Northern Busway, Auckland
The Northern Busway is a segregated busway that runs along the eastern side of the Northern Motorway, part of State Highway 1, in the north of Auckland, New Zealand, linking the North Shore with the northern end of the Auckland Harbour Bridge. The busway consists of two-way lanes running between Constellation Station and Akoranga Station, from Akoranga Station a southbound-only lane that joins the harbour bridge approaches just south of the Onewa Road on-ramp system. Six stations provide access points for passengers to board. City-bound Northern Express services commence from Hibiscus Coast Station or Albany Station and travel on local roads to Constellation Station, from where they travel on the dedicated busway lanes. In the reverse direction, NX1 and NX2 services leaving the city travel north to the Akoranga off-ramp, cross over the motorway, enter Akoranga Station, from where they travel north on the busway lanes; the busway lanes are an important transport link within the North Shore, where they are the spine of the bus-based public transport system.
Concept design for the busway was developed by MRCagney, with detailed design and consultation completed by Mario Madayag Architecture, Beca Group and Connell Wagner. Fletcher Construction was responsible for construction. Akoranga, Smales Farm, Sunnynook stations were built by NZ Strong Construction. Difficulties encountered included the nearby residential areas, the predominantly soft ground, environmental efforts to protect New Zealand dotterel breeding grounds. Construction employed around 300 people at its peak, with around a million man-hours being invested, including shifts during 512 nights; the busway was opened in February 2008 after several years of construction, though the Albany and Constellation stations had been operating since December 2005 using the normal Northern Motorway lanes. It was credited with reducing peak traffic on the Northern Motorway by around 500 cars each rush hour one month after opening, about 39% of passengers on the Northern Express bus service had never used public transport before.
The busway was used by 70 buses per hour during peak time. In 2008 the busway received the'Shell Bitumen Excellence Award for a Major Roading Project' and the'Roading New Zealand Supreme Award'. In June 2009, it received the Ingenium'Excellence Award'. In June 2010, the busway carried its 5 millionth passenger and was estimated to remove the equivalent of about 5,100 cars in the morning peak, with 80 buses per hour during peak times. By mid-2011, frequency of the Northern Express had risen to every three minutes during the morning peak hour, five minutes during the'shoulder peak'. In 2015, some Northern Express services were extended to Hibiscus Coast Busway Station. In 2017, Auckland Transport's projections indicated that the busway would reach maximum capacity in 2026, twenty years earlier than expected. AT's report said that increased patronage would "manifest in overcapacity conditions and poor operational performances" at Albany and Akoranga stations. AT was investigating a range including lengthening station platforms.
A decision on a timeline for conversion of the busway to a rail link was expected to be announced before the end of 2017. In the 12 months to December 2018, the busway carried nearly 6 million passengers; the busway became operational in 2009, with some final sections being completed with little publicity, for around NZ$290–294 million: $210 million for the busway and $84 million for the stations. The project was funded by Transit New Zealand, ARTA, Auckland City Council and North Shore City Council; the busway has two lanes for 6.2 km running parallel with the eastern side of the Northern Motorway from Constellation Station at the Constellation Drive/Upper Harbour Highway interchange to Akoranga Station at the Esmonde Road interchange, from where a one-way southbound bus lane extends a further 2.5 km to south of the Onewa Road interchange, where it merges with the motorway for the Harbour Bridge. There are no dedicated bus lanes on the harbour bridge itself, its use is limited to buses of 25+ seat capacity and maintenance vehicles, the SkyBus North Harbour services that run between Albany and Auckland Airport.
