In art history, "Old Master" refers to any painter of skill who worked in Europe before about 1800, or a painting by such an artist. An "old master print" is an original print made by an artist in the same period; the term "old master drawing" is used in the same way. In theory, "Old Master" applies only to artists who were trained, were Masters of their local artists' guild, worked independently, but in practice, paintings produced by pupils or workshops are included in the scope of the term. Therefore, beyond a certain level of competence, date rather than quality is the criterion for using the term. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the term was understood as having a starting date of 1450 or 1470; the Oxford English Dictionary defines the term as "A pre-eminent artist of the period before the modern. A pre-eminent western European painter of the 13th to 18th centuries." The first quotation given is from 1696, in the diary of John Evelyn: "My L: Pembroke..shewed me divers rare Pictures of many of the old & best Masters that of M: Angelo..& a large booke of the best drawings of the old Masters."
The term is used to refer to a painting or sculpture made by an Old Master, a usage datable to 1824. There are comparable terms in Dutch and German. Les Maitres d'autrefois of 1876 by Eugene Fromentin may have helped to popularize the concept, although "vieux maitres" is used in French; the famous collection in Dresden at the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister is one of the few museums to include the term in its actual name, although many more use it in the title of departments or sections. The collection in the Dresden museum stops at the Baroque period; the end date is vague – for example, Goya is an Old Master, though he was still painting and printmaking at his death in 1828. The term might be used for John Constable or Eugène Delacroix, but is not; the term tends to be avoided by art historians as too vague when discussing paintings, although the terms "Old Master Prints" and "Old Master drawings" are still used. It remains current in the art trade. Auction houses still divide their sales between, for example, "Old Master Paintings", "Nineteenth-century paintings" and "Modern paintings".
Christie's defines the term as ranging "from the 14th to the early 19th century". Artists, most from early periods, whose hand has been identified by art historians, but to whom no identity can be confidently attached, are given names by art historians such as Master E. S. Master of Flémalle, Master of Mary of Burgundy, Master of Latin 757, Master of the Brunswick Diptych or Master of Schloss Lichtenstein. Cimabue, frescoes in the Basilica of San Francesco d'Assisi Giotto di Bondone, first Renaissance fresco painter Duccio, Sienese painter Simone Martini, Gothic painter of the Sienese School Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Gothic painter Pietro Lorenzetti, Sienese school Gentile da Fabriano, International gothic painter Lorenzo Monaco, International gothic style Masolino, Goldsmith trained painter Pisanello, International gothic painter and medallist Sassetta, Sienese International Gothic painter Paolo Uccello, schematic use of foreshortening Fra Angelico, noted for San Marco convent frescoes Masaccio, first to use linear perspective thereby giving sense of three-dimensionality plus developed new realism Fra Filippo Lippi, father of Filippino Andrea del Castagno Piero della Francesca, painter who pioneered linear perspective Benozzo Gozzoli Alesso Baldovinetti Vincenzo Foppa Antonello da Messina, painter who pioneered oil painting Cosimo Tura Andrea Mantegna, master of perspective and detail Antonio Pollaiuolo Francesco Cossa Melozzo da Forli Luca Signorelli Perugino, Raphael was his pupil Verrocchio Sandro Botticelli, great Florentine master Domenico Ghirlandaio, prolific Florentine fresco painter Pinturicchio Filippino Lippi, son of Filippo Cima da Conegliano Piero di Cosimo Francesco Francia Leonardo da Vinci, acclaimed oil painter and draughtsman Lorenzo Costa Fra Bartolommeo Michelangelo, acclaimed sculptor and architect Bernardino Luini Raphael, acclaimed painter Il Garofalo Ridolfo Ghirlandaio Andrea del Sarto Correggio, painter from Parma noted for illusionistic frescoes and altarpiece oils Giulio Romano Domenico Veneziano, Early Renaissance Jacopo Bellini (
Eighty Years' War
The Eighty Years' War or Dutch War of Independence was a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces of what are today the Netherlands and Luxembourg against Philip II of Spain, the sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands. After the initial stages, Philip II deployed his armies and regained control over most of the rebelling provinces. Under the leadership of the exiled William the Silent, the northern provinces continued their resistance, they were able to oust the Habsburg armies, in 1581 they established the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands. The war continued in other areas; the Dutch Republic was recognized by Spain and the major European powers in 1609 at the start of the Twelve Years' Truce. Hostilities broke out again as part of the broader Thirty Years' War. An end was reached in 1648 with the Peace of Münster, when the Dutch Republic was definitively recognised as an independent country no longer part of the Holy Roman Empire; the Peace of Münster is sometimes considered the beginning of the Dutch Golden Age.
