The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Ginger wine is a fortified wine made from a fermented blend of ground ginger root and raisins, first produced in England. It is fortified by being blended with brandy. Ginger wine can be drunk with ice, or without ice, is used as an ingredient—along with whisky —in a "Whisky Mac". Ginger wine can be served mixed with other beverages, such as lemonade, ginger ale, bitter lemon or diluted with water. Ginger wine is traditionally sold in green glass bottles, although the word "green" may or may not appear on the label; the first documented appearance of ginger wine occurred with the foundation of The Finsbury Distillery Company based in the City of London in 1740. The company, like other distillers, was required to build a retail network in compliance with the Gin Act 1751. Joseph Stone, a grocer on High Holborn street, central London, was one of the most prominent and important customers of the Finsbury wines division, as such, had his name given to their ginger wine. In the 19th century, sales were boosted by a cholera epidemic and a held belief that ginger offered protection against the disease.
Other 19th-century claims marketed it as a medicinal tonic that aided digestion and served as an effective aphrodisiac. Today, it is still produced and is available through most licensed premises. A ginger essence name "Yulade" was produced by the Co-op and was used at festive times to make a non-alcoholic'ginger wine' popular for children and teetotal households. Aromatized wine Canton Ginger ale Ginger beer Mulled wine
"Jug wine" is a term in the United States for inexpensive table wine bottled in a glass bottle or jug. Jug wines were labeled semi-generically sold to third parties to be relabeled, or sold directly from the winery's tasting room to customers who would bring their own bottles. For a period following Prohibition, jug wines were the only domestic wine available for most Americans. Beginning in the 1960s, when Americans began to consume more premium wine, jug wine took on a reputation for being "extreme value". Beginning in the late 1980s jug wines have been labeled varietally to meet consumer demand. Common brands include Gallo, Carlo Rossi, Almaden Vineyards, Inglenook Winery, Opici. Typical formats include 1 liter glass bottles, as well as 3 and 5-liter jugs. More recent packaging methods include lined boxes, plastic bags inside corrugated fiberboard boxes. Box wine Fighting varietal Flavored fortified wine
The damson or damson plum archaically called the "damascene" is an edible drupaceous fruit, a subspecies of the plum tree. Varieties of insititia are found across Europe, but the name "damson" is derived from and most applied to forms which are native to Great Britain. Damsons are small plum-like fruit with a distinctive, somewhat astringent taste, are used for culinary purposes in fruit preserves or jam. In South and Southeast Asia, the term "damson plum" sometimes refers to jambul, the fruit from a tree in the Myrtaceae family; the name "mountain damson" or "bitter damson" was formerly applied in Jamaica to the tree Simarouba amara. The name damson comes from Middle English damascene, damasin and from the Latin damascenum, "plum of Damascus". One stated theory is that damsons were first cultivated in antiquity in the area around the ancient city of Damascus, capital of modern-day Syria, were introduced into England by the Romans; the historical link between the Roman-era damascenum and the north and west European damson is rather tenuous despite the adoption of the older name.
The damascenum described by Roman and Greek authors of late antiquity has more of the character of a sweet dessert plum, not fitting well to the damson plum. Remnants of damsons are sometimes found during archaeological digs of ancient Roman camps across England, they have been cultivated, consumed, for centuries. Damson stones have been found in an excavation in Hungate and dated to the late period of Anglo-Saxon England; the exact origin of Prunus domestica subsp. Insititia is still debatable: it is thought to have arisen in wild crosses in Asia Minor, between the sloe, Prunus spinosa, the cherry plum, Prunus cerasifera. Despite this, tests on cherry plums and damsons have indicated that it is possible that the damson developed directly from forms of sloe via the round-fruited varieties known as bullaces, that the cherry plum did not play a role in its parentage. Insititia plums of various sorts, such as the German Kriechenpflaume or French quetsche, occur across Europe and the word "damson" is sometimes used to refer to them in English, but many of the English varieties from which the name "damson" was taken have both a different typical flavour and pear-shaped appearance compared with continental forms.