The busway has been designed for possible use by car pools. The busway includes six dedicated stations, some with extensive park-and-ride car parks. Feeder bus services serve the stations; the stations are: Hibiscus Coast –. Serves Silverdale, Red Beach, Redvale, Dairy Flat. Albany –. Serves Albany, Long Bay. Constellation – serves Mairangi Bay, Murrays Bay, Browns Bay, Rothesay Bay, Unsworth Heights, Albany. Sunnynook – this station does not have ramps to allow local buses to enter or exit the station. Smales Farm – serves Takapuna, Milford. Akoranga – serves Northcote, Devonport, AUT's North Campus on Akoranga Drive. All stations provide shelter and cycle parking and were designed with public safety in mind, such as with glass walls, low planting, night lighting and CCTV to enhance security. Major related structures are the new Esmonde Interchange and Tristram Avenue Viaduct, which crosses the often-congested Tristram Avenue v
Auckland is a city in the North Island of New Zealand. Auckland is the largest urban area in the country, with an urban population of around 1,628,900, it is located in the Auckland Region—the area governed by Auckland Council—which includes outlying rural areas and the islands of the Hauraki Gulf, resulting in a total population of 1,695,900. A diverse and multicultural city, Auckland is home to the largest Polynesian population in the world; the Māori-language name for Auckland is Tāmaki or Tāmaki-makau-rau, meaning "Tāmaki with a hundred lovers", in reference to the desirability of its fertile land at the hub of waterways in all directions. The Auckland urban area ranges to Waiwera in the north, Kumeu in the north-west, Runciman in the south. Auckland lies between the Hauraki Gulf of the Pacific Ocean to the east, the low Hunua Ranges to the south-east, the Manukau Harbour to the south-west, the Waitakere Ranges and smaller ranges to the west and north-west; the surrounding hills are covered in rainforest and the landscape is dotted with dozens of dormant volcanic cones.
The central part of the urban area occupies a narrow isthmus between the Manukau Harbour on the Tasman Sea and the Waitematā Harbour on the Pacific Ocean. Auckland is one of the few cities in the world to have a harbour on each of two separate major bodies of water; the isthmus on which Auckland resides was first settled around 1350 and was valued for its rich and fertile land. The Māori population in the area is estimated to have peaked at 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. After a British colony was established in 1840, William Hobson Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand, chose the area as his new capital, he named the area for Earl of Auckland, British First Lord of the Admiralty. It was replaced as the capital in 1865 by Wellington, but immigration to Auckland stayed strong, it has remained the country's most populous city. Today, Auckland's central business district is the major financial centre of New Zealand. Auckland is classified as a Beta + World City because of its importance in commerce, the arts, education.
The University of Auckland, established in 1883, is the largest university in New Zealand. Landmarks such as the Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tāmaki, the Harbour Bridge, the Sky Tower, many museums, parks and theatres are among the city's significant tourist attractions. Auckland Airport handles around one million international passengers a month. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, Auckland is ranked third on the 2016 Mercer Quality of Living Survey, making it one of the most liveable cities; the isthmus was settled by Māori circa 1350, was valued for its rich and fertile land. Many pā were created on the volcanic peaks; the Māori population in the area is estimated to have been about 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. The introduction of firearms at the end of the eighteenth century, which began in Northland, upset the balance of power and led to devastating intertribal warfare beginning in 1807, causing iwi who lacked the new weapons to seek refuge in areas less exposed to coastal raids.
As a result, the region had low numbers of Māori when European settlement of New Zealand began. On 27 January 1832, Joseph Brooks Weller, eldest of the Weller brothers of Otago and Sydney, bought land including the site of the modern city of Auckland, the North Shore, part of Rodney District for "one large cask of powder" from "Cohi Rangatira". After the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in February 1840, the new Governor of New Zealand, William Hobson, chose the area as his new capital and named it for George Eden, Earl of Auckland Viceroy of India; the land that Auckland was established on was given to the Governor by a local iwi, Ngāti Whātua, as a sign of goodwill and in the hope that the building of a city would attract commercial and political opportunities for iwi. Auckland was declared New Zealand's capital in 1841, the transfer of the administration from Russell in the Bay of Islands was completed in 1842; however in 1840 Port Nicholson was seen as a better choice for an administrative capital because of its proximity to the South Island, Wellington became the capital in 1865.
