Fort Beversreede was a Dutch-built palisaded factorij located near the confluence of the Schuylkill River and the Delaware River. It was an outpost of the colony of New Netherland, which was centered on its capital, New Amsterdam, the exact location of the fort is uncertain. A1655 Swedish map shows it on the west bank of the Schuylkill River, on Providence Island, scharf & Westcott put it on the east bank of the Schuylkill River, opposite Minquas Creek. A 1770s map of Philadelphias naval defenses shows a fort on the island, directly adjacent to the fort was the terminus of the Great Minquas Path, an 80-mile trail from the Susquehanna River to the Schuylkill River. This was the trade route for furs from the Susquehannock people. Though never recognized by the Dutch, the Delaware Valley region was effectively under control of the Swedish colony of New Sweden, which was first settled in 1638 at Fort Christina. Though the Swedes colony included Dutch residents, the only official Dutch presence in the area was across the Delaware River at Fort Nassau, in 1642, members of the Connecticut Colony attempted to settle in the area, but their homes were burned and the nascent colony was repelled.
The Swedes had a claim for land at the mouth of the Schuylkill River. In 1648, they built a stockaded 30-by-20-foot blockhouse directly in front of it, the Swedish building was said to be only twelve feet from the gate of the Dutch fort. It was meant to intimidate the Dutch residents and intercept trade, in 1651, the Dutch abandoned Fort Beversreede and dismantled and relocated Fort Nassau to the Christina River, downstream from the Swedes Fort Christina. The Dutch consolidated their forces at the fort, renamed Fort Casimir. There is no remnant of either Fort Beversreede or Fort Nya Korsholm, nearby Mud Island became the site of Fort Mifflin in 1771. Widening of the Schuylkills channel, subsequent land reclamation, as well as other transportation, but the site of the forts is probably south of the mouth of Mingo Creek and north of the George C. Platt Bridge
Jamaica is a middle-class neighborhood in the New York City borough of Queens. The neighborhood is part of Queens Community Board 12, which includes Hollis, St. Albans, Springfield Gardens, Baisley Pond Park, Rochdale Village, Jamaica is patrolled by the NYPDs 103rd, 113th & 105th Precincts. It was settled under Dutch rule in 1656 in New Netherland as Rustdorp, under British rule, Jamaica became the center of the Town of Jamaica. In 1814, Jamaica became the first incorporated village on Long Island, the U. S. Food and Drug Administrations Northeast Regional Laboratory as well as the New York District Office are located in Jamaica. Jamaica Center, the area around Jamaica Avenue and 165th Street, is a commercial center. The New York Racing Association, based at Aqueduct Racetrack in South Ozone Park, John F. Kennedy International Airport and the hotels nearby use Jamaica as their address. Although many current residents of the Jamaica neighborhood are immigrants from the country of the same name, the two names have different derivations.
The name of the neighborhood derives from Yameco, a corruption of a word for beaver in the Lenape language spoken by the Native Americans who lived in the area at the time of first European contact. The y sound in English is spelled with a j in Dutch and this resulted in the eventual English pronunciation of Jamaica when read and repeated orally. In the Caribbean, the Arawak, people of the nation of Jamaica, named their land Xaymaca, Jamaica Avenue was an ancient trail for tribes from as far away as the Ohio River and the Great Lakes, coming to trade skins and furs for wampum. It was in 1655 that the first settlers paid the Native Americans with two guns, a coat, and some powder and lead, for the land lying between the old trail and Beaver Pond, Dutch Director-General Peter Stuyvesant dubbed the area Rustdorp in granting the 1656 land patent. The English took over in 1664 and made it part of the county of Yorkshire, in 1683, when the British divided the Province of New York into counties, Jamaica became the county seat of Queens County, one of the original counties of New York.