Robert Hogg commented. We do not meet with it abroad, nor is any mention of it made in any of the pomological works or nurseryman's catalogues on the Continent"; as time progressed, a distinction developed between the varieties known as "damascenes" and the types called "damsons", to the degree that by 1891 they were the subject of a lawsuit when a Nottinghamshire grocer complained about being supplied one when he had ordered the other. In addition to providing fruit, the damson makes a tough hedge or windbreak, it became the favoured hedging tree in certain parts of the country such as Shropshire and Kent. Elsewhere damsons were used in orchards to protect less hardy trees, though orchards composed of damson trees were a feature of some areas, notably the Lyth Valley of Westmorland and the Teme Valley in the Malverns, indeed damsons were the only plum planted commercially north of Norfolk. There is a body of anecdotal evidence that damsons were used in the British dye and cloth manufacturing industries in the 18th and 19th centuries, with examples occurring in every major damson-growing area.
Stories that damsons were used to dye khaki army uniforms are common. However, a 2005 report for conservancy body English Nature could find no documentary evidence within the dyeing industry that damsons were a source of dye, noting that use of natural dyes declined after the 1850s, concluded that "there seems no evidence that damsons were used extensively or techniques developed"; the main recorded use of damsons in the industrial era was in commercial jam-making, orchards were widespread until the Second World War, after which changing tastes, the effect of wartime sugar rationing, the high cost of British-grown fruit caused a steep decline. The damson was introduced into the American colonies by English settlers before the American Revolution, it was regarded as thriving better in the continental United States than other European plum varieties. A favourite of early colonists, the tree has escaped from gardens and can be found growing wild in states such as Idaho; the main characteristic of the damson is its distinctive rich flavour.
The fruit of the damson can be identified by its shape, ovoid and pointed at one end, or pyriform. Most damsons are of the "clingstone" type; the damson is broadly similar to the semi-wild bullace classified as ssp. insititia, a smaller but invariably round plum with purple or yellowish-green skin. Damsons have a furrowed stone, unlike bullaces, unlike prunes cannot be dried. Most individual damson varieties can be conclusively identified by examining the fruit's stone, which varies in shape and texture; the tree blossoms with sma
Wine is an alcoholic drink made from fermented grapes. Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol, carbon dioxide, heat. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts produce different styles of wine; these variations result from the complex interactions between the biochemical development of the grape, the reactions involved in fermentation, the terroir, the production process. Many countries enact legal appellations intended to define qualities of wine; these restrict the geographical origin and permitted varieties of grapes, as well as other aspects of wine production. Wines not made from grapes include rice wine and fruit wines such as plum, pomegranate and elderberry. Wine has been produced for thousands of years; the earliest known traces of wine are from Georgia and Sicily although there is evidence of a similar alcoholic drink being consumed earlier in China. The earliest known winery is the 6,100-year-old Areni-1 winery in Armenia. Wine reached the Balkans by 4500 BC and was consumed and celebrated in ancient Greece and Rome.
Throughout history, wine has been consumed for its intoxicating effects. Wine has long played an important role in religion. Red wine was associated with blood by the ancient Egyptians and was used by both the Greek cult of Dionysus and the Romans in their Bacchanalia; the earliest archaeological and archaeobotanical evidence for grape wine and viniculture, dating to 6000–5800 BC was found on the territory of modern Georgia. Both archaeological and genetic evidence suggest that the earliest production of wine elsewhere was later having taken place in the Southern Caucasus, or the West Asian region between Eastern Turkey, northern Iran; the earliest evidence of a grape-based fermented drink was found in China, Georgia from 6000 BC, Iran from 5000 BC, Sicily from 4000 BC. The earliest evidence of a wine production facility is the Areni-1 winery in Armenia and is at least 6100 years old. A 2003 report by archaeologists indicates a possibility that grapes were mixed with rice to produce mixed fermented drinks in China in the early years of the seventh millennium BC.