After losing its status as capital, Auckland remained the principal city of the Auckland Province until the provincial system was abolished in 1876. In response to the ongoing rebellion by Hone Heke in the mid-1840s, the government encouraged retired but fit British soldiers and their families to migrate to Auckland to form a defence line around the port settlement as garrison soldiers. By the time the first Fencibles arrived in 1848, the rebels in the north had been defeated. Outlying defensive towns were constructed to the south, stretching in a line from the port village of Onehunga in the west to Howick in the east; each of the four settlements had about 800 settlers. In the early 1860s, Auckland became a base against the Māori King Movement, the 12,000 Imperial soldiers stationed there led to a strong boost to local commerce. This, continued road building towards the south into the Waikato, enabled Pākehā influence to spread from Auckland; the city's population grew rapidly, from 1,500 in 1841 to 3,635 in 1845 to 12,423 by 1864.
The growth occurred to other mercantile-dominated cities around the port and with problems of overcrowding and pollution. Auckland's population of ex-soldiers was far greater than that of other settlements: about 50 percent of the popula
The Waterview Connection is a motorway section through west/central Auckland, New Zealand. It connects State Highway 20 in the south at Mt Roskill to State Highway 16 in the west at Point Chevalier, is a part of the Western Ring Route; the Waterview Connection is 4.5 km long. The Waterview Tunnel supersedes the Lyttelton Road Tunnel as New Zealand's longest road tunnels. By 2026, the link is expected to carry 83,000 vehicles a day. There are three lanes of traffic in each tunnel; the project had an extensive planning history, with the earliest consultation in 2000, though the proposal for a route in the area dates from much earlier. Several routes were considered, all being variations of either a connection to SH16 along the Rosebank Peninsula or at the Great North Road interchange at Waterview, it was assumed that below-ground construction would be required where AR3 passed through Avondale Heights, to a maximum depth of 41 m. On the basis of technical and environmental assessments, the AR3 and AW4 route options were dismissed.
Transit New Zealand selected the Waterview connection as its preferred route, with the support of the Auckland City Council and Waitakere City Council, over the Rosebank option, the preferred route of the Auckland Regional Council. The previous AW1 and AW4 routes favoured a New North Road interchange with ramps facing south, full connections at the Waterview interchange; the preferred route was announced with a Great North Road interchange replacing New North Road and no southbound access at Waterview. This proved unpopular with local residents, it was considered unlikely a bored tunnel could accommodate an interchange because of its depth. On 7 February 2008, bored tunnels were announced as Transit's preferred option; the NZ Transport Agency's preferred option was a pair of two-lane tunnels costing $1.89 billion, rather than a pair of three-lane tunnels costing $2.14 billion. NZTA's traffic modelling indicated that two-lane tunnels would reach capacity within 10 years of operation. Map of Tunnel Route Transit NZ's board resolved to seek a designation over land for a $1.89 billion pair of motorway tunnels through Waterview.
The board called for a report from officials on managing fumes from the tunnel "to benchmark the proposed approach incorporated in the design work to date against current international best practice". In response to submissions questioning the adequacy of just two traffic lanes running in each direction, it sought a comparative assessment of the operational performance and costs of providing three-lane tunnels estimated at $2.14 billion. The government set up a joint public-private sector steering group to investigate the feasibility of a public-private partnership as a procurement method for the Waterview Connection Project, evaluating the PPP alongside a conventional public sector procurement method to determine how the two methods compared in terms of value for money; the steering group had as an independent chairperson, Sir Brian Elwood, reported directly to the Ministers of Finance and Transport. It was announced on 26 August 2008 that the steering group had advised the Government that a public-private partnership - which would require a $2 toll per trip - was the best way of building the new $2 billion section of the city's Western Ring Route.