There are numerous causes that led to the Eighty Years' War but the primary reasons could be classified into two: resentment towards the Spanish authority and religious tension. The first was articulated by the Dutch nobility who wanted to regain power and privileges lost in favor of the King, so they settled the thought that Phillip II was surrounded by evil advisors; this developed into an overarching discontent against the absolutist Spanish regime. Religious resistance, on the other hand, came with the imposition of an ecclesiastical hierarchy for all of the Spanish territories; this created resistance in the Dutch provinces, which embraced the Reformation. In the decades preceding the war, the Dutch became discontented with Spanish rule. A major concern involved the heavy taxation imposed on the population, while support and guidance from the government was hampered by the size of the Spanish empire. At that time, the Seventeen Provinces were known in the empire as De landen van herwaarts over and in French as Les pays de par deça – "those lands around there".
The Dutch provinces were continually criticised for acting without permission from the throne, while it was impractical for them to gain permission for actions, as requests sent to the throne would take at least four weeks for a response to return. The presence of Spanish troops under the command of the Duke of Alba, brought in to oversee order, further amplified this unrest. Spain attempted a policy of strict religious uniformity for the Catholic Church within its domains, enforced it with the Inquisition; the Reformation meanwhile produced a number of Protestant denominations, which gained followers in the Seventeen Provinces. These included the Lutheran movement of Martin Luther, the Anabaptist movement of the Dutch reformer Menno Simons, the Reformed teachings of John Calvin; this growth led to the 1566 Beeldenstorm, the "Iconoclastic Fury", in which many churches in northern Europe were stripped of their Catholic statuary and religious decoration. In October 1555, Emperor Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire began the gradual abdication of his several crowns.
His son Philip II took over as sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands, which at the time was a personal union of seventeen provinces with little in common beyond their sovereign and a constitutional framework. This framework, assembled during the preceding reigns of Burgundian and Habsburg rulers, divided power between city governments, local nobility, provincial States, royal stadtholders, the States General of the Netherlands, the central government assisted by three councils: the Council of State, the Privy Council and the Council of Finances; the balance of power was weighted toward the local and regional governments. Philip did not govern in person but appointed Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy as governor-general to lead the central government. In 1559 he appointed his half-sister Margaret of Parma as the first Regent, who governed in close co-operation with Dutch nobles like William, Prince of Orange, Philip de Montmorency, Count of Hoorn, Lamoral, Count of Egmont. Philip introduced a number of councillors in the Council of State, foremost among these Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle, a French-born cardinal who gained considerable influence in the Council, much to the chagrin of the Dutch council members.
When Philip left for Spain in 1559 political tension was increased by religious policies. Not having the liberal-mindedness of his father Charles V, Philip was a fervent enemy of the Protestant movements of Martin Luther, John Calvin, the Anabaptists. Charles had outlawed heresy in special placards that made it a capital offence, to be prosecuted by a Dutch version of the Inquisition, leading to the executions of over 1,300 people between 1523 and 1566. Towards the end of Charles' reign enforcement had become lax. Philip, insisted on rigorous enforcement, which caused widespread unrest. To support and strengthen the attempts at Counter-Reformation Philip launched a wholesale organisational reform of the Catholic Church in the Netherlands in 1559, which resulted in the inclusion of fourteen dioceses instead of the old three; the new hierarchy was to be headed by Granvelle as archbishop of the new archdiocese of Mechelen. The reform was unpopular with the old church hierarchy, as the new dioceses were to be financed by the transfer of a number of rich abbey
The Northern Renaissance was the Renaissance that occurred in Europe north of the Alps. Before 1497, Italian Renaissance humanism had little influence outside Italy. From the late 15th century, its ideas spread around Europe; this influenced the German Renaissance, French Renaissance, English Renaissance, Renaissance in the Low Countries, Polish Renaissance and other national and localized movements, each with different characteristics and strengths. In France, King Francis I imported Italian art, commissioned Italian artists, built grand palaces at great expense, starting the French Renaissance. Trade and commerce in cities like Bruges in the 15th century and Antwerp in the 16th increased cultural exchange between Italy and the Low Countries, however in art, architecture, late Gothic influences remained present until the arrival of Baroque as painters drew on Italian models; also a time period with a lot of dirty things, such as the black death Universities and the printed book helped spread the spirit of the age through France, the Low Countries and the Holy Roman Empire, to Scandinavia and Britain by the late 16th century.
