Pogonia ophioglossoides, the snakemouth orchid or rose pogonia, is a species of orchid occurring from central Canada to the east-central and eastern United States. It is the type species of the genus Pogonia, it is pollinated by bees. This species occurs in wet habitats. In the north, the habitat is fens but sometimes bogs. Further south, along the Gulf Coast, it is a species of wet pine savannas and flatwoods
Apalachicola National Forest
The Apalachicola National Forest is the largest U. S. National Forest in the state of Florida, it is the only national forest located in the Florida Panhandle. The National Forest provides water and land-based outdoors activities such as off-road biking, swimming, hunting, horse-back riding, off-road ATV usage. Apalachicola National Forest contains two Wilderness Areas: Bradwell Bay Wilderness and Mud Swamp/New River Wilderness. There are several special purpose areas: Camel Lake Recreation Area, Fort Gadsden Historical Site, Leon Sinks Geological Area, Silver Lake Recreation Area, Trout Pond Recreation Area, Wright Lake Recreation Area. In descending order of forest land area it is located in parts of Liberty, Wakulla and Franklin counties; the forest is headquartered in Tallahassee, as are all three National Forests in Florida, but there are local Forest ranger district offices located in Bristol and Crawfordville. Hunting and fishing are monitored and governed by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission.
The national forest itself is a wildlife management area. The FWC divides the management area into sections that allow dog hunting, still hunting, private property. Modern gun season for large game ends in January; the Apalachicola National Forest is in the southeastern conifer forests ecoregion. Areas of the national forest with dry, sandy soils support Florida longleaf pine sandhills and east Gulf coastal plain near-coast pine flatwoods. Sandhills are woodlands dominated by longleaf pine. Pine flatwoods are woodlands on broad, sandy flatlands. Both of these pine communities are sustained by frequent fires. Near the floodplains of spring-fed rivers grow southern coastal plain hydric hammocks, dense forests of evergreen and deciduous hardwood trees. Blackwater rivers support southern coastal plain blackwater river floodplain forests of baldcypress along their banks. Major rivers support diverse east Gulf coastal plain large river floodplain forests. Notable animals that inhabit this forest are red-cockaded woodpecker, fox squirrel, red fox, gray fox, coyote, black bear, wild turkey and alligator.
It is home to several wetland plant communities. Southern coastal plain nonriverine basin swamps are large, seasonally flooded depressions of baldcypress and swamp tupelo. East Gulf coastal plain savannas and wet prairies are low, flat plains covered in grasses and sedges, which are seasonally flooded and maintained by frequent fires. Southern coastal plain nonriverine cypress domes are small wetlands of pond cypress notable for their dome-shaped appearance; the Forest contains. In addition, Bradwell Bay Wilderness contains about 100 acres of old-growth Slash Pine - Swamp Tupelo swamps. Allen Nease Ocala National Forest Osceola National Forest Apalachicola National Forest travel guide from Wikivoyage Official website The Florida Trail in the Apalachicola National Forest Field Guide to Flora in Apalachicola National Forest
Overexploitation called overharvesting, refers to harvesting a renewable resource to the point of diminishing returns. Continued overexploitation can lead to the destruction of the resource; the term applies to natural resources such as: wild medicinal plants, grazing pastures, game animals, fish stocks and water aquifers. In ecology, overexploitation describes one of the five main activities threatening global biodiversity. Ecologists use the term to describe populations that are harvested at a rate, unsustainable, given their natural rates of mortality and capacities for reproduction; this can result in extinction at the population level and extinction of whole species. In conservation biology the term is used in the context of human economic activity that involves the taking of biological resources, or organisms, in larger numbers than their populations can withstand; the term is used and defined somewhat differently in fisheries and natural resource management. Overexploitation can lead including extinctions.
However it is possible for overexploitation to be sustainable, as discussed below in the section on fisheries. In the context of fishing, the term overfishing can be used instead of overexploitation, as can overgrazing in stock management, overlogging in forest management, overdrafting in aquifer management, endangered species in species monitoring. Overexploitation is not an activity limited to humans. Introduced predators and herbivores, for example, can overexploit native fauna. Concern about overexploitation is recent, though overexploitation itself is not a new phenomenon, it has been observed for millennia. For example, ceremonial cloaks worn by the Hawaiian kings were made from the mamo bird; the dodo, a flightless bird from Mauritius, is another well-known example of overexploitation. As with many island species, it was naive about certain predators, allowing humans to approach and kill it with ease. From the earliest of times, hunting has been an important human activity as a means of survival.