Transport Minister Annette King asked officials to do more work on several critical factors before the Government committed to a PPP. In October 2008 the NZ Transport Agency released report findings which showed that tunnel emissions would have a negligible effect on local air quality; these findings were disputed by Waterview Primary School representatives, who claimed that the report hadn't taken into account the impact of tolling "which could add more traffic to surface roads", hadn't given sufficient consideration to "international best practice on air filtering", had failed to account for "ventilation fans being turned off during off-peak times, allowing emissions to escape through the tunnel openings". They asked for reconsideration of "taking a section of the school’s playing field for use during the five-year construction period". Concern was expressed by developer Greg Burgess, who had consent for building 83 new homes 19 metres away from the Owairaka ventilation stack; the developer wanted the ventilation stack moved further away, but there were worries that fumes might be pushed closer to Christ the King School.
The Auckland Regional Council requested NZTA to reconsider whether the proposed Waterview Connection was the most cost-effective way of completing the Western Ring Road, with a reconsideration of the costs and benefits of the alternative Rosebank route. In 2009, the CEO of Federated Farmers, Conor English, announced that Federated Farmers wanted the government to review the tunnelling with a view to cancelling it, he argued in an editorial that the project represented a "tunnel with no hill", costed at that time at about $1.9 billion or about $600 million a kilometre. Therefore, the motorway should instead be built as a surface road, the savings invested into water storage projects benefitting farming. On 30 January 2009 Transport Minister Steven Joyce announced his concern with the $3.16 billion cost of three-lane tunnels. Because he was "not comfortable" with the idea of reducing the tunnels to two lanes with no ability to enlarge them for future traffic demand, he gave officials until April to review all options for a connection of State Highway 20 to the Northwestern Motorway at Waterview, including a disruptive surface route through Mount
Sky Tower (Auckland)
The Sky Tower is a telecommunications and observation tower in Auckland, New Zealand. Located at the corner of Victoria and Federal Streets within the city's CBD, it is 328 metres tall, as measured from ground level to the top of the mast, making it the tallest freestanding structure in the Southern Hemisphere and the 25th tallest tower in the world, it has become an iconic landmark in Auckland's skyline unique design. The tower is part of the SkyCity Auckland casino complex built in 1994–1997 for Harrah's Entertainment. Several upper levels are accessible to the public; the Sky Tower has several upper levels that are accessible to the public: Level 50: Sky Lounge Level 51: Main Observation Deck Level 52: Orbit 360° Dining Level 53: The Sugar Club restaurant, SkyWalk and SkyJump Level 60: Sky DeckThe upper portion of the tower contains two restaurants and a cafe—including New Zealand's only revolving restaurant, located 190 m from the ground, which turns 360 degrees every hour. There is a brasserie-style buffet located one floor above the main observatory level.
It has three observation decks at different heights, each providing 360-degree views of the city. The main observation level at 186 m has 38 mm thick glass sections of flooring giving a view straight to the ground; the top observation deck labeled "Skydeck" sits just below the main antenna at 220 m and gives views of up to 82 km in the distance. The tower features the "SkyJump", a 192-metre jump from the observation deck, during which a jumper can reach up to 85 km/h; the jump is guide-cable-controlled to prevent jumpers from colliding with the tower in case of wind gusts. Climbs into the antenna mast portion are possible for tour groups, as is a walk around the exterior; the tower is used for telecommunications and broadcasting with the Auckland Peering Exchange being located on Level 48. The aerial at the top of the tower hosts the largest FM combiner in the world which combines with 58 wireless microwave links located above the top restaurant to provide a number of services; these include television, wireless internet, RT, weather measurement services.
The tower is Auckland's primary FM radio transmitter, is one of four infill terrestrial television transmitters in Auckland, serving areas not covered by the main transmitter at Waiatarua in the Waitakere Ranges. A total of twenty-three FM radio stations and six digital terrestrial television multiplexes broadcast from the tower. Two VHF analogue television channels broadcasting from the tower were switched off in the early hours of Sunday 1 December 2013 as part of New Zealand's digital television transition. H = Horizontal V = Vertical The following table contains television and radio frequencies operating from the Sky Tower: Fletcher Construction was the contracted builder for the project while engineering firm Beca Group provided the design management and coordination, geotechnical, mechanical, plumbing and fire engineering services. Harrison Grierson provided surveying services, it was designed by Gordon Moller of Craig Craig Moller architects and has received a New Zealand Institute of Architects National Award as well as regional awards.