Writers and humanists such as Rabelais, Pierre de Ronsard and Desiderius Erasmus were influenced by the Italian Renaissance model and were part of the same intellectual movement. During the English Renaissance writers such as William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe composed works of lasting influence; the Renaissance was brought to Poland directly from Italy by artists from Florence and the Low Countries, starting the Polish Renaissance. In some areas the Northern Renaissance was distinct from the Italian Renaissance in its centralization of political power. While Italy and Germany were dominated by independent city-states, most of Europe began emerging as nation-states or unions of countries; the Northern Renaissance was closely linked to the Protestant Reformation with the resulting long series of internal and external conflicts between various Protestant groups and the Roman Catholic Church having lasting effects. Feudalism had dominated Europe for a thousand years, but was on the decline at the beginning of the Renaissance.
The reasons for this decline include the post-Plague environment, the increasing use of money rather than land as a medium of exchange, the growing number of serfs living as freemen, the formation of nation-states with monarchies interested in reducing the power of feudal lords, the increasing uselessness of feudal armies in the face of new military technology, a general increase in agricultural productivity due to improving farming technology and methods. As in Italy, the decline of feudalism opened the way for the cultural and economic changes associated with the Renaissance in Europe; the Renaissance in Europe would be kindled by a weakening of the Roman Catholic Church. The slow demise of feudalism weakened a long-established policy in which church officials helped keep the population of the manor under control in return for tribute; the early 15th century saw the rise of many secular institutions and beliefs. Among the most significant of these, would lay the philosophical grounds for much of Renaissance art and science.
Erasmus, for example, was important in spreading humanist ideas in the north, was a central figure at the intersection of classical humanism and mounting religious questions. Forms of artistic expression which a century ago would have been banned by the church were now tolerated or encouraged in certain circles; the velocity of transmission of the Renaissance throughout Europe can be ascribed to the invention of the printing press. Its power to disseminate information enhanced scientific research, spread political ideas and impacted the course of the Renaissance in northern Europe; as in Italy, the printing press increased the availability of books written in both vernacular languages and the publication of new and ancient classical texts in Greek and Latin. Furthermore, the Bible became available in translation, a factor attributed to the spread of the Protestant Reformation. One of the most important technological development of the Renaissance was the invention of the caravel; this combination of European and North African ship building technologies for the first time made extensive trade and travel over the Atlantic feasible.
While first introduced by the Italian states and the early captains, such as Giovanni Caboto, Giovanni da Verrazzano and Columbus, who were Italian explorers, the development would end Northern Italy's role as the trade crossroads of Europe, shifting wealth and power westwards to Spain, France and the Netherlands. These states all began to conduct extensive trade with Africa and Asia, in the Americas began extensive colonisation activities; this period of exploration and expansion has become known as the Age of Discovery. European power spread around the globe. Early Netherlandish painting included complicated iconography, art historians have debated the "hidden symbolism" of works by artists like Hubert and Jan van Eyck; the detailed realism of Early Netherlandish painting, led by Robert Campin and Jan van Eyck in the 1420s and 1430s, is today considered to be the beginning of the early Northern Renaissance in painting. This detailed realism was respected in Italy, but there was little reciprocal influence on the North until nearly the end of the 15th century.
Despite frequent cultural and artistic exchange, the Antwerp Mannerists —chronologically overlapping with but unrelated to Italian Mannerism—were among the first artists in the Low Countries t
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
Hugo van der Goes
Hugo van der Goes was one of the most significant and original Flemish painters of the late 15th century. Van der Goes was an important painter of altarpieces as well as portraits, he introduced important innovations in painting through his monumental style, use of a specific colour range and individualistic manner of portraiture. The presence of his masterpiece, the Portinari Triptych in Florence, from 1483 onwards played a role in the development of realism and the use of colour in Italian Renaissance art. Hugo van der Goes was born in Ghent or in the vicinity of Ghent around the year 1440. Nothing is known with certainty about the artist's life prior to 1467, the year in which he became a master in the painters' guild of Ghent; the sponsors for his membership of the guild were Joos van Wassenhove, master painter in Ghent from 1464, Daneel Ruthaert. It is that he had trained elsewhere before he became a master in Ghent; some historians have suggested that Dieric Bouts was the master of van der Goes but there is no independent evidence for this.