Pottery jars from the Neolithic site of Jiahu, contained traces of tartaric acid and other organic compounds found in wine. However, other fruits indigenous to the region, such as hawthorn, cannot be ruled out. If these drinks, which seem to be the precursors of rice wine, included grapes rather than other fruits, they would have been any of the several dozen indigenous wild species in China, rather than Vitis vinifera, introduced there 6000 years later; the spread of wine culture westwards was most due to the Phoenicians who spread outward from a base of city-states along the Mediterranean coast of what are today Syria, Lebanon and Palestine. The wines of Byblos were exported to Egypt during the Old Kingdom and throughout the Mediterranean. Evidence includes two Phoenician shipwrecks from 750 BC discovered by Robert Ballard, whose cargo of wine was still intact; as the first great traders in wine, the Phoenicians seem to have protected it from oxidation with a layer of olive oil, followed by a seal of pinewood and resin, similar to retsina.
Although the nuragic Sardinians consumed wine before the arrival of the Phoenicians The earliest remains of Apadana Palace in Persepolis dating back to 515 BC include carvings depicting soldiers from Achaemenid Empire subject nations bringing gifts to the Achaemenid king, among them Armenians bringing their famous wine. Literary references to wine are abundant in Homer and others. In ancient Egypt, six of 36 wine amphoras were found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun bearing the name "Kha'y", a royal chief vintner. Five of these amphoras were designated as originating from the king's personal estate, with the sixth from the estate of the royal house of Aten. Traces of wine have been found in central Asian Xinjiang in modern-day China, dating from the second and first millennia BC; the first known mention of grape-based wines in India is from the late 4th-century BC writings of Chanakya, the chief minister of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya. In his writings, Chanakya condemns the use of alcohol while chronicling the emperor and his court's frequent indulgence of a style of wine known as madhu.
The ancient Romans planted vineyards near garrison towns so wine could be produced locally rather than shipped over long distances. Some of these areas are now world-renowned for wine production; the Romans discovered that burning sulfur candles inside empty wine vessels kept them fresh and free from a vinegar smell. In medieval Europe, the Roman Catholic Church supported wine because the clergy required it for the Mass. Monks in France made wine for years. An old English recipe that survived in various forms until the 19th century calls for refining white wine from bastard—bad or tainted bastardo wine; the English word "wine" comes from the Proto-Germanic *winam, an early borrowing from the Latin vinum, "wine" or " vine", itself derived from the Proto-Indo-European stem *win-o-. The earliest attested terms referring to wine are the Mycenaean Greek me-tu-wo ne-wo, meaning "in" or " of the new wine", wo-no-wa-ti-si, meaning "wine garden", written in Linear B inscriptions. Linear B includes, inter alia, an ideogram for wine
Hamilton, South Lanarkshire
Hamilton is a town in South Lanarkshire, in the central Lowlands of Scotland. It serves as the main administrative centre of the South Lanarkshire council area, it sits 12 miles south-east of Glasgow, 35 miles south-west of Edinburgh and 74 miles north of Carlisle. It is situated on the south bank of the River Clyde at its confluence with the Avon Water. Hamilton is the county town of the historic county of Lanarkshire; the town of Hamilton was known as Cadzow or Cadyou, the "ȝ" being the letter yogh), pronounced /kadyu/. During the Wars of Scottish Independence the Hamilton family supported the English and Walter fitz Gilbert was governor of Bothwell Castle on behalf of the English. However, he changed loyalty to Robert the Bruce, following the Battle of Bannockburn, ceded Bothwell to him. For this act, he was rewarded with a portion of land, forfeited by the Comyns at Dalserf and the Barony and lands of Cadzow, which in time would become the town of Hamilton. Cadzow was renamed Hamilton in the time of James, Lord Hamilton, married to Princess Mary, the daughter of King James II.
The Hamilton family themselves most took their name from the lands of Humbleton or Homildon in Northumberland, or from a place near Leicester. The Hamiltons constructed many landmark buildings in the area including the Hamilton Mausoleum in Strathclyde Park, which has the longest echo of any building in the world; the Hamilton family are major land-owners in the area to this day. Hamilton Palace was the seat of the Dukes of Hamilton until the early-twentieth century. Other historic buildings in the area include Hamilton Old Parish Church, a Georgian era building completed in 1734 and the only church to have been built by William Adam; the graveyard of the old parish church contains. The former Edwardian Town Hall now houses the concert hall; the Townhouse complex underwent a sympathetic modernization in 2002 and opened to the public in summer 2004. The ruins of Cadzow Castle lie in Chatelherault Country Park, 2 miles from the town centre. Hamilton Palace was the largest non-royal residence in the Western world, located in the north-east of the town.
