Upsala Nya Tidning. On 27 August, the Swedish chargée d'affaires in Tehran, Gunilla von Bahr, was summoned to the Iranian foreign ministry where she received a protest from the Iranian government against the publication in Nerikes Allehanda.
On 28 August the President of Iran, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, commented on the drawings during a press conference. He was quoted by the Islamic Republic News Agency as saying: "Religions call for friendship, justice and respect for divine prophets; the Zionists only pretend to believe in religion. They are telling lies, they are perpetrating oppression against the Europeans and putting at risk the prestige of Europe." On 30 August, the Swedish chargé d'affaires in Islamabad, Lennart Holst, was summoned to the Pakistani Ministry of Foreign Affairs to receive a similar protest from the Pakistani government. The Pakistani Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued a statement where it condemned the publication "in the strongest terms". On the same day the Organisation of the Islamic Conference, an inter-governmental organization which represents 57 Muslim countries, issued a statement where it condemned the publishing of blasphemous caricatures of Muhammad by Swedish artist Lars Vilks in the Nerikes Allehanda newspaper.
The secretary-general of OIC, Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu, further called on the Swedish government to take "immediate punitive actions against the artist and the publishers of the cartoon and asked for their unqualified apology". On 31 August, supporters from Islamic parties in Pakistan burned the Swedish flag in the city of Lahore. In Karachi, others torched an effigy of the Swedish Prime Minister to protest the cartoon. On 1 September, the Afghan newspaper Kabul Times published a statement by religious scholars and the Afghan Ministry of Islamic Guidance; the statement said that "The sold-out enemies of Islam draw the cartoon of the respected Prophet of Islam once more. This has disturbed the Islamic world and aroused the indignation of all Muslims"; the statement demanded those responsible be handed over to a court for punishment. On 3 September, the Egyptian Ministry of Religious Endowments condemned the publication, saying that "such an irresponsible act is not conducive to friendly ties between the Islamic world and the west".
On the same day the Jordanian government condemned the publication. A spokesperson for the government said that "The publication of this cartoon, which seeks to attack the character of the Prophet Mohammed, is unacceptable and condemned". On 25 August, a group of about 60 Muslims held a demonstration outside Nerikes Allehanda's office in Örebro
Buller is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate, from 1871 to 1972. It was represented by eleven Members of Parliament; the 1870 electoral redistribution was undertaken by a parliamentary select committee based on population data from the 1867 New Zealand census. Eight sub-committees were formed, with two members each making decisions for their own province; the number of electorates was increased from 61 to 72, Buller was one of the new electorates. The Buller electorate was created from areas that belonged to the Waimea and Westland electorates. Settlements located in the initial electorate area were Westport, Inangahua Junction, Reefton. For the 1879 election, polling booths were in Westport, Brighton, Addison's, Inangahua Junction and Karamea; the electorate's first representative was Eugene O'Conor, successful in the 1871 election, but he was defeated at the next election in 1876 by Joseph Henry. Henry in turn was defeated by James Bickerton Fisher at the 1879 election. Fisher retired at the end of the parliamentary term in 1881.
Fisher was succeeded by John Munro. Munro was defeated at the next election in 1884 by Eugene O'Conor, who thus started his second period of representation. O'Conor, who joined the Liberal Party, was beaten in 1893 election by Roderick McKenzie. In the 1896 election, McKenzie stood in the Motueka electorate. Patrick O'Regan won the 1896 election in the Buller electorate. At the 1899 election, he was defeated by James Colvin, who held the electorate until his death in 1919. From 1919 the Buller electorate was represented by two radical trade unionists from the coal mines of the West Coast, Harry Holland and Paddy Webb. Harry Holland and Jerry Skinner died in office. In 1972, the electorate was split into the West Tasman electorates; the Buller electorate was represented by eleven MPs: Key Independent Liberal Independent Liberal Labour McRobie, Alan. Electoral Atlas of New Zealand. Wellington: GP Books. ISBN 0-477-01384-8. Norton, Clifford. New Zealand parliamentary election results, 1946–1987.
Wellington: Victoria University of Wellington Department of Political Science. ISBN 0-475-11200-8. Wilson, James Oakley. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984. Wellington: V. R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103
The 1951 Chicago White Sox season was the team's 51st season in the major leagues, its 52nd season overall. They finished with a record 81–73, good for fourth place in the American League, 17 games behind the first place New York Yankees. November 16, 1950: Joe DeMaestri was drafted by the White Sox from the Boston Red Sox in the 1950 rule 5 draft. Prior to 1951 season: Jay Porter was signed as an amateur free agent by the White Sox. In 1951, the White Sox began using a bullpen car. May 1, 1951: Mickey Mantle hit his first big league home run against the White Sox; the pitcher who gave up the home run was Randy Gumpert. April 30, 1951: Gus Zernial and Dave Philley were traded by the White Sox to the Philadelphia Athletics as part of a three-team trade. Minnie Miñoso was traded to the White Sox by the Cleveland Indians, Paul Lehner was traded to the White Sox by the Athletics; the Athletics sent Lou Brissie to the Indians. The Indians sent Ray Murray to the Athletics. June 4, 1951: Hank Majeski was traded by the White Sox to the Philadelphia Athletics for Kermit Wahl.
