Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the southeast, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, Moldova to the east, it has a predominantly temperate-continental climate. With a total area of 238,397 square kilometres, Romania is the 12th largest country and the 7th most populous member state of the European Union, having 20 million inhabitants, its capital and largest city is Bucharest, other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Brașov. The River Danube, Europe's second-longest river, rises in Germany's Black Forest and flows in a general southeast direction for 2,857 km, coursing through ten countries before emptying into Romania's Danube Delta; the Carpathian Mountains, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest, include Moldoveanu Peak, at an altitude of 2,544 m. Modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia.
The new state named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. Following World War I, when Romania fought on the side of the Allied powers, Bessarabia, Transylvania as well as parts of Banat, Crișana, Maramureș became part of the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. In June–August 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and Second Vienna Award, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union, Northern Transylvania to Hungary. In November 1940, Romania signed the Tripartite Pact and in June 1941 entered World War II on the Axis side, fighting against the Soviet Union until August 1944, when it joined the Allies and recovered Northern Transylvania. Following the war, under the occupation of the Red Army's forces, Romania became a socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition back towards a market economy; the sovereign state of Romania is a developing country and ranks 52nd in the Human Development Index.
It has the world's 47th largest economy by nominal GDP and an annual economic growth rate of 7%, the highest in the EU at the time. Following rapid economic growth in the early 2000s, Romania has an economy predominantly based on services, is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy, featuring companies like Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom, it has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, part of NATO since 2004, part of the European Union since 2007. An overwhelming majority of the population identifies themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians and are native speakers of Romanian, a Romance language. Romania derives from the Latin romanus, meaning "citizen of Rome"; the first known use of the appellation was attested to in the 16th century by Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania and Wallachia. The oldest known surviving document written in Romanian, a 1521 letter known as the "Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung", is notable for including the first documented occurrence of the country's name: Wallachia is mentioned as Țeara Rumânească.
Two spelling forms: român and rumân were used interchangeably until sociolinguistic developments in the late 17th century led to semantic differentiation of the two forms: rumân came to mean "bondsman", while român retained the original ethnolinguistic meaning. After the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the word rumân fell out of use and the spelling stabilised to the form român. Tudor Vladimirescu, a revolutionary leader of the early 19th century, used the term Rumânia to refer to the principality of Wallachia."The use of the name Romania to refer to the common homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—was first documented in the early 19th century. The name has been in use since 11 December 1861. In English, the name of the country was spelt Rumania or Roumania. Romania became the predominant spelling around 1975. Romania is the official English-language spelling used by the Romanian government. A handful of other languages have switched to "o" like English, but most languages continue to prefer forms with u, e.g. French Roumanie and Swedish Rumänien, Spanish Rumania, Polish Rumunia, Russian Румыния, Japanese ルーマニア.
1859–1862: United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia 1862–1866: Romanian United Principalities or Romania 1866–1881: Romania or Principality of Romania 1881–1947: Kingdom of Romania or Romania 1947–1965: Romanian People's Republic or Romania 1965–December, 1989: Socialist Republic of Romania or Romania December, 1989–present: Romania Human remains found in Peștera cu Oase, radiocarbon dated as being from circa 40,000 years ago, represent the oldest known Homo sapiens in Europe. Neolithic techniques and agriculture spread after the arrival of a mixed group of people from Thessaly in the 6th millenium BC. Excavations near a salt spring at Lunca yielded the earliest evidence for salt exploitation in Europe; the first permanent settlements appeared in the Neolithic. Some of them developed into "proto-cities"; the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture—the best known archaeological culture of Old Europe—flourished in Muntenia, southeastern Transylvania and northeastern Moldavia in the 3rd m