There is a whole history of overexploitation in the form of overhunting. The overkill hypothesis explains why the megafaunal extinctions occurred within a short period of time; this can be traced with human migration. The most convincing evidence of this theory is that 80% of the North American large mammal species disappeared within 1000 years of the arrival of humans on the western hemisphere continents; the fastest recorded extinction of megafauna occurred in New Zealand, where by 1500 AD, just 200 years after settling the islands, ten species of the giant moa birds were hunted to extinction by the Māori. A second wave of extinctions occurred with European settlement. In more recent times, overexploitation has resulted in the gradual emergence of the concepts of sustainability and sustainable development, which has built on other concepts, such as sustainable yield, eco-development and deep ecology. Overexploitation doesn't lead to the destruction of the resource, nor is it unsustainable. However, depleting the numbers or amount of the resource can change its quality.
For example, footstool palm is a wild palm tree found in Southeast Asia. Its leaves are used for thatching and food wrapping, overharvesting has resulted in its leaf size becoming smaller; the tragedy of the commons refers to a dilemma described in an article by that name written by Garrett Hardin and first published in the journal Science in 1968. Central to Hardin's essay is an example, a useful parable for understanding how overexploitation can occur; this example was first sketched in an 1833 pamphlet by William Forster Lloyd, as a hypothetical and simplified situation based on medieval land tenure in Europe, of herders sharing a common on which they are each entitled to let their cows graze. In Hardin's example, it is in each herder's interest to put each succeeding cow he acquires onto the land if the carrying capacity of the common is exceeded and it is temporarily or permanently damaged for all as a result; the herder receives all of the benefits from an additional cow, while the damage to the common is shared by the entire group.
If all herders make this individually rational economic decision, the common will be overexploited or destroyed to the detriment of all. However, since all herders reach the same rational conclusion, overexploitation in the form of overgrazing occurs, with immediate losses, the pasture may be degraded to the point where it gives little return. "Therein is the tragedy. Each man is locked into a system that compels him to increase his herd without limit—in a world, limited. Ruin is the destination toward which all men rush, each pursuing his own interest in a society that believes in the freedom of the commons." In the course of his essay, Hardin develops the theme, drawing in many examples of latter day commons, such as national parks, the atmosphere, oceans and fish stocks. The example of fish stocks had led some to call this the "tragedy of the fishers". A major theme running through the essay is the growth of human populations, with the Earth's finite resources being the general common; the tragedy of the commons has intellectual roots tracing back to Aristotle, who noted that "what is common to the greatest number has the least care bestowed upon it", as well as to Hobbes and his Leviathan.
The opposite situation to a tragedy of the commons is sometimes referred to as a tragedy of the anticommons: a situation in which rational individuals, acting separately, collectively waste a given resource by underutilizing it. The tragedy of the commons can be avoided i
Pinus taeda known as loblolly pine, is one of several pines native to the Southeastern United States, from central Texas east to Florida, north to Delaware and southern New Jersey. The wood industry classifies the species as a southern yellow pine. U. S. Forest Service surveys found that loblolly pine is the second-most common species of tree in the United States, after red maple. For its timber, the pine species is regarded as the most commercially important tree in Southeastern US; the common name loblolly is given because the pine species is found in lowlands and swampy areas. Loblolly pine is the first among over 100 species of Pinus to have its complete genome sequenced; as of March 2014, it was the organism having the largest sequenced genome size. Its genome, with 22 billion base pairs, is seven times larger than that of humans; as of 2018, assembly of the Axolotl genome displaced loblolly pine as the largest assembled genome. Loblolly pine can reach a height of 30–35 m with a diameter of 0.4–1.5 m.
Exceptional specimens may reach 50 m tall, the largest of the southern pines. Its needles are in bundles of three, sometimes twisted, measure 12–22 cm long, an intermediate length for southern pines, shorter than those of the longleaf pine or slash pine, but longer than those of the shortleaf pine and spruce pine; the needles last up to two years before they fall, which gives the species its evergreen character. Although some needles fall throughout the year due to severe weather, insect damage, drought, most needles fall during the autumn and winter of their second year; the seed cones are green, ripening pale buff-brown, 7–13 cm in length, 2–3 cm broad when closed, opening to 4–6 cm wide, each scale bearing a sharp spine 3 to 6 mm long. The tallest loblolly pine known, 51.4 m tall, the largest, which measures 42 m3 in volume, are in Congaree National Park. The word "loblolly" is a combination of "lob", referring to thick, heavy bubbling of cooking porridge, "lolly", an old British dialect word for broth, soup, or any other food boiled in a pot.