In 1790, in William Warners tavern, Rufus King, a signer of the United States Constitution, relocated here in 1805. He added to a modest 18th-century farmhouse, creating the manor stands on the site today. King Manor was restored at the turn of the 21st century to its former glory, by 1776, Jamaica had become a trading post for farmers and their produce. For more than a century, their horse-drawn carts plodded along Jamaica Avenue, the Jamaica Post Office opened September 25,1794, and was the only post office in the present-day Boroughs of Queens or Brooklyn before 1803. Union Hall Academy for boys, and Union Hall Seminary for girls, were chartered in 1787, the Academy eventually attracted students from all over the United States and the West Indies. The public school system was started in 1813 with funds of $125, by 1834, the Brooklyn and Jamaica Railroad company had completed a line to Jamaica
Fort Orange (New Netherland)
Fort Orange was the first permanent Dutch settlement in New Netherland, the present-day city of Albany, New York developed at this site. It was built in 1624 as a replacement for Fort Nassau, which had built on nearby Castle Island and served as a trading post until 1617 or 1618. Both forts were named in honor of the Dutch House of Orange-Nassau, after conquest of the region by the English, they soon abandoned Fort Orange in favor of a new fort, Fort Frederick, constructed in 1676. In 1624, a ship with 30 Protestant Walloons landed in New Netherland,18 of the men were sent to the location near present-day Albany, the Walloons were recalled south to settle New Amsterdam. A1628 publication on the population of New Netherland stated that there are no families at Fort Orange and they keep five or six and twenty persons, there. The Dutch party was ambushed and three men were killed approximately a mile from the fort, roughly where Lincoln Park and Delaware Avenue are sited today, whereas settlement would be through the purchase of land from the Native Americans, the Dutch built Fort Orange without any consent.
They continued to hold it only through the goodwill of the Mahican, and this land patent was interpreted by van Rensselaer as including Fort Orange and the settlement that had begun outside its walls. He began purchasing and acquiring title to the lands from the Mahican, in 1630, Gillis Hoosett purchased in van Rensselaers name the lands to the south and north of the fort from the natives. Later in 1630 the first permanent Dutch settlers and farmers came to Fort Orange and settled on the outskirts of the fort, their village was first called the Fuyck and Beverwyck. In 1634 the commander of Fort Orange ordered Harmen Meyndertsz van den Bogaert west into the Mohawk Valley and Indian country, the trip lasted six weeks and took Bogaert and his men through a number of Mohawk villages and into Oneida villages, at least 100 miles from the fort. This journey was recorded in van den Bogaerts daily journal which is titled, A Journey into Mohawk and Oneida Country. In the 1640s a French Jesuit priest and missionary, Isaac Jogues, described Fort Orange as a little fort. built of stakes.
In 1648, dispute arose between agents of the Dutch West India Company and agents of the patroon over control of Fort Orange, several confrontations arose over the status of the fort and the rights of settlers around it. Stuyvesant at first ordered all buildings within cannon shot of the fort to be destroyed, in response, the patroons agent, Commander van Schlechtenhorst, decided to expand settlement to within pistol shot of Fort Orange. After the yearly freshets had damaged much of the fort, the West India Company decided to reconstruct the fort using stone. In response, van Schlechtenhorst declared it illegal for anyone to quarry stone within Rensselaerswyck for the fort or for anyone to sell the material to the forts commander, all material for the fort had to be shipped in from outside the colony. In 1651, Stuyvesant declared the jurisdiction of the fort to extend 600 paces around the fort, thereby severing it from Rensselaerswyck, he appointed Johannes Dyckman as commissary of Fort Orange.
By the end of the 1650s, the fort was in disrepair again, in 1663 smallpox raged in Fort Orange, killing one person a day, which was a large percentage given the small population in the fort
Flushing is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Queens in the United States. Flushings diversity is reflected by the ethnic groups that reside there, including people of Asian, Middle Eastern, European. It is part of the Fifth Congressional District, which encompasses the northeastern shore of Queens County. Flushing is served by five stations on the Long Island Rail Road Port Washington Branch, as well as the New York City Subways IRT Flushing Line. The intersection of Main Street and Roosevelt Avenue is the third busiest intersection in New York City, behind Times, ZIP codes beginning with 113 are administered from a sectional center at Flushing Post Office. The 113-prefixed area extends west into Jackson Heights, southwest into Ridgewood, south into Forest Hills, and east into Little Neck. On October 10,1645, Flushing was established by the Dutch on the bank of Flushing Creek under charter of the Dutch West India Company and was part of the New Netherland colony. The settlement was named after the city of Vlissingen, in the southwestern Netherlands, however, by 1657, the residents called the place Vlissing.