Canadian Museum of Flight
The Canadian Museum of Flight is an aviation museum at the Langley Regional Airport in Langley, British Columbia, Canada. The museum has over 25 civilian and military jets, piston driven engine aircraft and helicopters on display, six of which have been restored to flying condition. Other displays include aviation artifacts; the museum's Handley Page Hampden is the last of its type in existence. The aircraft was used in coastal patrol on the BC coast in World War II and crashed offshore in 1942, it was restored over a twenty-year period. The rare aircraft is stored outdoors, on 26 December 2008, an heavy snowfall broke the left wing spars; this caused the wing to separate from the fuselage. Over the Summer of 2012, a rebuilt replica wing was fixed to the root and is now open for public display once again; the Museum is affiliated with: CMA, CHIN, Virtual Museum of Canada. Organization of Military Museums of Canada List of aerospace museums Military history of Canada Canadian Museum of Flight website
In the 1930s, Fleet Aircraft manufactured a series of single-engined, two-seat training aircraft, based on US designs. The Fleet Model 7B and Model 7C, known as Fawn I and Fawn II were purchased by the RCAF as primary trainers. After years of reliable service, many were available for use in the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan during the Second World War while others remained as station "hacks." As a subsidiary of Consolidated Aircraft set up in 1928, Fleet Aircraft had factories at Buffalo, NY, across the border at Fort Erie, Ontario. The Canadian company produced a series of single-engined, two-seat training aircraft, based on US designs but including variants adapted to Royal Canadian Air Force needs; the Fleet Model 7 began as an American design, the Model 2 designed by Consolidated. Besides two prototypes imported from the US, a total of seven Fleet Model 2 trainers were built in Canada for civilian operators. Derived from earlier Fleet Model 2, the Model 7 featured an aircraft structure consisting of a fabric-covered, welded-steel fuselage with metal panels forward of the wooden cockpits.
It had steel-tube faring wooden stringers. The wings were wire braced; the upper wing was constructed with two solid Spruce spars. Ailerons were found only on the bottom wings. Stamped aluminium alloy ribs were used to construct the wings and steel-tube compression struts were at the interplane and centre section of the wings. Interlaced between the wings were flying wires. Except for a broader chord tail-fin introduced after the first production series, while retaining the original rudder of the Model 2, the Model 7 was superficially identical to its earlier predecessor. A variety of equipment could be fitted to the Canadian variant including optional wheel brakes, a tail skid or tail wheel arrangement, a fuselage belly tank and a fixed cockpit enclosure or "coupe top" with hinged sides. During the late 1930s, a sliding cockpit enclosure became standard equipment of all RCAF Fawns; the aircraft could be configured to use skis, floats or wheels. The main landing gear's radius rods on the Models 2 and 7 were notable for having the one coming from the left wheel "looped", with an open oval piece near its middle, so the one from the right mainwheel could pass right through it.
Engine choices further dictated the different variants of the Fawn design: the Mk I with a 125 hp Kinner B-5 engine was superseded by the Mk II powered by a 140 hp Armstrong Siddeley Civet seven-cylinder radial engine. Although the RCAF ordered the bulk of the production runs, 12 civil-registered Model 7Bs were completed for the Department of National Defence to be issued to flying clubs; the Fleet Model7 first saw service with the Royal Canadian Air Force in 1931 when 20 Mk Is were delivered. As a two-seater primary trainer they were felt to have excellent flying characteristics together with a rugged strength which inspired confidence in novice pilots; the RCAF was impressed with the Fleet Fawn and claimed that the aircraft was one of the factors which improved its flying standards during the 1930s. A total of 31 Model 7Cs were built between 1931 and 1938 at the Fleet Aircraft of Canada's plant at Fort Erie, with the first deliveries made in 1936. Due to the smoother and more powerful engine, the Model 7C was considered the definitive variant.