In 1468 the artist was commissioned by the city of Ghent to execute some works in connection with the grant of the Great Indulgence of the city. More commissions from the city in the following years required van der Goes to create decorations for events such as papal blazons. In 1468 he was in the town of Bruges making decorations to celebrate the marriage between Charles the Bold and Margaret of York. Hugo van der Goes is recorded again on 18 October 1468 when he and other members of Ghent's painter's guild hosted painters from nearby Tournai at the guild's assembly in Ghent to celebrate St. Luke's day together. St. Luke was the patron saint of painters. In 1469 Hugo van der Goes and Joos van Wassenhove vouched for Alexander Bening for his entry as a master in the painter's guild of Ghent. Alexander Bening married Catherina van der Goes, a cousin of Hugo van der Goes, in 1480; the artist and his workshop worked on commissions of the city of Ghent to provide heraldic decorations for Charles the Bold's Joyous Entry in Ghent in 1469 and in 1472.
When in 1470 Joos van Wassenhove left Ghent for Italy to become the court painter of Federico da Montefeltro, the Duke of Urbino, van der Goes became the leading painter in Ghent. In 1473 the Burgundian court paid van der Goes for creating the blazons used at Charles the Good's funeral; the painter was elected as deacon of the painter's guild of Ghent and served as its deacon from 1474 to 1476. It was during this period that Hugo van der Goes painted the Adoration of the Magi and worked on the commission of Tommaso Portinari for the Portinari Altarpiece, which arrived at its destination in Florence only in 1483, when the artist had died. Van der Goes achieved considerable success and secured important commissions from the Burgundian court, church institutions, affluent Flemish bourgeoisie and associations of Italian business people based in the Burgundian Netherlands; when he had reached the peak of his career in 1477 van der Goes decided to close down his workshop in Ghent to become a frater conversus at the monastic community of the Rood Klooster near Auderghem.
The Rood Klooster was part of the monastic wing of the Modern Devotion movement and belonged to the Windesheim Congregation. At the monastery he enjoyed certain privileges, he was allowed to drink wine. According to the chronicle written up in Latin some time between 1509-1513 by Gaspar Ofhuys, a fellow monk in the Rood Klooster, van der Goes received visits by eminent persons including Archduke Maximillian. During his time at the cloister he received in 1482 a request from the counsel of the City of Leuven to value the works for the Leuven city hall that Dieric Bouts had left unfinished at the time of his death; as a reward for this service van der Goes received a jug of Rhine wine from the city authorities. It is believed that it was van der Goes who completed Bouts' unfinished Triptych for Hyppolite Berthoz, his contribution was the painting on the left panel of the portraits of the couple who had paid for the tryptych. In 1482 the monastery sent van der Goes to Cologne together with his half-brother Nicolaes, who had taken religious vows, another brother of the monastery.
On the return leg of this trip the artist suffered an acute depression and declared himself to be damned. He made an unsuccessful suicide attempt, his companions brought him back to Brussels and to the Rood Klooster. After a brief recovery, he died not long thereafter in the Rood Klooster. There is speculation that anxiety about his artistic achievements may have contributed to his madness, for'he was troubled by the thought of how he would finish the works of art he had to paint, it was said that nine years would scarcely suffice'. A report by a German physician, Hieronymus Münzer, from 1495, according to which a painter from Ghent was driven to melancholy by the attempt to equal the Ghent Altarpiece, may refer to Hugo van der Goes; the mental breakdown of Hugo van der Goes was only rediscovered in 1863, when the Belgian historian Alphonse Wauters published the information, which he had found in Ofhuys' newly discovered chronicle. Wauters' publication inspired the late Romantic Belgian painter Emile Wauters to create his 1872 painting Portrait of Hugo van der Goes.
