In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders. Four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names. States are divided into counties or county-equivalents, which may be assigned some local governmental authority but are not sovereign. County or county-equivalent structure varies by state, states may create other local governments. State governments are allocated power by the people through their individual constitutions. All are grounded in republican principles, each provides for a government, consisting of three branches, each with separate and independent powers: executive and judicial.
States possess a number of rights under the United States Constitution. States and their residents are represented in the United States Congress, a bicameral legislature consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives; each state is entitled to select a number of electors to vote in the Electoral College, the body that directly elects the President of the United States. Additionally, each state has the opportunity to ratify constitutional amendments, with the consent of Congress, two or more states may enter into interstate compacts with one another; the tasks of local law enforcement, public education, public health, regulating intrastate commerce, local transportation and infrastructure have been considered state responsibilities, although all of these now have significant federal funding and regulation as well. Over time, the Constitution has been amended, the interpretation and application of its provisions have changed; the general tendency has been toward centralization and incorporation, with the federal government playing a much larger role than it once did.
There is a continuing debate over states' rights, which concerns the extent and nature of the states' powers and sovereignty in relation to the federal government and the rights of individuals. The Constitution grants to Congress the authority to admit new states into the Union. Since the establishment of the United States in 1776, the number of states has expanded from the original 13 to 50. Alaska and Hawaii are the most recent states admitted, both in 1959; the Constitution is silent on the question of whether states have the power to secede from the Union. Shortly after the Civil War, the U. S. Supreme Court, in Texas v. White, held; the 50 U. S. states, in alphabetical order, along with each state's flag: As sovereign entities, each of the 50 states reserves the right to organize its individual government in any way deemed appropriate by its people. As a result, while the governments of the various states share many similar features, they vary with regard to form and substance. No two state governments are identical.
The government of each state is structured in accordance with its individual constitution. Many of these documents more elaborate than their federal counterpart; the Constitution of Alabama, for example, contains 310,296 words – more than 40 times as many as the U. S. Constitution. In practice, each state has adopted the three-branch frame of the federal government: executive and judicial. In each state, the chief executive is called the governor, who serves as both head of state and head of government. All governors are chosen by direct election; the governor may approve or veto bills passed by the state legislature, as well as push for the passage of bills supported by their party. In 44 states, governors have line item veto power. Most states have a plural executive, meaning that the governor is not the only government official in the state responsible for its executive branch. In these states, executive power is distributed amongst other officials, elected by the people independently of the governor—such as the lieutenant governor, attorney general, secretary of state, others.
The constitutions of 19 states allow for citizens to remove and replace an elected public official before the end of their term of office through a recall election. Each state follows its own procedures for recall elections, sets its own restrictions on how and how soon after a general election, they may be held. In all states, the legislatures can remove state executive branch officials, including governors, who have committed serious abuses of their power from office; the process of doing so includes impeachment, a trial, in which legislators act as a jury. The primary responsibilities of state legislatures are to enact state laws and appropriate money for the administration of public policy. In all states, if the governor vetoes a bill, it can still become law if the legislature overrides the veto by a two-thirds vote in each chamber. In 49 of the 50 states the legislature consists of two chambers: a lower house (termed the House of Representati
The Kerr Dam, since 2015 known as the Seli’š Ksanka Qlispe’ Dam, is a concrete gravity-arch dam located at river mile 72 of the Flathead River. Built in 1938, it increases the size of Flathead Lake near Polson, Montana; the dam was designed to generate hydroelectricity but serves recreational and irrigation uses. The dam was named after Frank Kerr, president of the Montana Power Company, which undertook the construction, with federal assistance during the Great Depression; the construction provided numerous jobs at a critical time. The dam is located within the Flathead Indian Reservation, the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes operated it jointly with successive electric companies. In 2015 the tribes and their energy company completed purchase of the dam. On September 5, 2015, during the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe's celebration of their acquisition of the dam, the Tribal Council announced renaming the complex to reflect the three confederated tribes; the dam project was undertaken by Rocky Mountain Power to generate hydroelectric power in the area.