Forty three Fleet Model 7B and C trainers were operational with the Royal Canadian Air Force when war was declared in 1939. In service during the Second World War, the RCAF adopted the name "Fawn" for both variants. Along with the more modern follow-up design, the Fleet Finch, Fleet Fawns helped train thousands of pilots under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan during the war; the Fawn remained in service with the RCAF until 1947. Model 7A One example completed with a 100 hp Kinner K-5 radial engine Fleet Model 7B 32 examples with a 125 hp Kinner B-5 engine five-cylinder, radial engine Fleet Model 7C 31 examples with a 140 hp Armstrong Siddeley Civet seven-cylinder, radial engine Model 7G A "one-off" conversion of a Model B with a 120 hp de Havilland Gipsy III, four-cylinder, inline engine CATA 150 A conversion of Fleet 7 biplanes in Argentina, powered by 150 hp Lycoming O-320 engines. CanadaRoyal Canadian Air Force Department of National Defence A number of airframes are still in existence including a Fleet Fawn Mk II CF-CHF on display at the Reynolds-Alberta Museum in Wetaskiwin, Alberta.
Fleet 7 Fawn MK1 on display at Yanks air museum Chino CA, Chino Airport Information based on Fleet: The Flying Years Manufacturer: Fleet Aircraft of Canada Crew/Passengers: two pilots in tandem Powerplant: one 125 hp Kinner B-5 five-cylinder radial piston engine Dimensions Length: 21 ft 8 in Height: 7 ft 10 in Span: 28 ft 0 in Wing area: 194 sq ft Weights Empty: 1,130 lb Gross: 1,860 lb Performance Maximum speed: 112 mph Cruising speed: 87 mph Service ceiling: 15,500 ft Range: 320 mi Armament: None Related development Fleet Model 1 Fleet Finch Related lists List of Interwar military aircraft Notes Bibliography Fleet Fawn Mk II Fleet Fawn
The Kinner K-5 was a popular engine for light general and sport aircraft developed by Winfield B.'Bert' Kinner. With the boom in civilian aviation after Charles Lindbergh's transatlantic flight the K-5 sold well; the K-5 was a rough running but reliable engine and the K-5 and its derivatives were produced in the thousands, powering many World War II trainer aircraft. The K-5 was followed by the B-5, R-5 and R-55. Military engines were designated R-370 Adcox Special American Eagle A-129 biplane Chamberlin C-2 Davis D-1-K Fleet Model 2 Granville Brothers Model A biplane Kinner Sportster Kreutzer Air Coach Waco KSO Data from Jane's all the World's Aircraft 1928 Type: Five-cylinder, air-cooled, radial Bore: 4.25 in Displacement: 372.4 cu in Length: 19 in Diameter: 43.5 in Dry weight: 231 lb Valvetrain: 1 inlet and 1 exhaust valve per cylinder Fuel system: 1 Stromberg carburetor or 1 double Zenith carburetor Fuel type: 73 Octane Oil system: pressure fed through hollow crankshaft Cooling system: Air Power output: 100 hp at 1,810 rpm maximum 70 hp at 1,650 rpm cruise Compression ratio: 5.0:1 Fuel consumption: 7 gal/h Oil consumption: 0.3125 gal/h Power-to-weight ratio: 0.36 hp/lb at cruise Gunston, Bill.
World Encyclopedia of Aero Engines. Wellingborough: Patrick Stephens. Pp. 99–100. Http://www.oldengine.org/members/diesel/Duxford/usaero4.htm
An aircraft canopy is the transparent enclosure over the cockpit of some types of aircraft. An aircraft canopy provides a controlled and sometimes pressurized environment for the aircraft's occupants, allows for a greater field of view over a traditional flight deck. A canopy's shape is a compromise designed to minimize aerodynamic drag, while maximizing visibility for pilots and other crewmembers. Early aircraft had no canopies at all; the pilots were exposed to the weather, although most flying was done in good weather. Through World War I most aircraft had no canopy, although they had a small windshield to deflect the prop wash and wind from hitting the pilot in the face. In the 1920s and 1930s, the increasing speed and altitude of airplanes necessitated a enclosed cockpit and canopies became more common. Early canopies were made of numerous pieces of flat glass held in position by muntins; the muntins reduced visibility, problematic for military aircraft. Glass canopies were much heavier than acrylic canopies, which were first introduced shortly before World War II.