In the southern United States, the word is used to mean "a mudhole. Hence, the pine is named as it is found in lowlands and swampy areas. Loblolly pines grow well in acidic, clay soil, common throughout the South, thus are found in large stands in rural places. Other old names, now used, include oldfield pine, due to its status as an early colonizer of abandoned fields. For the scientific name, Pinus is the Latin name for the pines and taeda refers to the resinous wood. With the advent of wildfire suppression, loblolly pine has become prevalent in some parts of the Deep South that were once dominated by longleaf pine and in northern Florida, slash pine; the rate of growth is rapid among the fast-growing southern pines. The yellowish, resinous wood is prized for lumber, but is used for wood pulp; this tree is commercially grown in extensive plantations. Loblolly pine is the pine of the Lost Pines Forest around Bastrop, in McKinney Roughs along the Texas Colorado River; these are isolated populations on areas of acidic sandy soil, surrounded by alkaline clays that are poor for pine growth.
A study using loblolly pines showed that higher atmospheric carbon dioxide levels may help the trees to endure ice storms better. The famous "Eisenhower Tree" on the 17th hole of Augusta National Golf Club was a loblolly pine. U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, an Augusta National member, hit the tree so many times that at a 1956 club meeting, he proposed that it be cut down. Not wanting to offend the President, the club's chairman, Clifford Roberts adjourned the meeting rather than reject the request outright. In February 2014, an ice storm damaged the Eisenhower Tree; the opinion of arborists was that the tree should be removed. The "Morris Pine" is located in southeastern Arkansas. Loblolly pine seeds were carried aboard the Apollo 14 flight. On its return, the seeds were planted in several locations in the US, including the grounds of the White House; as of 2016, a number of these moon trees remain alive. Pines are the genus Pinus consists of more than 100 species. Sequencing of their genomes remained a huge challenge because of the high size.
Loblolly pine became the first species with its complete genome sequenced. This was the largest genome assembled until 2018; the loblolly pine genome is made up of 22.18 billion base pairs, more than seven times that of humans. Conifer genomes are known to be full of repetitive DNA, which make up 82% of the genome in loblolly pine; the number of genes is estimated at about 50,172, of which 15,653 are confirmed. Most of the genes are duplicates; some genes have the longest introns observed among 24 sequenced plant genomes. Gymnosperms lack genetic self-incompatibility. Loblolly pine, like most gymnosperms, exhibits high levels of inbreeding depression in the embryonic stage; the loblolly pine harbors an average load of at least eight lethal equivalents. A lethal equivalent is the number of deleterious genes per h
A controlled or prescribed burn known as hazard reduction burning, swailing, or a burn-off, is a wildfire set intentionally for purposes of forest management, prairie restoration or greenhouse gas abatement. A controlled burn may refer to the intentional burning of slash and fuels through burn piles. Fire is a natural part of both forest and grassland ecology and controlled fire can be a tool for foresters. Hazard reduction or controlled burning is conducted during the cooler months to reduce fuel buildup and decrease the likelihood of serious hotter fires. Controlled burning stimulates the germination of some desirable forest trees, reveals soil mineral layers which increases seedling vitality, thus renewing the forest; some cones, such as those of lodgepole pine and sequoia, are serotinous, as well as many chaparral shrubs, meaning they require heat from fire to open cones to disperse seeds. In industrialized countries, controlled burning is overseen by fire control authorities for regulations and permits.
There are two basic causes of wildfires. One is natural and the other is people. Controlled burns have a long history in wildland management. Pre-agricultural societies used fire to regulate both animal life. Fire history studies have documented periodic wildland fires ignited by indigenous peoples in North America and Australia. Fires, both caused and prescribed, were once part of natural landscapes in many areas; these practices ended in the early 20th century when US fire policies were enacted with the goals of suppressing all fires. Since 1995, the US Forest Service has incorporated burning practices into its forest management policies. Back burning involves starting small fires along a man-made or natural firebreak in front of a main fire front. Back burning reduces the amount of fuel, available to the main fire by the time that it reaches the burnt area. Back burning is utilized during wildfire events. While controlled burns utilize back burning during planned fire events to create a "black line", back burning or backfiring is done to stop a wildfire, in progress.