Eventually, the British name for Vlissingen was used, despite being a Dutch colony, many of the early inhabitants were British. Unlike all other towns in the region, the charter of Flushing allowed residents freedom of religion as practiced in Holland without the disturbance of any magistrate or ecclesiastical minister, New Amsterdam Director-General Peter Stuyvesant issued an edict prohibiting the harboring of Quakers. On December 27,1657, the inhabitants of Flushing approved a protest known as The Flushing Remonstrance and this contained religious arguments even mentioning freedom for Jews and Egyptians, but ended with a forceful declaration that any infringement of the town charter would not be tolerated. Subsequently, a farmer named John Bowne held Quaker meetings in his home and was arrested for this, eventually he persuaded the Dutch West India Company to allow Quakers and others to worship freely. As such, Flushing is claimed to be a birthplace of freedom in the new world. Landmarks remaining from the Dutch period in Flushing include the John Bowne House on Bowne Street, in 1664, the English took control of New Amsterdam, ending Dutch control of the colony, and renamed it the Province of New York.
When Queens County was established in 1683, the Town of Flushing was one of the five towns which comprised the county. The town was dissolved in 1898 when Queens became a borough of New York City, Flushing was the site of the first commercial tree nurseries in North America, the most prominent being the Prince and Parsons nurseries. Much of the section of Kissena Park, former site of the Parsons nursery. The naming of streets intersecting Kissena Boulevard on its way toward Kissena Park celebrates this fact, Flushing supplied trees to the Greensward project, now known as Central Park in Manhattan
Midwood is a neighborhood in the south-central part of the New York City borough of Brooklyn. It is bounded on the north by the Bay Ridge Branch tracks just above Avenue I and Brooklyn College campus of the City University of New York, and on the south by Avenue P and Kings Highway. The eastern border is Nostrand Avenue, Flatbush Avenue, or Coney Island Avenue, the name, derives from the Middle Dutch word, the name the settlers of New Netherland called the area of dense woodland midway between the towns of Boswyck and Breuckelen. Through Swartwouts suggestion, the settlement was named the village of Midwout or Midwolde, in April 1655, Stuyvesant and the Council of New Netherland appointed Swartwout a schepen, to serve with Snedeker and Adriaen Hegeman as the Court of Midwout. Later, it part of old Flatbush, situated between the towns of Gravesend and Flatlands. It became more developed in the 1920s when large middle class housing tracts, many Midwood residents moved to the suburbs in the 1970s, and the neighborhood and its commercial districts declined.
Drawn by its quiet middle-class ambiance, new residents began pouring into Midwood during the 1980s, the usage of Flatbush to mean Midwood dates to the period when the neighborhood was first formed, and known as South Greenfield. This usage is common among Orthodox Jews. Many consider the neighborhood of Fiske Terrace/Midwood Gardens to be part of Midwood. The main shopping streets in the area are Kings Highway, Avenue J, Avenue M, Flatbush Avenue, Nostrand Avenue, and Coney Island Avenue. In the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, Kings Highway had Dubrows Cafeteria, a cafeteria where holes would be punched in patrons printed tickets. It was a place to eat and socialize. In his run for the White House, Democratic presidential candidate John F. Kennedy held a campaign rally just outside Dubrows Cafeteria. A huge crowd of people turned out to hear this popular political icon speak, years later, his brother Senator Robert F. Kennedy held a similar campaign rally there for his run for President, with a similarly large audience.
The community has long known as a Democratic stronghold. Additionally, Levines was the king of the bar mitzvah suit trade, Kings Highway was home to the now famed Crazy Eddie Electronics Empire. The first Original Crazy Eddie store was located on Kings Hwy. moved to larger quarters just south of Kings Highway on Coney Island Avenue, a branch of the Brooklyn Public Library can be found on the east side of Ocean Avenue just south of Kings Highway. There were three movie theaters on Kings Highway, the Kingsway, the Jewel and the Avalon, visitors to Kings Highway are amused by the colored holiday-style lights that are strung across above the street and feature a lighted gold Kings Crown at a few intersections.50 an hour
New Netherland settlements
New Netherland, or Nieuw-Nederland in Dutch, was the 17th century colonial province of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands on northeastern coast of North America. The claimed territory were the lands from the Delmarva Peninsula to southern Cape Cod, settled areas are now part of Mid-Atlantic states of New York, New Jersey, with small out posts in Connecticut, and Pennsylvania. Its capital, New Amsterdam, was located at the tip of the island of Manhattan on the Upper New York Bay. Initially explored in 1609 by Henry Hudson, sailing on an expedition for the Dutch East India Company, the region was surveyed and charted. International law required not only discovery and charting but settlement to perfect a territorial claim, large scale settlement was rejected in favor of formula that was working in Asia, namely establishing factorijen. Mismanagement and underfunding by the Dutch West India Company, and misunderstandings, liberalization of trade, a degree of self-rule, and the loss of Dutch Brazil led to exponential growth in the 1650s.