The acrylic bubble canopy was used on aircraft such as the Supermarine Spitfire and Westland Whirlwind, which gave better all-round visibility and reduced weight. It is still being used today on most fighter aircraft. In the 1970s, US aviation artist Keith Ferris invented a false canopy to paint on the underside of military aircraft, directly underneath the front of the plane, the purpose of, to confuse an enemy so they do not know in what direction the aircraft is headed; this ruse was inspired by animals and fishes that have similar markings on the head and tail, so they can confuse other creatures. Pilots remain skeptical of this feature, asserting that if the enemy is close enough to see the marking, they are too close to be fooled by it. On many high-performance military aircraft, the canopy is an integral part of the ejection seat system; the pilot cannot be ejected from the aircraft until the canopy is no longer in the path of the ejection seat. In most ejection seat equipped aircraft, the canopy is blown upwards and rearwards by explosive charges.
The relative wind blows the canopy away from the ejection path. However, on some aircraft, such as the McDonnell Douglas AV-8B Harrier II, the pilot may be forced to eject when in a hover, or when going too slow for the relative wind to move the canopy out of the path of the ejection seat. In that situation, the pilot could impact the canopy when ejecting. To overcome that possibility, some aircraft have a thin cord of plastic explosive zig-zagging across the canopy over the pilot's head. In the event of an ejection, the explosive cord is activated first; the ejection seat and pilot is launched through the shattered canopy. Most modern acrylic canopies are vacuum formed. A sheet of acrylic is secured to a female mould the entire assembly is heated in an oven until the acrylic is pliable; the air is removed from the mould and the acrylic sheet is drawn into it, forming the shape of the canopy. The acrylic is trimmed to the appropriate shape and attached to an aluminum or composite frame; some one-off canopies are made in a similar fashion, but since a mould would be too time-consuming to make, the acrylic is heated and vacuum formed until it approximates the shape the builder is seeking.
This type of construction is less precise and each canopy is unique. If multiple canopies will be needed, a mould is always used. Have Glass is the code name for a series of RCS reduction measures for the F-16 fighter, its primary aspect is the addition of an indium-tin-oxide layer to the gold tinted cockpit canopy, reflective to radar frequencies. An ordinary canopy would let radar signals straight through where they would strike the many edges and corners inside and bounce back to the radar source, the reflective layer dissipates these signals instead. Overall, Have Glass reduces an F-16's RCS by some 15 percent; the gold tint reduces glare from the sun to improve the pilot's visibility. The Malcolm Hood is a type of aircraft canopy developed for the Supermarine Spitfire, its concept proved valuable for other aircraft such as the North American Aviation-produced P-51B & C Mustangs as retrofit items, standard on versions of the Vought F4U Corsair, somewhat emulated on the models of the Luftwaffe's Focke-Wulf Fw 190 fighter.
The canopy was manufactured by the British company R Co which gave its name. Instead of taking a straight line between the canopy frames, the hood was bulged outward; this gave the pilot a better view to the rear....the Corsair's initial deficiencies were being worked out on a concurrent basis... The 689th production F4U-1 featured a number of significant changes; the most noticeable was that the cockpit was raised 18 centimeters to improve the pilot's forward view, a bulged canopy, along the lines of the "Malcolm Hood" used on Spitfires, replaced the original "birdcage" framed canopy to provide better all-round field of view. Bubble canopy
A biplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with two main wings stacked one above the other. The first powered, controlled aeroplane to fly, the Wright Flyer, used a biplane wing arrangement, as did many aircraft in the early years of aviation. While a biplane wing structure has a structural advantage over a monoplane, it produces more drag than a similar unbraced or cantilever monoplane wing. Improved structural techniques, better materials and the quest for greater speed made the biplane configuration obsolete for most purposes by the late 1930s. Biplanes offer several advantages over conventional cantilever monoplane designs: they permit lighter wing structures, low wing loading and smaller span for a given wing area. However, interference between the airflow over each wing increases drag and biplanes need extensive bracing, which causes additional drag. Biplanes are distinguished from tandem wing arrangements, where the wings are placed forward and aft, instead of above and below; the term is occasionally used in biology, to describe the wings of some flying animals.