But, with revenues declining because of the Great Depression, the company halted construction in 1931. Montana State Treasurer James Brett went to a meeting in Atlanta in 1934 to ask President Franklin D. Roosevelt for $5,000,000 to complete the dam. Knowing that the area was in desperate need of jobs, Roosevelt approved the money for the project. Brett returned to Montana and a hero's welcome. In 1936, the Montana Power Company restarted the project and completed it in 1938; the dam raised the existing Flathead Lake by 10 feet, enabled control of the lake's level to generate electricity and for irrigation and recreational uses. The dam's hydro power plant consists of three units that receive water from three different penstocks, located 865 feet upstream; the dam and its related hydroelectric project are located inside the boundaries of the Flathead Indian Reservation. They were operated jointly by the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes. In the early 21st century, with an installed capacity of 208 MW, the dame provided enough power for about 147,000 homes and more than $9 million in annual revenue for the tribes.
In 2015 NorthWestern Energy acquired the power plant from PPL Montana, LLC. On September 4, 2015, the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes paid $18.2 million to purchase the Kerr Hydroelectric Project from NorthWestern Energy. The tribally owned Energy Keepers, Inc took ownership; the tribes and EKI celebrated acquisition of the dam on September 5, 2015 with a ceremony held at Salish Kootenai College. They renamed the dam as Séliš Ksanka Ql' ispé Dam; the plot of the novel Wind from an Enemy Sky by D’Arcy McNickle is centered around the construction of the Seli’š Ksanka Qlispe’ Dam. List of dams in the Columbia River watershed Flathead Lake Kerr Dam, PPL Montana
Middle Fork Flathead River
The Middle Fork Flathead River is a 92-mile river in western Montana in the United States, forming the southwestern boundary of Glacier National Park. Its drainage basin lies to the east of the Hungry Horse Reservoir. Towns along the river include West Glacier, Pinnacle and Nimrod; the river's headwaters lie in the Bob Marshall Wilderness at the confluence of two small streams, Strawberry Creek and Bowl Creek. From there, it runs north, receiving many tributaries from glacial valleys to the east and west, most of them inside Glacier National Park; the river begins to parallel U. S. Highway 2 as it winds north-northwest, after a long and narrow course, the river enters a wider valley and begins to spread out and braid between meadows and forested slopes, it enters another narrow gorge, turning westwards passing the southwestern entrance of the national park, receives a tributary from Lake McDonald, a large glacial lake to the north, from the right. The river proceeds southwest to meet the North Fork Flathead River, southwest of West Glacier and northeast of Columbia Falls, forming the main stem of the Flathead River, which flows into the Clark Fork River.
List of rivers of Montana
International Joint Commission
The International Joint Commission is a bi-national organization established by the governments of the United States and Canada under the Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909. Its responsibilities were expanded with the signing of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement of 1978; the purpose of the Commission is to help prevent and resolve disputes about the use and quality of boundary waters and to advise Canada and the United States on questions about water resources. It was consulted for decades during the development of the St. Lawrence Seaway, the many bridges that have been constructed as international border crossings over the St. Lawrence River and other waterways; the Commission holds public meetings every two years. Since the late 20th century, it has discussed progress in cleaning up environmental problems of the Great Lakes, as well as issues related to commercial and recreational use of boundary rivers and trans-national rivers, it sponsors conferences and round-table discussions, in which members of the public and representatives of community groups and other organizations can take part.
The Commission can alert governments to emerging issues along the border. Its recommendations to the Canada and United States governments are not binding, although they are accepted by both governments; the Commission has jurisdiction over the Great Lakes–Saint Lawrence River waters and other waters along the border. In the west, the Commission established conditions for dams on the Kootenay and Columbia rivers, which cross through the states of Washington and Montana, the province of British Columbia; the Commission has assisted in drafting rules for sharing the St. Mary and Milk rivers in Alberta and Montana; the Commission has been involved in how the Souris River and Red River systems are shared among Saskatchewan and North Dakota. It sets emergency water levels for the Rainy Lake system, including the Lake of the Woods, which crosses through Minnesota and Northwestern Ontario. Protection of Rainy River water quality is addressed by the IJC. In the east, the Commission regulates dams and protects the water quality on the St. Croix River, which flows through New Brunswick and Maine.
