United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18
Airborne Mine Countermeasures Weapon Systems Training School
Airborne Mine Countermeasures Weapon Systems Training School was a United States Navy helicopter training squadron stationed at Naval Station Norfolk, Virginia. AWSTS trained newly commissioned Naval Aviators, conversion pilots, refresher pilots, enlisted aircrew on the MH-53E Sea Dragon and was a part of Conduct helicopter flight training and initial Mine Countermeasures training for all US Navy MH-53E Sea Dragon pilots and aircrew. All basic and refresher pilots as well as aircrew receive training in the MH-53E to prepare them for follow on assignment in the United States Navy. Airborne Mine Countermeasures Weapon Systems Training School was established 1 October 1994, at Naval Air Station, Norfolk and subsequently designated a special mission command in July 1996, its mission is to provide initial MH-53E Sea Dragon systems and flight training, as well as advanced tactical and weapon systems training, to pilots and aircrew of the Airborne Mine Countermeasures and Heavy Combat Support communities.
With an average staff of 11 officers and 23 enlisted personnel, the school was established to fill a void left by the decommissioning of Helicopter Mine Countermeasures Squadron TWELVE and the U. S. Navy’s decision to conduct MH-53E training in conjunction with CH-53E Super Stallion training at Marine Helicopter Training Squadron Three Zero Two. Under this reorganization and subsequent refinements, AWSTS assumed duties as MH-53E Course Curriculum Model Manager and responsibility to conduct M-53E pilot and aircrew ground and simulator training for both the familiarization and Airborne Mine Countermeasures portions of the MH-53E syllabus using the operational flight trainer and the AMCM Stream and Recovery Module. HMT-302 was assigned responsibility for MH-53E basic FAM flight training. AMCM flight training was made the responsibility of the individual fleet squadrons. Along with its primary mission, AWSTS functions as the Model Manager for the MH-53E NATOPS, the AMCM TACAID, the MH-53E Computer Based Training System.
In January 2001, MH-53E flight training returned to Norfolk, VA under a new integrated training concept between AWSTS and Helicopter Mine Countermeasures Squadron FOURTEEN. AWSTS assumed all functions of a Fleet Replacement Squadron with the exception that HM-14 was assigned responsibility to provide and maintain the aircraft, augment AWSTS with flight instructors when required; as the MH-53E FRS, AWSTS provides flight and ground training to student pilots and aircrew through all phases of their Chief of Naval Operations approved syllabus. Prospective HM pilots and aircrew are detailed to AWSTS for over 20 weeks of intensive, computer based MH-53E systems, pre-flight and basic flight training. Upon completion of the syllabus, HM pilots and aircrew remain at AWSTS for AMCM systems and simulator training in the OFT and ASRM. Once complete, these pilots and aircrew report to their respective fleet squadrons where they will conduct their first actual AMCM flights. To date, over 600 pilots and aircrew have passed through AWSTS on their way to the fleet.
In summer 2004, AWSTS was awarded the Commander Theodore G. Ellyson Aviator Production Excellence Award for calendar year 2003; the award, similar to the operational Battle “E”, is given to two CNATRA squadrons and three Fleet Replacement Squadrons including one East Coast, one West Coast and one Marine Corps that demonstrated the “greatest production efficiency in training the fleet requirement for pilots, naval flight officers and aircrewmen within the CNO approved syllabus time.” Receiving the Ellyson Award is a tribute to the professionalism, teamwork and adherence to safety of the sailors at AWSTS. AWSTS has defined tactical requirements for MH-53E roles in AMCM, Heavy Lift, Special Warfare, culminating with the establishment of the CHSCWL Weapons Training Unit and the MH-53E Air combat Tactical Training Continuum. AWSTS has led the fleet in incorporating the Naval Aviator Production Process Improvement resulting in improved student tracking, reducing the average time to train, improving the quality of replacement pilots and aircrew sent to the fleet.