In a biplane aircraft, two wings are placed one above the other. Each provides part of the lift, although they are not able to produce twice as much lift as a single wing of similar size and shape because the upper and the lower are working on nearly the same portion of the atmosphere and thus interfere with each other's behaviour. For example, in a wing of aspect ratio 6, a wing separation distance of one chord length, the biplane configuration will only produce about 20 percent more lift than a single wing of the same planform; the lower wing is attached to the fuselage, while the upper wing is raised above the fuselage with an arrangement of cabane struts, although other arrangements have been used. Either or both of the main wings can support ailerons, while flaps are more positioned on the lower wing. Bracing is nearly always added between the upper and lower wings, in the form of wires and/or slender interplane struts positioned symmetrically on either side of the fuselage; the primary advantage of the biplane over a monoplane is to combine great stiffness with light weight.
Stiffness requires structural depth and, where early monoplanes had to have this added with complicated extra bracing, the box kite or biplane has a deep structure and is therefore easier to make both light and strong. A braced monoplane wing must support itself while the two wings of a biplane help to stiffen each other; the biplane is therefore inherently stiffer than the monoplane. The structural forces in the spars of a biplane wing tend to be lower, so the wing can use less material to obtain the same overall strength and is therefore much lighter. A disadvantage of the biplane was the need for extra struts to space the wings apart, although the bracing required by early monoplanes reduced this disadvantage; the low power supplied by the engines available in the first years of aviation meant that aeroplanes could only fly slowly. This required an lower stalling speed, which in turn required a low wing loading, combining both large wing area with light weight. A biplane wing of a given span and chord has twice the area of a monoplane the same size and so can fly more or for a given flight speed can lift more weight.
Alternatively, a biplane wing of the same area as a monoplane has lower span and chord, reducing the structural forces and allowing it to be lighter. Biplanes suffer aerodynamic interference between the two planes; this means that a biplane does not in practice obtain twice the lift of the similarly-sized monoplane. The farther apart the wings are spaced the less the interference, but the spacing struts must be longer. Given the low speed and power of early aircraft, the drag penalty of the wires and struts and the mutual interference of airflows were minor and acceptable factors; as engine power rose after World War One, the thick-winged cantilever monoplane became practicable and, with its inherently lower drag and higher speed, from around 1918 it began to replace the biplane in most fields of aviation. The smaller biplane wing allows greater maneuverability. During World War One, this further enhanced the dominance of the biplane and, despite the need for speed, military aircraft were among the last to abandon the biplane form.
Specialist sports aerobatic biplanes are still made. Biplanes were designed with the wings positioned directly one above the other. Moving the upper wing forward relative to the lower one is called positive stagger or, more simply stagger, it can help increase lift and reduce drag by reducing the aerodynamic interference effects between the two wings, makes access to the cockpit easier. Many biplanes have staggered wings. Common examples from the 1930s include the de Havilland Tiger Moth, Bücker Bü 131 Jungmann and Travel Air 2000, it is possible to place the lower wing's leading edge ahead of the upper wing, giving negative stagger. This is done in a given design for practical engineering reasons. Examples of negative stagger include Breguet 14 and Beechcraft Staggerwing. However, positive stagger is more common; the space enclosed by a set of interplane struts is called a bay, hence a biplane or triplane with one set of such struts connecting the wings on each side of the aircraft is a single-bay biplane.