A former seat of the Dukes of Hamilton, it was built in 1695, subsequently much enlarged, demolished in 1921 due to ground subsidence. It is acknowledged as having been one of the grandest houses in Scotland, was visited and admired by Queen Victoria, was written about by Daniel Defoe. Hamilton Barracks was the Depot of the Cameronians and the home of the 1st Battalion of the Regiment; the Regimental Museum is part of the Low Parks Museum. The Low Parks Museum is housed in what was a 16th-century inn and a staging post for journeys between Glasgow and Edinburgh. Refurbished, it is the oldest building in Hamilton and is to the north of the Palace Grounds. Renowned explorer and missionary Dr. David Livingstone's house still stands at 17 Burnbank Road and has a plaque about him. By road the town is to the west of the M74 motorway, the main southerly link to England, which joins the M6 just north of Carlisle; the main route from Edinburgh is the M8, leaving at junctions 6 or 7. Areas of Hamilton: Service industries and local government are major employers in Hamilton, as are Philips, the Dutch electronics conglomerate.
The town centre has been regenerated with new indoor shopping centres Hamilton Retail Park and the Palace Grounds Retail Park. Restaurants and national retail outlets are situated in a redeveloped part of the Palace Grounds that are visible upon entering the town from the M74 motorway; the creation of a circular Town Square has resulted in Hamilton receiving numerous town planning awards during the past decade. This development transformed the Hamilton side of Strathclyde Park, the original site of the Duke's palace. Hamilton has been a Fairtrade Town since 2005. Hamilton has three railway stations, Hamilton Central, Hamilton West and Chatelherault on the Argyle Line's Hamilton Circle. Hamilton Central is 22 minutes from Glasgow on the limited stop Larkhall-Dalmuir service, it was once served by the North British Railway. Hamilton, Peacock Cross railway station and Burnbank Beside Hamilton Central lies Hamilton bus station, providing links to surrounding towns and cities offering an express bus to Glasgow and some parts of England.
Cycling paths run from Strathclyde Park to Chatelherault Country Park following the banks of the Clyde and Avon. These are being expanded at part of the Sustrans Connect2 project and will make up part of the National Cycle Route 74 which will run from Uddingston to Carlisle, Cumbria There are three comprehensive high schools in the town – Hamilton Grammar, Holy Cross and John Ogilvie; the former Earnock High School merged with Blantyre High School as the new Calderside Academy. There are several primary schools in Hamilton, including, St Cuthbert's, Our Lady and St Anne's, St Elizabeth's St Peter's, St Paul's, St Mark's, St Ninian's, St Mary's, Townhill, Woodhead, Beckford, St John's, Woodside and Chatelherault Primary Schools. Hamilton has one private school, Hamilton College, next to the Hamilton Park Racecourse. Hamilton is a university town with The University of the West of Scotland campus sited on Almada Street, but now relocated to Hamilton International Technology Park in High Blantyre.
Hamilton Academical Football Club is one of Scotland's oldest senior clubs. It takes its name from Hamilton Academy, now called Hamilton Grammar School, the oldest school in the town (
Spokane is a city in Spokane County in the state of Washington in the northwestern United States. It is located on the Spokane River west of the Rocky Mountain foothills in eastern Washington, 92 miles south of the Canada–US border, 18 miles from the Washington–Idaho border, 228 miles east of Seattle along Interstate 90. Known as the birthplace of Father's Day, Spokane's official nickname is the "Lilac City". A pink, double flower lilac variety known as'Syringa Spokane' is named for the city, it is the seat of Spokane County and the economic and cultural center of the Spokane Metropolitan Area, the Spokane–Coeur d'Alene combined statistical area, the Inland Northwest. The city, along with the whole Inland Northwest, is served by Spokane International Airport, 5 miles west of downtown Spokane. According to the 2010 Census, Spokane had a population of 208,916, making it the second-largest city in Washington, the 101st-largest city in the United States; the first people to live in the area, the Spokane tribe, lived off plentiful game.