The Project Architect was Les Dykstra. Taking two years and nine months to construct, the tower was opened on 3 August 1997; the tower is constructed of high-performance reinforced concrete. Its 12-metre diameter shaft is supported on eight "legs" based on 16 foundation piles drilled over 12 m deep into the local sandstone; the main shaft was built using climbing formwork. The upper levels were constructed from composite materials, structural steel, precast concrete and reinforced concrete, the observation decks clad in aluminium with blue/green reflective glass. A structural steel framework supports the upper mast structure. During construction 15,000 cubic metres of concrete, 2,000 tonnes of reinforcing steel, 660 tonnes of structural steel were used; the mast weighs over 170 tonnes. It had to be lifted into place using a crane attached to the structure, as it would have been too heavy for a helicopter to lift. To remove the crane, another crane had to be constructed attached to the upper part of the Sky Tower structure, which dismantled the big crane, was in turn dismantled into pieces small enough to fit into the elevator.
The tower is designed to withstand wind in excess of 200 km/h and designed to sway up to 1 metre in excessively high winds. As a safety precaution the Sky Tower’s lifts have special technology installed to detect movement and will automatically slow down. If the building sway exceeds predetermined safety levels the lifts will return to the ground floor and remain there until the high winds and building sway have abated; the Sky Tower is built to withstand an 8.0 magnitude earthquake located within a 20-kilometre radius. There are three fireproof rooms on levels 44, 45, 46 to provide refuge in the event of an emergency, while the central service lift shaft and stairwells are fire-safety rated. SkyCity Auckland lights the Sky Tower to show support for a range of charities. Common lighting events include: The top half of the Sky Tower is lit by energy efficient LED lighting which replaced the original metal halide floodlights in May 2009; the LEDs can produce millions of different colour combinations controlled by a computer system.
The original lights used 66 per cent more energy than the current LED
Manapouri Power Station
Manapōuri Power Station is an underground hydroelectric power station on the western arm of Lake Manapouri in Fiordland National Park, in the South Island of New Zealand. At 850 MW installed capacity, it is the largest hydroelectric power station in New Zealand, the second largest power station in New Zealand; the station is noted for the controversy and environmental protests by the Save Manapouri Campaign against the raising the level of Lake Manapouri to increase the station's head, which galvanised New Zealanders and were one of the foundations of the New Zealand environmental movement. Completed in 1971, Manapouri was built to supply electricity to the Tiwai Point aluminium smelter near Bluff, some 160 km to the southeast, it was connected into the South Island transmission network. The station utilises the 230-metre drop between the western arm of Lake Manapouri and the Deep Cove branch of the Doubtful Sound 10 km away to generate electricity; the construction of the station required the excavation of 1.4 million tonnes of hard rock to build the machine hall and a 10 km tailrace tunnel, with a second parallel tailrace tunnel completed in 2002 to increase the station's capacity.
Since April 1999, the power station has been owned and operated by state-owned electricity generator Meridian Energy. The power station machine hall was excavated from solid granite rock 200 metres below the level of Lake Manapouri. Two tailrace tunnels take the water that passes through the power station to Deep Cove, a branch of Doubtful Sound, 10 kilometres away. Access to the power station is via a two-kilometre vehicle-access tunnel which spirals down from the surface, or a lift that drops 193 metres down from the control room above the lake. There is no road access into the site. Public tours of the site are no longer permitted on account of health and safety issues pertaining to vehicles on the tunnel access road; the original construction of the power station cost NZ$135.5 million, involved 8 million man hours to construct, claimed the lives of 16 workers. Soon after the power station began generating at full capacity in 1972, engineers confirmed a design problem. Greater than anticipated friction between the water and the tailrace tunnel walls meant reduced hydrodynamic head.