Transfers of power from the Netherlands to England, the last formalized in 1674, were peaceful in the province. During the first decade the first of two Fort Nassaus was built in Mahican territory, and factorijen, or small trading post went up, trapper Jan Rodrigues is believed to be the first recorded non-Native American to winter on the island of Manhattan in 1611. Initially the South River, believed to have better climate, was chosen as site of the capital, but summer humidity and mosquitos, and winter freezing, made North River, more appealing. Small groups of the arrivals were dispersed upstream to Fort Orange, to the south Fort Wilhelmus, or to Kievets Hoek. Among those who made the crossing were many Walloons and 11 Africans, in 1629, the company introduced inducements known as the Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions, commonly known as the patroon system. A number of attempts were made, the one of substantial success being the Manor of Rensselaerswyck. Pavonia, across the river from New Amsterdam, was returned to WIC, in 1640 company policy was changed and allowed land purchases by individuals in good standing.
Another patroon patent, Zwaanendael Colony, was site of first Dutch colonial settlement on the Zuyd Rivier but was plundered after its founding in 1631. After 1638, settlement was mostly by those built in officially unrecognized New Sweden and were brought under New Netherland control in 1655, in 1663, Pieter Corneliszoon Plockhoy attempted to create a utopian settlement in the region but it soon expired under English rule. Shortly after constructing their first settlement on the island of Manhattan and it was soon abandoned as the Dutch began to focus more on their new trading post on the Fresh River. Fort Huis de Goed Hoop was completed in 1633, soon after, some miles upriver, a town was established by settlers from the English Massachusetts Colony who, in 1639, formed the colony of the Plantacons of the Connecticott River. The New Haven Colony soon followed, in 1650, Petrus Stuyvesant attempted to contain further incursion to the area and, in the Treaty of Hartford, agreed to a border 50 miles west of the river
Kingston, New York
Kingston /ˈkɪŋstən/ is a city in and the county seat of Ulster County, New York, United States. It is 91 miles north of New York City and 59 miles south of Albany and it became New Yorks first capital in 1777, and was burned by the British on October 13,1777, after the Battles of Saratoga. In the 19th century, the city became an important transport hub after the discovery of cement in the region. As early as 1614 the Dutch had set up a factorij at Ponckhockie, at the junction of the Rondout Creek, the first recorded permanent settler in what would become the city of Kingston, was Thomas Chambers, who came from the area of Rensselaerswyck in 1653. The place was called Esopus after the local Esopus tribe, as more settlers arrived, tensions developed between the Esopus and the Dutch, in part due to the Dutch selling alcohol to the young Esopus men. In the spring of 1658 Peter Stuyvesant, Director-General of New Amsterdam and advised the residents if they wished to remain they must re-locate to high ground.
Tensions continued between the Esopus and the settlers, eventually leading to the Esopus Wars, in 1661 the settlement was granted a charter as a separate municipality, Stuyvesant named it Wiltwijck. It was not until 1663 that the Dutch ended the conflict with the Esopus through a coalition of Dutch settlers, Wappinger. Wiltwyck was one of three large Hudson River settlements in New Netherland, the two being Beverwyck, now Albany, and New Amsterdam, now New York City. With the English seizure of New Netherland in 1664, relations between the Dutch settlers and the English soldiers garrisoned there were often strained, in 1669 Wiltwyck was renamed Kingston, in honor of the family seat of Governor Lovelaces mother. In 1777, Kingston became the first capital of New York, during the summer of 1777, when the New York State constitution was written, New York City was occupied by British troops and Albany was under threat of attack by the British. The seat of government was moved to Kingston, which was deemed safer, the British never reached Albany, having been stopped at Saratoga, but they did reach Kingston.