David Thompson explored the area with the westward expansion and establishment of the North West Company's Spokane House in 1810. This trading post was the first long-term European settlement in Washington. Completion of the Northern Pacific Railway in 1881 brought settlers to the Spokane area; the same year it was incorporated as a city with the name of Spokane Falls. In the late 19th century and silver were discovered in the Inland Northwest; the local economy depended on mining and agriculture until the 1980s. Spokane hosted the first environmentally themed World's Fair at Expo'74. Many of the downtown area's older Romanesque Revival-style buildings were designed by architect Kirtland Kelsey Cutter after the Great Fire of 1889; the city features Riverfront and Manito parks, the Smithsonian-affiliated Northwest Museum of Arts and Culture, the Davenport Hotel, the Fox and Bing Crosby theaters. The Cathedral of Our Lady of Lourdes is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Spokane, the city is the center of the Mormon Spokane Washington Temple District.
The Cathedral of St. John the Evangelist represents the Anglican community. Gonzaga University was established in 1887 by the Jesuits, the private Presbyterian Whitworth University was founded three years and moved to north Spokane in 1914 In sports, the Gonzaga Bulldogs collegiate basketball team competes at the Division I level. Professional and semi-professional sports teams include the Spokane Chiefs in junior ice hockey, the Spokane Indians Minor League Baseball team located in nearby Spokane Valley; as of 2010, Spokane's only major daily newspaper, The Spokesman-Review, had a daily circulation of over 76,000. The first humans to live in the Spokane area were hunter-gatherer societies that lived off plentiful fish and game; the Spokane tribe, after which the city is named, are believed to be either their direct descendants, or descendants of people from the Great Plains. When asked by early white explorers, the Spokanes said their ancestors came from "up North." Early in the 19th century, the Northwest Fur Company sent two white fur trappers west of the Rocky Mountains to search for fur.
These were the first white men met by the Spokanes, who believed they were sacred, set the trappers up in the Colville River valley for the winter. The explorer-geographer David Thompson, working as head of the North West Company's Columbia Department, became the first European to explore the Inland Empire. Crossing what is now the Canada–US border from British Columbia, Thompson wanted to expand the North West Company further south in search of furs. After establishing the Kullyspell House and Saleesh House trading posts in what are now Idaho and Montana, Thompson attempted to expand further west, he sent out two trappers, Jacques Raphael Finlay and Finan McDonald, to construct a fur trading post on the Spokane River, which flows west from Lake Coeur d'Alene to the Columbia River, trade with the local Indians. This post was established in 1810, at the confluence of the Little Spokane and Spokane rivers, becoming the first enduring European settlement of significance in what became Washington state.
Known as the Spokane House, or "Spokane", it was in operation from 1810 to 1826. Operations were run by the British North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company, the post was the headquarters of the fur trade between the Rocky and Cascade mountains for 16 years. After the latter business absorbed the North West Company in 1821, the major operations at the Spokane House were shifted north to Fort Colville, reducing the post's significance. In 1836, Reverend Samuel Parker visited the area and reported that around 800 Native Americans were living in Spokane Falls. A medical mission was established by Marcus and Narcissa Whitman to cater for Cayuse Indians and hikers of the Oregon Trail at Walla Walla in the south. After the Whitmans were killed by Indians in 1847, Reverend Cushing Eells established Whitman College in their memory setting up the first church in Spokane. In 1853, two years after the establishment of the Washington Territory, the first governor, Isaac Stevens, made an initial effort to make a treaty with Chief Garry and the Spokanes at Antoine Plantes' Ferry, not far from Millwood.
After the last campaign of the Yakima Indian War, the Coeur d'Alene War of 1858 was brought to a close by the actions of Col. George Wright, who won decisive victories agai