For 30 years, until 2002, station operators risked flooding the powerhouse if they ran the station at an output greater than 585 megawatts, far short of the designed peak capacity of 700 megawatts. Construction of a second tailrace tunnel in the late 1990s, 10-kilometre long and 10 metres in diameter solved the problem and increased capacity to 850 megawatts; the increased exit flow increased the effective head, allowing the turbines to generate more power without using more water. The first surveyors mapping out this corner of New Zealand noted the potential for hydro generation in the 178-metre drop from the lake to the Tasman Sea at Doubtful Sound; the idea of building a power station was first formulated by Peter Hay, the Superintending Engineer of the Public Works Department, Lemuel Morris Hancock, the Electrical Engineer and General Superintendent of the Transmission Department of the California Gas and Electric Company during their November 1903 inspection of Lakes Manapouri and Te Anau.
Each of the 1904 reports by Hay and Hancock noted the hydraulic potential of the lake systems, being so high above sea level, while the rugged isolation of the region meant that it would be neither practical nor economic to generate power for domestic consumption, the engineers realised that the location and scale of the project made it uniquely suited to electro-industrial developments such as electro-chemical or electro-metallurgical production. In January 1926, a Wellington-based syndicate of ten businessmen headed by Joseph Orchiston and Arthur Leigh Hunt, New Zealand Sounds Hydro-Electric Concessions Limited, was granted by the government via an Order in Council the rights to develop the waters which discharged into Deep Cove, Doubtful Sound, the waters of Lake Manapouri, to generate in total some 300,000 horsepower; the company attempted to attract Australian and American finance to develop the project, which would have required the construction of a powerhouse and factory complex in Deep Cove, with accommodation for an estimated 2,000 workers and wharf facilities, with the complex producing atmospheric nitrogen in the form of fertiliser and munitions.
Various attempts to finance the scheme were not successful, with the water rights lapsing and the company fading into obscurity by the 1950s. In 1955 the modern history of Manapouri starts, when Harry Evans, a New Zealand geologist with Consolidated Zinc Proprietary Ltd identified a commercial deposit of bauxite in Australia on the west coast of Cape York Peninsula, near Weipa, it discovered. In 1956 The Commonwealth Aluminium Corporation Pty Ltd known as Comalco, was formed to develop the bauxite deposits; the company started investigating sources of large quantities of cheap electricity needed to reduce the alumina recovered from the bauxite into aluminium. Comalco settled on Manapouri as Bluff as the site of the smelter; the plan was to refine the bauxite to alumina in Queensland, ship the alumina to New Zealand for smelting into meta
SkyCity Auckland is a casino and event centre in the central business district of Auckland, New Zealand, between Victoria and Federal Streets. Located at the base of the Sky Tower, it was the second casino in New Zealand, is still the only one in Auckland. In addition to the Sky Tower, the complex includes a 700-seat theatre, a convention centre, 12 bars and restaurants, two hotels; the main feature however is the casino itself, with over 1,600 gaming machines, over 100 tables with games such as blackjack and roulette. The casino was most refurbished in 2006; the casino has the'Pacific Room' and the'Platinum Room' for VIP / high-stakes gamblers. The casino has a large percentage of Asian customers, undertakes special initiatives to cater for them. In September 2013, it was announced that SkyCity Auckland had purchased a 21m motor yacht "Horizon II" for corporate entertainment. In February 2018, SkyCity Auckland opened New Zealand’s first purpose-built e-sports broadcasting studio, located on Level 2 of the Sky Tower known as XO Bar.