On October 13,1777, the city was burned by British troops moving up river from New York City, the denizens of Kingston knew of the oncoming fleet. By the time the British arrived, the residents and government officials had removed to Hurley, the area was a major granary for the colonies at the time, so the British burned large amounts of wheat and all but one or two of the buildings. Kingston celebrates and re-enacts the 1777 burning of the city by the British every other year, Kingston was incorporated as a village on April 6,1805. In the early 1800s four sloops plied the river from Kingston to New York, by 1829 steamers made the trip to Manhattan in a little over twelve hours, usually travelling by night. Columbus Point was the landing for Kingston and stage lines ran from the village to the Point. The Dutch cultural influence in Kingston remained strong through the end of the nineteenth century, prior to 1825 Rondout was a small farming village
Jans Martense Schenck house
Jan Martense Schenck, arrived in New Netherlands on June 28,1650, on the ship De Valckenier with his sister Annetje and brother Roelof. He bought a parcel of land on Molen Eylandt in the Dutch town of Nieuw Amersfoort in what is now the Mill Basin section of Brooklyn, New York. He purchased the land with a grist mill on it from Elbert Elbertse Stoothoff who had arrived in Nieuw Amsterdam in 1637 aboard the Vrede, the land was half of a tract Stoothoff purchased from Englishmen John Tilton Jr. and Samuel Spicer. John Tilton Jr. formerly resided in Lynn, due to his Anabaptist beliefs he along with his wife were among the colonists of Gravesend. Tilton and Spicer had bought the land from the Canarsie Indians on May 13,1664, Dutch efforts to establish the colony of New Netherland brought significant population change to the area we today call Brooklyn. When the Dutch arrived in the early 1600s, the area was inhabited by the Canarsie, the Canarsie had resided here for thousands of years and called the area where Jan Martense Schenck settled Keskateuw.
Between the 1630s and the 1680s, conflict and disease decimated the local Canarsie population, according to Schenck family tradition, Jan Martense Schenck, the man who built this house, arrived in New Netherland in 1650. He is first documented in Flatlands in 1660, on December 29,1675, he purchased the land on which he built the house, along with a half interest in a nearby gristmill. The house was probably in place by 1675, the Schenck family owned the house for three generations, finally selling it in 1784. Beginning in the 1920s, as development increased, a number of preservation plans that might have maintained the house on site were put forward but were never realized. Finally in 1952, the Brooklyn Museum made a commitment to save the house, dismantled it, the house was opened to the public in 1964. The house originally stood in the town of Flatlands, one of six towns that were to become the borough of Brooklyn. Established under the Dutch colony of New Netherlands, which became the English colony of New York in 1664, Flatlands was first called New Amersfoort, the area was originally inhabited by the Carnarsie Indians.
The house is a simple structure with a central chimney. Its framework is composed of a dozen heavy so-called H-bents, visible on the interior of the house and this is an ancient northern European method of construction that contrasts with the boxlike house frames that evolved in England. The house had a roof that created a large loft for storage. The roof was covered with shingles, and the walls were clad with horizontal wood clapboard siding. A section of the clapboard has been removed at one corner to expose a reconstruction of the brick nogging used as insulation, the interior walls were stuccoed between the upright supports of the H-bents
Peter Stuyvesant served as the last Dutch director-general of the colony of New Netherland from 1647 until it was ceded provisionally to the English in 1664, after which it was renamed New York. He was a figure in the early history of New York City. Stuyvesants accomplishments as director-general included an expansion for the settlement of New Amsterdam beyond the southern tip of Manhattan. Among the projects built by Stuyvesants administration were the protective wall on Wall Street, the canal that became Broad Street, Stuyvesant was born in 1610 in Peperga, Friesland, in the Netherlands, to minister Balthasar Stuyvesant and Margaretha Hardenstein. He grew up in Peperga and Berlicum and he studied languages and philosophy in Franeker, and joined the West India Company about 1635, and was director of the Dutch West India Companys colony of Curaçao from 1642 to 1644. In April 1644, he attacked the Spanish-held island of Saint Martin and he returned to the Netherlands for convalescence, where his right leg was replaced with a wooden peg.
Stuyvesant was given the nicknames Peg Leg Pete and Old Silver Nails because he used a wooden stick studded with silver nails as a prosthesis. A year later, in May 1645, Stuyvesant was selected by the Dutch West India Company to replace Willem Kieft as Director-General of the New Netherland colony and he arrived in New Amsterdam on May 11,1647. In September 1647, he appointed a council of nine men as representatives of the colonists on New Netherland. He married Judith Bayard of the Bayard family in 1645 and her brother Samuel was the husband of Stuyvesants sister Anna. Petrus and Judiths first son, Balthasar Lazarus, settled in the West Indies and their second son, Nicolaes Willem Stuyvesant, first married Maria Beeckman, daughter of Willem Beeckman, and subsequently Elisabeth Slechtenhorst. In 1648, a conflict started between him and Brant Aertzsz van Slechtenhorst, the commissary of the patroonship Rensselaerwijck, which surrounded Fort Orange, Stuyvesant claimed he had power over Rensselaerwijck despite special privileges granted to Kiliaen van Rensselaer in the patroonship regulations of 1629.