The Commission is headed by three from each country. The Commissioners are appointed by the government of the United States. Commissioners do not represent their governments; the U. S. Commissioners are Lana Pollack, Dereth Glance, Rich Moy; the Commission has three offices, in Ottawa, Washington, D. C. and Windsor, Ontario. The Windsor Great Lakes Regional Office was created under the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, it is staffed by a bi-national team of U. S. and Canadian scientists and support staff. Separate boards are responsible for particular boundary waters issues; when there are special issues, a Task Force is assigned to make recommendations. The various standing bodies are: Accredited Officers for the St. Mary – Milk Rivers Great Lakes Science Advisory Board Great Lakes Water Quality Board Health Professionals Advisory Board Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Adaptive Management Committee International Columbia River Board of Control International Kootenay Lake Board of Control International Lake Ontario – St. Lawrence River Board International Lake Superior Board of Control International Niagara Board of Control International Osoyoos Lake Board of Control International Rainy-Lake of the Woods Watershed Board International Red River Board International Souris River Board International St. Croix River Watershed Board Great Lakes Regional Office – 100 Ouellette Avenue, Ontario IJC Canadian Section – 234 Laurier Avenue West, Ontario IJC United States Section – 2000 L Street, NW, Washington, D.
C. Title 22 of the Code of Federal Regulations International Boundary Commission International Boundary and Water Commission Great Lakes Fishery Commission International Joint Commission Accredited Officers for the St. Mary-Milk Rivers International Columbia River Board of Control Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Adaptive Management Committee Great Lakes Science Advisory Board Great Lakes Water Quality Board Health Professionals Advisory Board International Kootenay Lake Board of Control International Lake Superior Board of Control International Niagara Board of Control International Osoyoos Lake Board of Control International Rainy-Lake of the Woods Watershed Board International Red River Board International Souris River Board International St. Croix Watershed Board International Lake Ontario-St. Lawrence River Board International Lake Champlain-Richelieu River Study Board International Souris River Study Board Nutrient Loading and Impacts in Lakes Champlain and Memphremagog^ "Archived copy".
Archived from the original on 2014-04-05. Retrieved 2014-05-01. CS1 maint: Archived copy as title ^
This article is for the mountain range in Montana. For the small mountain range in British Columbia, Canada known as Mission Mountain, see Mission Ridge. For the summit in California see Mission Peak; the Mission Mountains or Mission Range are a range of the Rocky Mountains located in northwestern Montana in the United States. They lie chiefly in Lake County and Missoula County and are south and east of Flathead Lake and west of the Swan Range. On the east side of the range is the Swan River Valley and on the west side the Mission Valley; the highest point in the Mission Mountains is McDonald Peak 9,820 feet. The range is named for its proximity to the Jesuit St. Ignatius Mission established in the mid-19th century in what is today St. Ignatius, Montana; the Mission Mountains are composed of what is called "Belt Rock" from the Belt Supergroup. The sedimentary rocks in this group formed between 1.4 billion years ago in the Belt Basin. The circular basin collected sediments from surrounding areas for millions of years.
The basin was buried and re-exposed through the collision of several tectonic plates around 80 million years ago. Much of the Belt Rock found in the Mission Mountains is a crumbly sedimentary rock known as mudstone; the mudstone in the Belt supergroup is characterized by mudcracks, which points to it being formed while wet, drying and being flooded with new wet material that dried and cracked. Most of the rock in the Mission Mountains hails from the end of the Proterozoic Eon, towards the end of what is called Precambrian time; because they are so old, the only evidence of life in the rocks are algae blooms and basic plant fossils. These organisms played, the important role of converting carbon dioxide in the water into oxygen, pumped into the acidic and poorly oxygenated atmosphere; the color of the mudstone in the Missions has much to do with the presence of the mineral hematite during the its formation. Hematite is formed by iron particles' reaction to oxygen in the atmosphere. Green and gray stones found in the Missions were most formed in deep water, the red in more shallow water.