By 2019 it will house a convention centre catering for up to 3500 guests, costing over $700 million, after cutting a deal with the Government that will allow it to install extra pokie machines and gambling tables. The Sky Tower, convention centre and hotel were all built by Fletcher Construction and completed by 1997. SkyCity was the second casino in the country. At the time of its construction, it was controversial. Unlike the city's icon towering above it, major figures like former Auckland Mayor Dick Hubbard have remained critical of the casino, though he acknowledged that the complex itself has been positive for the city. However, there is criticism from various sources that the casino creates problem gambling and does not ban problem gamblers proactively enough; the casino provides 2000 jobs, has returned NZ$670 million in dividends to Australian shareholders, from more than eight million visitors that have passed through, 15% from overseas. NZ$18.6 million were paid to community organisations and trusts in the same time.
1.5% of the operating profit has to be paid out to charity according to law. With profits at its parent, the SkyCity Entertainment Group, falling, it has been announced that around 230 staff of Sky City would be let go within the coming 12–18 months, though it was considered that this was to be through turnover attrition, will be focused on management staff. SkyCity Hotel, Auckland is a casino hotel and was opened in February 1996, it is one of New Zealands busiest hotels and is located inside the main Auckland complex and serves families, business travellers and gamblers who play at the casino. It offers 323 rooms refurbished in 2013. Hotel guests may use all the facilities in the complex, it is a Qualmark rated 4 star hotel. SkyCity Grand Hotel is a luxury 5 star hotel and was opened by Prime Minister Helen Clark in April 2005 after costing $85 million, it is adjacent and is connected by a skybridge. It serves older guests, VIPs and high stake gamblers who play at the casino. Many celebrities have stayed at the hotel including Justin Timberlake, Christina Aguilera and Linkin Park.
The Grand features 316 rooms. The rooms include The Grand Suite, 8 Premier Self Contained Suites, 11 Executive King Suites and 296 Luxury King rooms; the room interiors were designed by Chhada Siembieda. Facilities and services include 24-hour room service and reception, a heated lap pool, fitness center, health spa, personal trainers, baby sitting and a hotel doctor. In May 2013, the Government came to a deal with SkyCity to build a convention centre worth $402 million in exchange for gambling concessions; the concessions would allow SkyCity to install an extra 230 poker machines, 40 gambling tables, as well as a further 12 gaming tables that could be substituted for automated table game player stations. SkyCity would receive an extension to their casino licence, from its expiry in 2021 until 2048. In exchange, SkyCity would be required to meet the full costs of the convention centre project. Describing the benefit for New Zealand, Economic Development Minister, Steven Joyce said the convention centre would add an estimated $90 million a year to the local economy, create 1,000 jobs during construction and 800 jobs once the centre is running.
In 2015 it was announced that the anticipated cost of the convention centre had increased by $70 to $130 million, to a total maximum of $530 million. Prime Minister John Key said he was considering making up the shortfall by giving SkyCity public tax money to finish the project – as it would be an "eyesore" if the extra funding was not made available. Two days on 12 February, following criticism in the media and in Parliament, the Prime Minister described the use of taxpayer funds as the "least preferred option". Subsequently, on 15 February, it was announced that instead of seeking funding from the government for project over-runs, SkyCity would instead be allowed to build a convention centre, smaller, so that total costs would remain about $400 million; the other option was. The Labour Party claimed the move was a win for those who were opposed to public money bailing out the deal. Gambling in New Zealand SkyCity Auckland
The New Zealand Herald
The New Zealand Herald is a daily newspaper published in Auckland, New Zealand, owned by New Zealand Media and Entertainment. It has the largest newspaper circulation of all newspapers in New Zealand, peaking at over 200,000 copies in 2006, although circulation of the daily Herald had declined to 115,213 copies on average by December 2017, its main circulation area is the Auckland region. It is delivered to much of the north of the North Island including Northland and King Country; the New Zealand Herald was founded by William Chisholm Wilson, first published on 13 November 1863. Wilson had been a partner with John Williamson in the New Zealander, but left to start a rival daily newspaper as he saw a business opportunity with Auckland's growing population, he had split with Williamson because Wilson supported the war against the Māori while Williamson opposed it. The Herald promoted a more constructive relationship between the North and South Islands. After the New Zealander closed in 1866 The Daily Southern Cross provided competition after Julius Vogel took a majority shareholding in 1868.