When Van Slechtenhorst refused, Stuyvesant sent a group of soldiers to enforce his orders, the controversy that followed resulted in the founding of the new settlement, Beverwijck. Stuyvesant became involved in a dispute with Theophilus Eaton, the governor of English New Haven Colony, the border was arranged to the dissatisfaction of the Nine Men, who declared that the governor had ceded away enough territory to found fifty colonies each fifty miles square. Stuyvesant threatened to dissolve the council, a new plan of municipal government was arranged in the Netherlands, and the name New Amsterdam was officially declared on 2 February 1653. Stuyvesant made a speech for the occasion, saying that his authority would remain undiminished, petrus was ordered to the Netherlands, but the order was soon revoked under pressure from the States of Holland and the city of Amsterdam. Stuyvesant prepared against an attack by ordering the citizens to dig a ditch from the North River to the East River and to erect a fortification.
In the summer of 1655, he sailed down the Delaware River with a fleet of seven vessels and about 700 men and took possession of the colony of New Sweden, which was renamed New Amstel
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with a Census-estimated 2,636,735 residents in 2015. It borders the borough of Queens at the end of Long Island. Today, if New York City dissolved, Brooklyn would rank as the third-most populous city in the U. S. behind Los Angeles, the borough continues, however, to maintain a distinct culture. Many Brooklyn neighborhoods are ethnic enclaves, Brooklyns official motto, displayed on the Borough seal and flag, is Eendraght Maeckt Maght which translates from early modern Dutch as Unity makes strength. Since 2010, Brooklyn has evolved into a hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms. The history of European settlement in Brooklyn spans more than 350 years, the neighborhood of Marine Park was home to North Americas first tidal mill. It was built by the Dutch, and the foundation can be seen today, the area was not formally settled as a town. Many incidents and documents relating to this period are in Gabriel Furmans early compilation, what is today Brooklyn left Dutch hands after the final English conquest of New Netherland in 1664, a prelude to the Second Anglo–Dutch War.
The English reorganized the six old Dutch towns on southwestern Long Island as Kings County on November 1,1683 and this tract of land was recognized as a political entity for the first time, and the municipal groundwork was laid for a expansive idea of Brooklyn identity. On August 27,1776 was fought the Battle of Long Island, the first major engagement fought in the American Revolutionary War after independence was declared, and the largest of the entire conflict. British troops forced Continental Army troops under George Washington off the heights near the sites of Green-Wood Cemetery, Prospect Park. The fortified American positions at Brooklyn Heights consequently became untenable and were evacuated a few days later, One result of the Treaty of Paris in 1783 was the evacuation of the British from New York City, celebrated by residents into the 20th century. The New York Navy Yard operated in Wallabout Bay for the entire 19th century, the first center of urbanization sprang up in the Town of Brooklyn, directly across from Lower Manhattan, which saw the incorporation of the Village of Brooklyn in 1817.
Reliable steam ferry service across the East River to Fulton Landing converted Brooklyn Heights into a town for Wall Street. Ferry Road to Jamaica Pass became Fulton Street to East New York and Village were combined to form the first, kernel incarnation of the City of Brooklyn in 1834. Industrial deconcentration in mid-century was bringing shipbuilding and other manufacturing to the part of the county. Each of the two cities and six towns in Kings County remained independent municipalities, and purposely created non-aligning street grids with different naming systems and it became the most popular and highest circulation afternoon paper in America. The publisher changed to L. Van Anden on April 19,1842, on May 14,1849 the name was shortened to The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, on September 5,1938 it was further shortened to Brooklyn Eagle
History of Harlem
As many as several hundred farmed the Harlem flatlands. The first European settlement in the area was by siblings Hendrick and Rachel de Forest, in 1639 Jochem Pietersen Kuyter established the homestead named Zedendaal, or Blessed Valley, stretched along the Harlem River from about the present 127th Street to 140th Street. The settlement was named Nieuw Haarlem, after the Dutch city of Haarlem, the Indian trail to Harlems lush bottomland meadows was rebuilt by black laborers of the Dutch West India Company, and eventually developed into the Boston Post Road. The British tried to change the name of the community to Lancaster, but the name never stuck, the Dutch took control of the area again for one year in 1673. The village grew slowly until the middle 18th century. Only the Morris-Jumel Mansion survives from this period, Harlem played an important role in the American Revolution. The British had established their base of operations in lower Manhattan, from Harlem, he could control the land routes to the north, as well as traffic on the Harlem River.