Firebreaks are often used as an anchor point to start a line of fires along natural or manmade features such as a river, road or a bulldozed clearing. It is called back burning because the small fires are designed to "burn back" towards the main fire front and are burning and traveling against ground level winds. Another consideration is the issue of fire prevention. In Florida, during the drought in 1995, catastrophic wildfires burned numerous homes, but forestry managers in the Florida Division of Forestry noted that the underlying problem was previous cessation of controlled burning, resulting from complaints by homeowners. Each year additional leaf litter and dropped branches increased the likelihood of a hot and uncontrollable fire. Controlled burns are sometimes ignited using a tool known as the driptorch, which allows a steady stream of flaming fuel to be directed to the ground as needed. Variations on the driptorch can be used such as the helitorch, mounted on a helicopter, or other improvised devices such as mounting a driptorch-like device on the side of a vehicle.
A pyrotechnic device known as a fusee can be used for ignition in nearby fuels while a Very pistol can be for fuels farther away. For the burning of slash, waste materials left over from logging, there are several types of controlled burns. Broadcast burning is the burning of scattered slash over a wide area. Pile burning is gathering up the slash into piles before burning; these burning piles may be referred to as bonfires. High temperatures can harm the soil, sterilizing it. Broadcast burns tend to have lower temperatures and will not harm the soil as much as pile burning, though steps can be taken to treat the soil after a burn. In lop and scatter burning, slash is compacted with machinery; this produces a lower intensity fire, as long. However, soil may be damaged. Controlled burning reduces fuels, may improve wildlife habitat, controls competing vegetation, improves short term forage for grazing, improves accessibility, helps control tree disease, perpetuates fire dependent species. In mature longleaf pine forest, it helps maintain habitat for endangered red-cockaded woodpeckers in their sandhill and flatwoods habitats.
Fire is felt to be a crucial element of the recovery of the threatened Louisiana pine snake in the longleaf pine forests of central Louisiana and eastern Texas. However, many scientists disagree with such a simplistic approach, indicate that each forest must be assessed on its own merit. In the wild, many trees depend on fire as a successful way to clear out competition and release their seeds. In particular, the giant sequoia depends on fire to reproduce: the cones of the tree open after a fire releases their seeds, the fire having cleared all competing vegetation. Due to fire suppression efforts during the early and mid 20th century, low-intensity fires no longer occurred in many groves, still do not occur in some groves today; the suppression of fires led to ground fuel build-up and the dense growth which posed the risk of catastrophic wildfires. It wasn't until the 1970s that the National Park Service began systematic fires for the purpose of new seed growth. Eucalyptus regnans or mountain ash of Australia depends on fire but in a different fashion.
They carry their seeds in capsules. Being flammable, during a fire the capsules drop nearly all of their seeds and the fire consumes the eucalypt adults, but most of the seeds survive using the a
Sarracenia is a genus comprising 8 to 11 species of North American pitcher plants called trumpet pitchers. The genus belongs to the family Sarraceniaceae, which contain the allied genera Darlingtonia and Heliamphora. Sarracenia is a genus of carnivorous plants indigenous to the eastern seaboard of the United States, the Great Lakes area and southeastern Canada, with most species occurring only in the south-east United States; the plant's leaves have evolved into a pitcher shape in order to trap insects. The plant attracts its insect prey with secretions from extrafloral nectaries on the lip of the pitcher leaves, as well as a combination of the leaves' color and scent. Slippery footing at the pitcher's rim, causes insects to fall inside, where they die and are digested by the plant with proteases and other enzymes. Sarracenia are herbaceous perennial plants that grow from a subterranean rhizome, with many tubular pitcher-shaped leaves radiating out from the growing point, turning upwards with their trap openings facing the center of the crown.
The trap is a vertical tube with a'hood' extending over its entrance. The hood itself produces nectar too, but in lesser quantities; the inside of the pitcher tube, depending on the species, can be divided into three to five distinguishable zones: zone 1 is the operculum, zone 2 is the peristome and rest of the trap entrance, while zones 3 and 4 and 5 are further divisions of the actual tube. Each of these zones has a specific function, with corresponding morphophysiological characteristics. Zone 1: Operculum. In most species the operculum covers at least part of the pitcher opening, preventing rain from excessively filling the pitcher, which would result in the loss of prey and dilute the digestive fluid; the operculum serves to guide prey to the pitcher opening, using a combination of color and downward-pointing hairs to lead insects toward the trap entrance. Some species S. minor and S. psittacina, have opercula that hang low over the pitcher entrance. These are studded with chlorophyll-free patches, translucent "windows" which confuse prey into attempting to fly through the operculum, thereby causing them to cascade down the pitcher tube..