This painting depicts Hugo van der Goes during his period of madness and was so successful that it was awarded a Grand Medal at the Paris salon. In 1873 the Dutch painter Vincent van Gogh mentioned W
Northern Mannerism is the form of Mannerism found in the visual arts north of the Alps in the 16th and early 17th centuries. Styles derived from Italian Mannerism were found in the Netherlands and elsewhere from around the mid-century Mannerist ornament in architecture; the three main centres of the style were in France in the period 1530–50, in Prague from 1576, in the Netherlands from the 1580s—the first two phases much led by royal patronage. In the last 15 years of the century, the style, by becoming outdated in Italy, was widespread across northern Europe, spread in large part through prints. In painting, it tended to recede in the new century, under the new influence of Caravaggio and the early Baroque, but in architecture and the decorative arts, its influence was more sustained; the sophisticated art of Italian Mannerism begins during the High Renaissance of the 1520s as a development of, a reaction against, an attempt to excel, the serenely balanced triumphs of that style. As art historian Henri Zerner explains: "The concept of Mannerism—so important to modern criticism and notably to the renewed taste for Fontainebleau art—designates a style in opposition to the classicism of the Italian Renaissance embodied above all by Andrea del Sarto in Florence and Raphael in Rome".
The High Renaissance was a purely Italian phenomenon, Italian Mannerism required both artists and an audience trained in the preceding Renaissance styles, whose conventions were flouted in a knowing fashion. In Northern Europe, such artists, such an audience, could hardly be found; the prevailing style remained Gothic, different syntheses of this and Italian styles were made in the first decades of the 16th century by more internationally aware artists such as Albrecht Dürer, Hans Burgkmair and others in Germany, the misleadingly named school of Antwerp Mannerism, in fact unrelated to, preceding, Italian Mannerism. Romanism was more influenced by Italian art of the High Renaissance, aspects of Mannerism, many of its leading exponents had travelled to Italy. Netherlandish painting had been the most advanced in northern Europe since before 1400, the best Netherlandish artists were better able than those of other regions to keep up with Italian developments, though lagging at a distance. For each succeeding generations of artists, the problem became more acute, as much Northern work continued to assimilate aspects of Renaissance style, while the most advanced Italian art had spiralled into an atmosphere of self-conscious sophistication and complexity that must have seemed a world apart to Northern patrons and artists, but enjoyed a reputation and prestige that could not be ignored.
France received a direct injection of Italian style in the form of the first School of Fontainebleau, where from 1530 several Florentine artists of quality were hired to decorate the royal palace of Fontainebleau, with some French assistants being taken on. The most notable imports were Rosso Fiorentino, Francesco Primaticcio, Niccolò dell'Abbate, all of whom remained in France until their deaths; this conjunction succeeded in generating a native French style with strong Mannerist elements, able to develop on its own. Jean Cousin the Elder, for example, produced paintings, such as Eva Prima Pandora and Charity, with their sinuous, elongated nudes, drew palpably upon the artistic principles of the Fontainebleau school. Cousin's son Jean the Younger, most of whose works have not survived, Antoine Caron both followed in this tradition, producing an agitated version of the Mannerist aesthetic in the context of the French Wars of Religion; the iconography of figurative works was mythological, with a strong emphasis on Diana, goddess of the hunting, the original function of Fontainebleau, namesake of Diane de Poitiers and muse of Henry II, keen huntress herself.
Her slim, long-legged and athletic figure "became fixed in the erotic imaginary". Other parts of Northern Europe did not have the advantage of such intense contact with Italian artists, but the Mannerist style made its presence felt through prints and illustrated books, the purchases of Italian works by rulers and others, artists' travels to Italy, the example of individual Italian artists working in the North. Much of the most important work at Fontainebleau was in the form of stucco reliefs executed by French artists to drawings by the Italians, the Fontainebleau style affected French sculpture more than French painting; the huge stucco frames which dominate their inset paintings with bold high-relief strapwork, swags of fruit, generous staffage of naked nymph-like figures, were influential on the vocabulary of Mannerist ornament all over Europe, spread by ornament books and prints by Androuet du Cerceau and others—Rosso seems to have been the originator of the style. A number of areas in the decorative arts joined in the style where there were customers from the court.
High-style walnut furniture made in metropolitan centers like Paris and Dijon, employed strapwork framing and sculptural supports in dressoirs and buffets. The mysterious and sophisticated Saint-Porchaire ware, of which only about sixty pieces survive, brought a similar aesthetic into pottery, much of it carries royal cyphers; this was followed by the "rustic" pottery of Bernard Palissy, with vessels covered in elaborately modelled relief animals and plants. Painted Limoges enamel adopted the style with enthusiasm