June 4, 1951: Kermit Wahl and Paul Lehner were traded by the White Sox to the St. Louis Browns for Don Lenhardt. July 31, 1951: Ray Coleman was selected off waivers by the White Sox from the St. Louis Browns. Chico Carrasquel, SS Floyd Baker, 3B Al Zarilla, RF Gus Zernial, LF Eddie Robinson, 1B Phil Masi, C Jim Busby, CF Nellie Fox, 2B Billy Pierce, P Note: G = Games played.
Kyle Benjamin Gibson is an American professional baseball pitcher for the Texas Rangers of Major League Baseball. He played in MLB for the Minnesota Twins. Gibson transferred to Greenfield-Central High School from Cathedral High School between his freshman and sophomore years, he was ruled ineligible for varsity baseball by the IHSAA for his sophomore year due to the transfer. During his junior year, he was 7–2 and led the Cougars to a sectional championship and to the regional finals. In his senior year, he was 8 -- 6 with 140 strikeouts, he led Greenfield to the Elite Eight by pitching all of his team's tournament games. He was named the Hancock County Player of the Year after his senior year, he was named to the Indianapolis Star All-East team in both his junior and senior years. After his senior year, he was made the Indiana All-Star Team. Following his senior year, he was selected by the Philadelphia Phillies in the 36th round of the 2006 Major League Baseball Draft but chose to attend the University of Missouri, where he played for the Missouri Tigers baseball team.
In 2007, he played collegiate summer baseball with the Falmouth Commodores of the Cape Cod Baseball League. Gibson was drafted by the Minnesota Twins with the 22nd overall pick of the 2009 Major League Baseball Draft, he was given a $1,800,000 signing bonus. Prior to the 2010 season, Gibson was rated the number 61 overall prospect by Baseball America. In 2010, he started the year with the class A Fort Myers Miracle was called up to the class AA New Britain Rock Cats. On August 13 Gibson was promoted to the class AAA Rochester Red Wings. Going into the 2011 season, Gibson was rated the number 34 overall prospect by Baseball America. Gibson was part of 19 non-roster players to get invited to spring training in 2011. Gibson spent the 2011 season with the Red Wings but after 18 starts, was sidelined with a sore elbow resulting in his undergoing Tommy John surgery on November 7, 2011. Gibson returned in late 2012, starting two games for the Red Wings and six more in the Arizona Fall League. Gibson made his major league debut on June 2013, against the Kansas City Royals.
He pitched six innings, giving up two runs on eight hits, walking none and striking out five while picking up his first major league win. Gibson wound up with a 6.53 ERA in 10 starts for the Twins. For the 2014 season, Gibson was a mainstay in the Twins rotation, contributing 13 wins in 31 starts for Minnesota, his ERA was 4.47, second to Phil Hughes on the starting staff. The following year, Gibson improved his numbers overall from 2014, he led the team in innings, in wins and bettered his ERA from 4.47 to 3.84 in 2015. After suffering a right shoulder strain early in 2016, he remained a part of the Twins’ rotation but saw a dip in the quality of his numbers. Starting in 25 games that year, he had an ERA of 5.07 and batters hit over.290 against him. He compiled the same ERA in 2017, but with 12 wins, hitters again hit over.290 against him. In 2018, he entered the Twins’ rotation again and started achieving a career-high strikeout rate than before — as of June 2018, he had struck out 66 batters in just 63 innings.
Gibson finished the season with a record of 10-13 in 196 2⁄3 innings. He led the team in ERA, finishing with a career high 179 strikeouts, he slotted 2nd in the Twins rotation in 2019. Gibson's K/9 rose to a career high 9 despite registering an ERA of 4.84 in 160 innings. Gibson tied a career high in wins with 13. On December 6, 2019, Gibson signed a three-year contract with the Texas Rangers. A groundball pitcher since his days in the minors, Gibson relies on a 92 MPH sinker, an 81 MPH curveball, an 85 MPH circle change-up and an 85 MPH slider. Gibson is married to Elizabeth Gibson; the married couple have three children together. Gibson is a Christian. Gibson was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis near the end of the 2019 season. Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference Missouri Tigers bio Kyle Gibson on Twitter