The Barrier Removal Team established by AWSTS to identify and remove obstacles hindering aircraft availability and hence improve pilot and aircrew production was so successful that it has been used as a model for implementation into other Fleet Replacement Squadrons. Furthermore, AWSTS directed the complete overhaul of five separate MH-53E Navy flight manuals and the development of a comprehensive NTTP Tactical Pocket Guide, promoting the continued improvement of this legacy aircraft and solidifying the role of the MH-53E in the fleet for decades to come. On 1 October 2015, AWSTS became HM-12; the transition helped reaffirm the Navy's commitment to the MH-53E and the HM community by providing the FRS with its own maintenance department, support personnel and bolstered its ability to serve as the HM community leader. Official website MH-53E Navy Training Plan
Helicopter Sea Combat Squadron TWO known as the "Fleet Angels", is a helicopter squadron of the United States Navy based at Naval Station Norfolk operating the Sikorsky MH-60S Seahawk. The Fleet Angels are a Fleet Replacement Squadron providing trained MH-60S crew to units on the East Coast. HSC-2 was established as the second squadron designated Helicopter Combat Support Squadron TWO on 1 April 1987 from components of several helicopter squadrons, specifically. S. 6th Fleet in Gaeta Italy and the Commander Middle East Force in Manama Bahrain. The Manama detachment was affectionately known as the "Desert Ducks"; the squadron named itself the Circuit Riders but in 1994 it adopted the name Fleet Angels from the first HC-2, established as HU-2 on 1 April 1948 and was disestablished on 30 September 1977. In the squadron's history it replaced its SH-3G Sea Kings with the UH-3H and UH-3H versions and it replaced its CH-53E Super Stallions with the Sikorsky MH-53E Sea Dragon. HC-2 provided detachments to the Persian Gulf in 1990 and 1991 in support of Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm, conducting search and rescue, medical evacuation, prisoner transportation flights, as well as assisting in the search for naval mines and providing other assistance to the fleet.
Civilian assistance was rendered in the aftermath of Hurricanes Dennis and Floyd during which two members of the squadron would be awarded the Navy and Marine Corps Medal for their heroism in rescuing stranded people in North Carolina. Unit citations received over the years have included both a Battle Efficiency Award and a Meritorious Unit Commendation as well as the Chief of Naval Operations Aviation Safety Award in honor of more than 60,000 flight hours without an accident. In 1997 HC-2 assumed the H-3 Fleet Replacement Squadron role in addition to its other missions when HS-1, which by that time was the Navy's sole H-3 FRS was disestablished that June; the venerable H-3 was retired from Navy squadron service by HC-2 in January 2006 and replaced with the Navy's new multi-role combat support helicopter, the MH-60S Seahawk. On 1 January 2006 the squadron was redesignated Helicopter Sea Combat Squadron TWO and became the East Coast Fleet Replacement Squadron for the MH-60S. Aircraft operated by HSC-2 and HC-2 include: Sikorsky CH-53E Super Stallion Sikorsky MH-53E Sea Dragon Sikorsky MH-60S Seahawk Sikorsky SH-3G Sea King Sikorsky UH-3H Sea King Sikorsky VH-3A Sea King History of the United States Navy List of United States Navy aircraft squadrons
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Naval flight officer
A Naval Flight Officer is a commissioned officer in the United States Navy or United States Marine Corps who specializes in airborne weapons and sensor systems. NFOs are not pilots per se, but they may perform many "co-pilot" functions, depending on the type of aircraft; until 1966, their duties were performed by both commissioned officer and senior enlisted naval aviation observers. In 1966, enlisted personnel were removed from naval aviation observer duties but continued to serve in enlisted aircrew roles, while NAO officers received the newly established NFO designation, the NFO insignia was introduced. NFOs in the US Navy all begin their careers as unrestricted line officers, eligible for command at sea and ashore in the various naval aviation aircraft type/model/series communities and, at a senior level, in command of carrier air wings and aircraft carriers afloat and functional air wings, naval air stations and other activities ashore, they are eligible for promotion to senior flag rank positions, including command of aircraft carrier strike groups, expeditionary strike groups, joint task forces, numbered fleets, naval component commands and unified combatant commands.