Ripple marks can be found in much of the rock. The features of the Mission Mountains reflect work of the last few ice ages, the latest of those being just over 10,000 years ago, but the range is the product of a much longer story, one that can be started with the breakup of the Pangaea supercontinent. As the continents began to spread out, the North American Plate inched westward, grinding over and against the Pacific Plate as it went; this subduction of the Pacific Plate caused the rise of the Rocky Mountains and thereby the Missions. About 66 million years ago, this process of uplift began to slow; this time, called the Cenozoic Era, is. Looking at the globe at that time, the continents would have been about where they are today and plant and animal life would be recognizable. At that time, the deep valleys of western Montana would not yet have formed; this development is believed to have come about 40 million years ago as the extensional forces that cause the uplift of the Rockies began to cause the crust to thin and crack.
Near-vertical faults formed uniformly throughout the region, most trending northwest to southeast. The blocks broke up, some dropping and creating valleys like the Flathead and the Swan. In all, the whole process took around 100 million years. Three million years ago, at the end of the Cenozoic Era, western Montana would have been full of tall mountains, but it was the next geologic process that made them what they are today. Large glaciers began to form in the area 2–3 million years ago. Since ending just 10,000 years ago, the Mission Mountains and their surroundings were shaped by water; the formation of the Flathead Lobe of the Alberta Cordilleran ice sheet is what set this history into motion. At its thickest points, the Flathead Lobe glacier may have extended 4,000 feet above the valley floor; the glacier reached hundreds of miles down the Rocky Mountain Trench, ending as far south as St. Ignatius, Montana. At the northern end of the range, the glacier flow split, part flowing into the Swan Valley.
A view of the area at that time would have been majestic, with large glaciers flowing around both sides and over the range. Smaller glaciers would have flowed out of the mountains and joined the larger one in the valley; this explains. These processes gave the Mission Mountains their distinct shapes; the many three-sided peaks, called horns or pyramidal peaks, the knife-like ridges of the southern half of the range are results of the heavy mountain glaciation. The northern half of the range was rolled over by the Flathead Lobe, much like a huge moving ice sheet; this led to the more rounded features of the northern half of the range. The Pleistocene was a time of quick sculpting in the Mission Mountains, and though that epoch has ended, the erosion continues. Rain, ice and other forces continue to work at the alpine landscape of the Missions. Recorded human contact with the Mission Mountains began with the native peoples thousands of years ago and runs up to the present; the Salish and Kootenai people have traditionally used the mountains as a place for fishing, berry-picking and for performing sacred ceremonies.
The first major outside attention to the Mission Mountains came in the 1920s. Forest service employee Theodore Shoemaker led several parties of visitors
Stillwater River (Flathead County, Montana)
The Stillwater River rises 15 miles south of the border between Montana and Alberta, west of Glacier National Park in the Kootenai National Forest. It runs south to Duck Lake Upper Stillwater Lake, Lagoni Lake and on to Lower Stillwater Lake, it flows south to Kalispell where it joins the Whitefish River near where that river enters the Flathead River. List of rivers of Montana Montana Stream Access Law
Glacier National Park (U.S.)
Glacier National Park is an American national park located in northwestern Montana, on the Canada–United States border, adjacent to the Canadian provinces of Alberta and British Columbia. The park encompasses over 1 million acres and includes parts of two mountain ranges, over 130 named lakes, more than 1,000 different species of plants, hundreds of species of animals; this vast pristine ecosystem is the centerpiece of what has been referred to as the "Crown of the Continent Ecosystem," a region of protected land encompassing 16,000 square miles. The region that became Glacier National Park was first inhabited by Native Americans. Upon the arrival of European explorers, it was dominated by the Blackfeet in the east and the Flathead in the western regions. Under pressure, the Blackfeet ceded the mountainous parts of their treaty lands in 1895 to the federal government. Soon after the establishment of the park on May 11, 1910, a number of hotels and chalets were constructed by the Great Northern Railway.