Zone 2: Peristome and trap entrance. This zone is composed of the peristome, which produces copious amounts of nectar, luring insect prey to land or crawl onto the perilous footing surrounding the pitcher trap; this zone includes the waxy upper portion of the pitcher tube. Footing on this zone is treacherous, as the waxy deposits on surface of this zone cause unwary insects to lose their footing and tumble into the pitcher depths. Zone 3: Located below Zone 2, this zone features a leaf surface with non-existent footing, as well as a coating of ultra-fine, downward pointing hairs. Insects that have made it this far lose any chance of escape, it is studded with digestive glands, which secrete digestive enzymes into the digestive fluid. Zone 4: This is the final zone in most species, it is filled with digestive fluids, absorbs nutrients released from the insects by the work of the digestive enzymes and bacteria in the pitcher fluid. Along with more digestive glands, this zone features a thick coating of coarse downward pointing hairs, which makes escape from the digestive fluids impossible.
Zone 5: This zone, located below Zone 4 and found only in S. purpurea, is smooth, lacks glands, does not serve as an absorptive zone. Its function is unknown. All Sarracenia trap insects and other prey without the use of moving parts, their traps are static and are based on a combination of lures and inescapability – the entrances to the traps are one-way by virtue of the adapted features listed above. Most species use a combination of scent, waxy deposits and gravity to topple insect prey into their pitcher. Once inside, the insect finds the footing slippery with a waxy surface covering the walls of the pitcher. Further down the tube, downward-pointing hairs make retreat impossible, in the lowest region of the tube, a pool of liquid containing digestive enzymes and wetting agents drowns the prey and begins digestion; the exoskeletons are not digested, over the course of the summer fill up the pitcher tube. Only S. purpurea contains significant amounts of rainwater in its tubular pitchers. It is a myth.
In fact, the hoods of the other species help to keep out rain water in addition to keeping flying prey from escaping. S. psittacina, the parrot pitcher, uses a lobster-pot style trap that will admit prey but not allow it to find its way out. Coniine, a toxic alkaloid present in poison hemlock, was first detected in the nectar of S. flava. and has since been detected in 7 other species of Sarracenia. While it was demonstrated that concentrated extracts from S. flava could paralyze ants, it has not been demonstrated that coniine has narcotic effects on insects at the concentrations present in pitchers of S. flava. Other authors hypothesize that coniine may function as an attractant for insects, or may function both as an attractant and a narcotic. Flowers are produced early in spring, with or ahead of the f
Ilex glabra known as Appalachian tea, dye-leaves, evergreen winterberry and inkberry, is a species of evergreen holly native to the coastal plain of eastern North America, from coastal Nova Scotia to Florida and west to Louisiana where it is most found in sandy woods and peripheries of swamps and bogs. Ilex glabra is found in landscapes of the middle and lower East Coast, it matures to 5–8 ft tall, can spread by root suckers to form colonies. It is cultivated as an evergreen shrub in USDA zones 6 to 10. Gallberry nectar is the source of a pleasant honey, popular in the southern United States. Spineless, ovate to elliptic, dark green leaves have smooth margins with several marginal teeth near the apex. Leaves remain attractive bright green in winter unless temperatures fall below -17 C/0 F. Greenish white flowers appear in spring, but are inconspicuous. If pollinated, female flowers give way to pea-sized, jet black, berry-like drupes which mature in early fall and persist throughout winter to early spring unless consumed by local bird populations.
Cultivars of species plants have better form that the species. Genus name in Latin means oak in probable reference to the similarity of the holly leaf to the leaf of a Mediterranean oak known as Quercus ilex. Species name means smooth in reference to plant leaf surfaces. Gallberry honey is a rated honey that results from bees feeding on inkberry flowers; this honey is locally produced in certain parts of the Southeastern U. S. in areas where beekeepers release bees from late April to early June to coincide with inkberry flowering time. Dried and roasted inkberry leaves were first used by Native Americans to brew a black tea-like drink, hence the sometimes used common name of Appalachian tea for this shrub. Carolina Nature: Inkberry UConn Plant Database: Ilex glabra NS Wildflora: Ilex glabra