A small number of US Navy NFOs have opted for a lateral transfer to the restricted line as aeronautical engineering duty officers, while continuing to retain their NFO designation and active flight status. Such officers are graduates of the U. S. Naval Test Pilot School and/or the U. S. Naval Postgraduate School with advanced academic degrees in aerospace engineering or similar disciplines. AEDO/NFOs are eligible to command test and evaluation squadrons, naval air test centers, naval air warfare centers, hold major program management responsibilities within the Naval Air Systems Command. Marine Corps NFOs are considered eligible for command at sea and ashore within Marine aviation, are eligible to hold senior general officer positions, such as command of Marine aircraft wings, Marine air-ground task forces, joint task forces, Marine expeditionary forces, Marine Corps component commands and unified combatant commands; the counterpart to the NFO in the United States Air Force is the combat systems officer, encompassing the previous roles of navigator, weapon systems officer and electronic warfare officer.
Although NFOs in the Navy's E-2 Hawkeye aircraft perform functions similar to the USAF air battle manager in the E-3 Sentry AWACS aircraft, their NFO training track is more aligned with that of USAF combat systems officers. The United States Coast Guard had a short-lived NFO community in the 1980s and 1990s when it temporarily operated E-2C Hawkeye aircraft on loan from the Navy. Following a fatal mishap with one of these aircraft at the former Naval Station Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico, the Coast Guard returned the remaining E-2Cs to the Navy and disestablished its NFO program. Training for Student NFOs starts out the same as for Student Naval Aviators, with the same academic requirements and nearly identical physical requirements; the only real distinction is in physical requirements, where SNFOs may have less than 20/20 uncorrected distant vision. Both SNAs and SNFOs go through the same introductory flight screening and aviation preflight indoctrination together before splitting off into their respective primary training squadrons.
The SNFO program has continued to evolve since the 1960s. Today, SNFOs train under the Undergraduate Military Flight Officer program at Training Air Wing 6 at NAS Pensacola, alongside foreign students from various NATO, Allied and Coalition navies and air forces. All Student NFOs begin primary training at Training Squadron TEN, flying the T-6A Texan II trainer moving on to advanced training at Training Squadron FOUR or Training Squadron EIGHTY-SIX. Upon graduation from their respective advanced squadron, students receive their "wings of gold" and are aeronautically designated as Naval Flight Officers. After winging, students conduct follow-on training at their respective fleet replacement squadron. All SNFOs and SNAs start their aviation training with introductory flight screening. IFS consists of 2 phases: ground school and flight training; the ground school portion lasts about two weeks and culminates with the student completing the FAA private pilot exam. Afterwards, every student enrolls in one of several civilian flight schools located near NAS Pensacola.
Students complete 14 hours of flight training in a single engine aircraft, including a solo flight. IFS is waived for students entering training with a private pilot license. SNFOs will train with Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard SNAs along with NATO and allied students in the SNA and SNFO tracks, periodically, with student naval flight surgeons. Aviation preflight indoctrination consists of academic instruction, hands-on interaction and aviation physiology, water survival, land survival skills; the academic topics taught in API are of the following: Aerodynamics Aircraft engines and systems Weather Air navigation Flight rules and regulationsAfter the academic phase, students will complete: Aerospace physiology Egress training Water survival training Land survival training After completing API, all SNFOs report to VT-10 under Training Air Wing 6 to begin primary 1 training. All training in VT-10 is done in the Beechcraft T-6A Texan II and consists of 3 phases: Contact phase Instrument phase Visual navig
Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet
The Boeing F/A-18E and F/A-18F Super Hornet are twin-engine, carrier-capable, multirole fighter aircraft variants based on the McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet. The F/A-18E single-seat and F/A-18F tandem-seat variants are larger and more advanced derivatives of the F/A-18C and D Hornet; the Super Hornet has an internal 20 mm M61 rotary cannon and can carry air-to-air missiles and air-to-surface weapons. Additional fuel can be carried in up to five external fuel tanks and the aircraft can be configured as an airborne tanker by adding an external air refueling system. Designed and produced by McDonnell Douglas, the Super Hornet first flew in 1995. Low-rate production began in early 1997 with full-rate production starting in September 1997, after the merger of McDonnell Douglas and Boeing the previous month; the Super Hornet entered service with the United States Navy in 1999, replacing the Grumman F-14 Tomcat, retired in 2006. The Royal Australian Air Force, which has operated the F/A-18A as its main fighter since 1984, ordered the F/A-18F in 2007 to replace its aging F-111C fleet.