These historic hotels and chalets are listed as National Historic Landmarks and a total of 350 locations are on the National Register of Historic Places. By 1932 work was completed on the Going-to-the-Sun Road designated a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark, which provided greater accessibility for automobiles into the heart of the park; the mountains of Glacier National Park began forming 170 million years ago when ancient rocks were forced eastward up and over much younger rock strata. Known as the Lewis Overthrust, these sedimentary rocks are considered to have some of the finest examples of early life fossils on Earth; the current shapes of the Lewis and Livingston mountain ranges and positioning and size of the lakes show the telltale evidence of massive glacial action, which carved U-shaped valleys and left behind moraines which impounded water, creating lakes. Of the estimated 150 glaciers which existed in the park in the mid-19th century, only 25 active glaciers remained by 2010.
Scientists studying the glaciers in the park have estimated that all the active glaciers may disappear by 2030 if current climate patterns persist. Glacier National Park has all its original native plant and animal species. Large mammals such as grizzly bears and mountain goats, as well as rare or endangered species like wolverines and Canadian lynxes, inhabit the park. Hundreds of species of birds, more than a dozen fish species, a few reptile and amphibian species have been documented; the park has numerous ecosystems ranging from prairie to tundra. The easternmost forests of western redcedar and hemlock grow in the southwest portion of the park. Large forest fires are unusual in the park. Glacier National Park borders Waterton Lakes National Park in Canada—the two parks are known as the Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park and were designated as the world's first International Peace Park in 1932. Both parks were designated by the United Nations as Biosphere Reserves in 1976, in 1995 as World Heritage sites.
In April 2017, the joint park received a provisional Gold Tier designation as Waterton-Glacier International Dark Sky Park through the International Dark Sky Association, the first transboundary dark sky park. According to archeological evidence, Native Americans first arrived in the Glacier area some 10,000 years ago; the earliest occupants with lineage to current tribes were the Flathead and Kootenai and Cheyenne. The Blackfeet arrived around the beginning of the 18th century and soon dominated the eastern slopes of what became the park, as well as the Great Plains to the east; the park region provided the Blackfeet shelter from the harsh winter winds of the plains, allowing them to supplement their traditional bison hunts with other game meat. Today, the Blackfeet Indian Reservation borders the park in the east, while the Flathead Indian Reservation is located west and south of the park; when the Blackfeet Reservation was first established in 1855 by the Lame Bull Treaty, it included the eastern area of the current park up to the Continental Divide.
To the Blackfeet, the mountains of this area Chief Mountain and the region in the southeast at Two Medicine, were considered the "Backbone of the World" and were frequented during vision quests. In 1895 Chief White Calf of the Blackfeet authorized the sale of the mountain area, some 800,000 acres, to the U. S. government for $1.5 million, with the understanding that they would maintain usage rights to the land for hunting as long as the ceded stripe will be public land of the United States. This established the current boundary between the reservation. While exploring the Marias River in 1806, the Lewis and Clark Expedition came within 50 miles of the area, now the park. A series of explorations after 1850 helped to shape the understanding of the area that became the park. In 1885 George Bird Grinnell hired noted explorer James Willard Schultz to guide him on a hunting expedition into what would become the park. After several more trips to the region, Grinnell became so inspired by the scenery that he spent the next two decades working to establish a national park.
In 1901 Grinnell wrote a description of the region in which he referred to it as the "Crown of the Continent". His efforts to protect the land make him the premier contributor to this cause. A few years after Grinnell first visited, Henry L. Stimson and two companions, including a Blackfoot, climbed the steep east face of Chief Mountain in 1892. In 1891 the Great Northern Railway crossed the Continental Divide at Marias Pass 5,213 feet, along the sout