This provided sufficient strength for smaller aircraft such as the First World War-era Fokker D. VII fighter and the Second World War de Havilland Tiger Moth basic trainer; the larger two-seat Curtiss JN-4 Jenny is a two bay biplane, the extra bay being necessary as overlong bays are prone to flexing and can fail. The SPAD S. XIII fighter, while appearing to be a two bay bip
The fuselage is an aircraft's main body section. It holds crew and cargo. In single-engine aircraft it will contain an engine, as well, although in some amphibious aircraft the single engine is mounted on a pylon attached to the fuselage, which in turn is used as a floating hull; the fuselage serves to position control and stabilization surfaces in specific relationships to lifting surfaces, required for aircraft stability and maneuverability. This type of structure is still in use in many lightweight aircraft using welded steel tube trusses. A box truss fuselage structure can be built out of wood—often covered with plywood. Simple box structures may be rounded by the addition of supported lightweight stringers, allowing the fabric covering to form a more aerodynamic shape, or one more pleasing to the eye. Geodesic structural elements were used by Barnes Wallis for British Vickers between the wars and into World War II to form the whole of the fuselage, including its aerodynamic shape. In this type of construction multiple flat strip stringers are wound about the formers in opposite spiral directions, forming a basket-like appearance.
This proved to be light and rigid and had the advantage of being made entirely of wood. A similar construction using aluminum alloy was used in the Vickers Warwick with less materials than would be required for other structural types; the geodesic structure is redundant and so can survive localized damage without catastrophic failure. A fabric covering over the structure completed the aerodynamic shell; the logical evolution of this is the creation of fuselages using molded plywood, in which multiple sheets are laid with the grain in differing directions to give the monocoque type below. In this method, the exterior surface of the fuselage is the primary structure. A typical early form of this was built using molded plywood, where the layers of plywood are formed over a "plug" or within a mold. A form of this structure uses fiberglass cloth impregnated with polyester or epoxy resin, instead of plywood, as the skin. A simple form of this used in some amateur-built aircraft uses rigid expanded foam plastic as the core, with a fiberglass covering, eliminating the necessity of fabricating molds, but requiring more effort in finishing.
An example of a larger molded plywood aircraft is the de Havilland Mosquito fighter/light bomber of World War II. No plywood-skin fuselage is monocoque, since stiffening elements are incorporated into the structure to carry concentrated loads that would otherwise buckle the thin skin; the use of molded fiberglass using negative molds is prevalent in the series production of many modern sailplanes. The use of molded composites for fuselage structures is being extended to large passenger aircraft such as the Boeing 787 Dreamliner; this is the preferred method of constructing an all-aluminum fuselage. First, a series of frames in the shape of the fuselage cross sections are held in position on a rigid fixture; these frames are joined with lightweight longitudinal elements called stringers. These are in turn covered with a skin of sheet aluminum, attached by riveting or by bonding with special adhesives; the fixture is disassembled and removed from the completed fuselage shell, fitted out with wiring and interior equipment such as seats and luggage bins.
Most modern large aircraft are built using this technique, but use several large sections constructed in this fashion which are joined with fasteners to form the complete fuselage. As the accuracy of the final product is determined by the costly fixture, this form is suitable for series production, where a large number of identical aircraft are to be produced. Early examples of this type include the Douglas Aircraft DC-2 and DC-3 civil aircraft and the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress. Most metal light aircraft are constructed using this process. Both monocoque and semi-monocoque are referred to as "stressed skin" structures as all or a portion of the external load is taken by the surface covering. In addition, all the load from internal pressurization is carried by the external skin; the proportioning of loads between the components is a design choice dictated by the dimensions and elasticity of the components available for construction and whether or not a design is intended to be "self jigging", not requiring a complete fixture for alignment.
Early aircraft were constructed of wood frames covered in fabric. As monoplanes became popular, metal frames improved the strength, which led to all-metal-structure aircraft, with metal covering for all its exterior surfaces - this was first pioneered in the second half of 1915; some modern aircraft are constructed with composite materials for major control surfaces, wings, or the entire fuselage such as the Boeing 787. On the 787, it makes possible higher pressurization levels and larger windows for passenger comfort as well as lower weight to reduce operating costs; the Boeing 787 weighs 1500 lb less than. Cockpit windshields on the Airbus A320 must withstand bird strikes up to 350 kt and are made of chemically strengthened glass, they are composed of three layers or plies, of glass or plastic: the inner two are 8 mm thick each and are structural, while the outer ply, about 3 mm thick, is a barrier against foreign object damage and abrasion, with a hydrophobic coating. It m