RAAF Super Hornets entered service in December 2010. The Super Hornet is an evolutionary redesign of the McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet; the Super Hornet's unique wing and tail configuration can be traced back to an internal Northrop project P-530, c. 1965. Flying as the Northrop YF-17 "Cobra", it competed in the United States Air Force's Lightweight Fighter program to produce a smaller and simpler fighter to complement the larger McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle; the Navy directed that the YF-17 be redesigned into the larger F/A-18 Hornet to meet a requirement for a multi-role fighter to complement the larger and more expensive Grumman F-14 Tomcat serving in fleet defense interceptor and air superiority roles. The Hornet proved to be limited in combat radius; the concept of an enlarged Hornet was first proposed in the 1980s, marketed by McDonnell Douglas as Hornet 2000. The Hornet 2000 concept was an advanced F/A-18 with a larger wing and a longer fuselage to carry more fuel and more powerful engines.
The end of the Cold War led to a period of considerable restructuring. At the same time, U. S. Naval Aviation faced a number of problems; the McDonnell Douglas A-12 Avenger II was canceled in 1991 after the program ran into serious problems. The Navy considered updating an existing design as a more attractive approach to a clean-sheet program; as an alternative to the A-12, McDonnell Douglas proposed the "Super Hornet", an improvement of the successful previous F/A-18 models, which could serve as an alternate replacement for the A-6 Intruder. The next-generation Hornet design proved more attractive than Grumman's Quick Strike upgrade to the F-14 Tomcat, regarded as an insufficient technological leap over existing F-14s. At the time, the Grumman F-14 Tomcat was the Navy's primary air superiority fighter and fleet defense interceptor. Then-Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney described the F-14 as 1960s technology, drastically cut back F-14D procurement in 1989 before cancelling production altogether in 1991, in favor of the updated F/A-18E/F.
The decision to replace the Tomcat with an all-Hornet Carrier Air Wing was controversial. In 1992, the Navy canceled the Navy Advanced Tactical Fighter, which would have been a navalized variant of the Air Force's Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor; as a cheaper alternative to NATF, Grumman proposed substantial improvements to the F-14 beyond Quick Strike, but Congress rejected them as too costly and reaffirmed its commitment to the less expensive F/A-18E/F. The Super Hornet was first ordered by the U. S. Navy in 1992; the Navy retained the F/A-18 designation to help sell the program to Congress as a low-risk "derivative", though the Super Hornet is a new aircraft. The Hornet and Super Hornet share many characteristics, including avionics, ejection seats, armament, mission computer software, maintenance/operating procedures; the initial F/A-18E/F retained most of the avionics systems from the F/A-18C/D's configuration at the time. The design would be expanded in the Super Hornet with an empty weight greater than the F-15C.
The Super Hornet first flew on 29 November 1995. Initial production on the F/A-18E/F began in 1995. Flight testing started in 1996 with the F/A-18E/F's first carrier landing in 1997. Low-rate production began in March 1997 with full production beginning in September 1997. Testing continued through 1999, finishing with aerial refueling demonstrations. Testing involved 3,100 test flights covering 4,600 flight hours; the Super Hornet underwent U. S. Navy operational tests and evaluations in 1999, was approved in February 2000. With the retirement of the F-14 in 2006, all of the Navy's combat jets have been Hornet variants until the F-35C Lightning II enters service; the F/A-18E single-seat and F/A-18F two-seat aircraft took the place of the F-14 Tomcat, A-6 Intruder, Lockheed S-3 Viking, KA-6D aircraft. An electronic warfare variant, the EA-18G Growler, replaces the EA-6B Prowler; the Navy calls this reduction in aircraft types a "neck-down". During the Vietnam War era, the Super Hornet's roles were performed by a combination of the A-1/A-4/A-7, A-6, F-8/F-4, RA-5C, KA-3