The New York Provincial Congress met in White Plains, as did the convention drafting the constitution for New York State and it was Washingtons first American victory. Later that year, the British would avenge this defeat by chasing Washington and his troops north, turning back, rebuilding took decades, and infrastructure was improved much more slowly than was happening in New York City proper. The 1811 report that accompanied the Commissioners Plan of 1811 noted that it was improbable that the north of the Harlem Flat will be covered with houses. Though undeveloped, the area was not poor, Harlem was a synonym for elegant living through a good part of the nineteenth century. The village remained largely farmland estates, such as Van Keulens Hook, bordered north of the Mill Creek, which flowed into Harlem Lake, to the farm of Morris Randall, northwest on the Harlem River, and westward to the Peter Benson, or Mill Farm. This branch of the Roosevelt family subsequently moved to the town of Hyde Park, as late as 1820, the community had dwindled to 91 families, a church, a school, and a library.
Wealthy farmers, known as patroons, maintained country estates largely on the heights overlooking the Hudson River. Piers were built, enabling Harlem to become an industrial suburb serving New York City, the rapid development of infrastructure enabled some to become wealthy, and the area became important to politicians, many of whom lived in Harlem. New York mayors Cornelius Van Wyck Lawrence and Daniel Tiemann both lived in Harlem in this period, for many in New York City, Harlem was at this time regarded as a sort of country retreat. The village had a population of residents as well, including blacks. Between 1850 and 1870, many estates, including Hamilton Grange
Peter Minuit, Pieter Minuit, Pierre Minuit or Peter Minnewit was a Walloon from Wesel, in present-day North Rhine-Westphalia, part of the Duchy of Cleves. He was Director of the Dutch colony of New Netherland from 1626 until 1631 and he founded the Delaware colony in the early 1600s. His father, died in 1609 and Peter took over management of the household, Peter Minuit had a good reputation in Wesel, attested by the fact that he was several times appointed a guardian. He assisted the poor during the Spanish occupation of 1614–1619, Peter Minuit married Gertrude Raedts on August 20,1613. From a wealthy family, Gertrude probably helped Peter Minuit in establishing himself as a broker, what products he dealt in is not known. That it involved diamonds is derived from a document, a will, drawn up in 1615. By 1624, the city was in a decline and in 1625 he had left Wesel and like others went to Holland. He returned in the year, and in 1626 was appointed the new director of New Netherland. He sailed to North America and arrived in the colony on May 4,1626, Minuit is credited with purchasing the island of Manhattan from the Native Americans in exchange for traded goods valued at 60 guilders.
In 1846, New York historian John Romeyn Brodhead converted the figure of Fl 60 to US$23, variable-rate myth being a contradiction in terms, the purchase price remains forever frozen at twenty-four dollars, as Edwin G. Burrows and Mike Wallace remarked in their history of New York. Sixty guilders in 1626 was valued at approximately $1,000 in 2006, based on the price of silver, Straight Dope author Cecil Adams calculated an equivalent of $72 in 1992. According to researchers at the National Library of the Netherlands, The original inhabitants of the area were unfamiliar with the European notions and definitions of ownership rights, for the Indians, water and land could not be traded. Such exchanges would be difficult in practical terms because many groups migrated between their summer and winter quarters and it can be concluded that both parties probably went home with totally different interpretations of the sales agreement. The calculation of $24 fails to recognize that the concepts of property trading and ownership held by the 17th-century Dutch, comparisons to modern land dealing distort the reality of what Minuit was trying to do.
Both the Dutch and the Indians undoubtedly included intangibles along with any goods in their concept of the total transactional value. For Indians and Minuit alike, both sides felt they were getting far more than a mere 60 guilders, in addition, the value of the sale to Dutch and Indians alike would have included the prospect of future trade. Minuit conducted politics in a measure of democracy in the colony during his time in New Netherland and he was highest judge in the colony but in both civil and criminal affairs he was assisted by a council of five colonists. This advisory body would advise the director, and would jointly with him develop, administer, in addition there was a schout-fiscal, half sheriff, half attorney-general, and all customs officer