The Daily Southern Cross was first published in 1843 by William Brown as The Southern Cross and had been a daily since 1862. Vogel sold out of the paper in 1873 and Alfred Horton bought it in 1876. In 1876 the Wilson family and Horton joined in partnership and The New Zealand Herald absorbed The Daily Southern Cross. In 1879 the United Press Association was formed so that the main daily papers could share news stories; the organisation became the New Zealand Press Association in 1942. In 1892, the New Zealand Herald, Otago Daily Times, Press agreed to share the costs of a London correspondent and advertising salesman; the New Zealand Press Association closed in 2011. The Wilson and Horton families were both represented in the company, known as Wilson & Horton, until 1996 when Tony O'Reilly's Independent News & Media Group of Dublin purchased the Horton family's interest in the company; the Herald is now owned by Entertainment. That company is owned by Sydney-based APN News & Media and the Radio Network, owned by the Australian Radio Network.
Dita de Boni was a columnist for the newspaper, writing her first columns for the NZ Herald in 1995. From 2012 - 2015 she wrote a business and politics column until – after a series of articles critical of the Key government – the Herald discontinued her column for financial reasons. Gordon Minhinnick was a staff cartoonist from the 1930s until his retirement in the 1980s. Malcolm Evans was fired from his position as staff cartoonist in 2003 after the newspaper received complaints about his cartoons on the conflict between Israel and Palestine. Laurence Clark was the daily political cartoonist from 1987 to 1996, continued to publish cartoons weekly in the Herald until 2000. On 10 September 2012, the Herald moved to a compact format for weekday editions, after 150 years publishing in broadsheet format; the broadsheet format was retained for the Saturday edition. In April 2007, APN NZ announced it was outsourcing the bulk of the Herald's copy editing to an Australian-owned company, Pagemasters.
In November 2012, two months after the launch of its new compact format, APN News and Media announced it would be restructuring its workforce, cutting eight senior roles from across the Herald's range of titles. The Herald is traditionally a centre-right newspaper, was given the nickname "Granny Herald" into the 1990s; this changed with the acquisition of the paper by Independent News & Media in 1996, today, despite remaining free enterprise oriented on economic matters such as trade and foreign investment, the Herald is editorially progressive on international geopolitics and military matters, printing material from British newspapers such as The Independent and The Observer but more conservative newspapers such as The Daily Telegraph. It regularly reprints syndicated material from the and politically conservative, right-wing British tabloid the Daily Mail; the Herald's stance on the Middle East is supportive of Israel, as seen most in its 2003 censorship and dismissal of cartoonist Malcolm Evans following his submission of cartoons critical of Israel.
On domestic matters, editorial opinion is centrist supporting conservative values. In 2007, an editorial disapproved of some legislation introduced by the Labour-led government, the Electoral Finance Act, to the point of overtly campaigning against the legislation. In July 2015, the New Zealand Press Council ruled that Herald columnist Rachel Glucina had failed to properly represent herself as a journalist when seeking comment from Amanda Bailey on a complaint she had made about Prime Minister John Key pulling her hair when he was a customer at the cafe in which she worked; the Herald published Bailey's name and comments after she had retracted permission for Glucina to do so. The council said there was an “element of subterfuge” in Glucina's actions and that there was not enough public interest to justify her behaviour. In its ruling the council said that, “The NZ Herald has fallen sadly short of those standards in this case.” The Herald's editor denied the accusations of subterfuge. Glucina subsequently resigned from the newspaper.
In 1998 the Weekend Herald was set up as a separate title and the newspaper's website was launched. A compact-sized Sunday edition, the Herald on Sunday, was first published on 3 October 2004 under the editorship of Suzanne Chetwin and for five years, by Shayne Currie, it won Newspaper of the Year for the calendar years 2007 and 2009 and is New Zealand's second-highest-circulating weekly newspaper after the more established and conservative broadshee