The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
In anatomy, a sesamoid bone is a bone embedded within a tendon or a muscle. It is derived from the Latin word sesamum, due to the small size of most sesamoids; these bones form in response to strain, or can be present as a normal variant. The kneecap is the largest sesamoid bone in the body. Sesamoids act like pulleys, providing a smooth surface for tendons to slide over, increasing the tendon's ability to transmit muscular forces; the sesamoid is a small nodular bone most present embedded in tendons in the region of the thumb. Calcification of sesamoid bone is one of the important features of pubertal growth spurt, earlier in females than in males. Absence of sesamoid bone indicates delay in reaching puberty. Sesamoid bones can be found on joints throughout the body, including: In the knee—the patella; this is the largest sesamoid bone. In the hand—two sesamoid bones are found in the distal portions of the first metacarpal bone. There is commonly a sesamoid bone in distal portions of the second metacarpal bone.
In the wrist—The pisiform of the wrist is a sesamoid bone. It begins to ossify in children ages 9–12. In the foot—the first metatarsal bone has two sesamoid bones at its connection to the big toe. One is found on the lateral side of the first metatarsal while the other is found on the medial side. In some people, only a single sesamoid is found on the first metatarsal bone. In the neck—Although the hyoid bone is free-floating, it is not technically a sesamoid bone. All sesamoid bones form directly from the connective tissue found in ligaments. By contrast, the hyoid bone forms from a cartilaginous precursor like most other bones in the body. In the ear—the lenticular process of the incus is a sesamoid bone and therefore is considered the fourth ossicle of the middle ear. One or both of the sesamoid bones under the first metatarsophalangeal joint can be multipartite – in two or three parts; the fabella is a small sesamoid bone found in some mammals embedded in the tendon of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle behind the lateral condyle of the femur.
It is a variant of normal present in humans in 10 % to 30 % of individuals. The fabella can be mutipartite or bipartite; the cyamella is a small sesamoid bone embedded in the tendon of the popliteus muscle. It is a variant of normal anatomy, it is seen in humans, but has been described more in other primates and certain other animals. A common foot ailment in dancers is sesamoiditis; this is a form of tendinitis which results from the tendons surrounding the sesamoid becoming inflamed or irritated. Sesamoid bones have a limited blood supply, rendering them prone to avascular necrosis, difficult to treat. In equine anatomy, the term sesamoid bone refers to the two sesamoid bones found at the back of the fetlock or metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints in both hindlimbs and forelimbs; these should be termed the proximal sesamoid bones whereas the navicular bone should be referred to as the distal sesamoid bone. The patella is a form of sesamoid bone in the horse. Although many carnivores have radial sesamoid bones, the giant panda and red panda independently evolved to have an enlarged radial sesamoid bone.
This evolution has caused the two species to diverge from other carnivores. The red panda originally evolved the "pseudo-thumb" in order to assist in arboreal locomotion; when the red panda evolved to consume a bamboo diet, the enlarged bone underwent exaptation to assist in grasping bamboo. The giant panda, evolved the enlarged radial sesamoid bone around the same time as it evolved a bamboo diet. In the giant panda, the bone is used in grasping the bamboo. In these two panda species, DYNC2H1 gene and PCNT gene have been identified as possible causes for the pseudo-thumb development; the enlarged radial sesamoid bone of cotton rats has been studied. Their enlarged radial sesamoid bone and that of the giant panda have a similar morphology and size relative to the rest of the hand; the reason for this evolutionary change is still unknown. Accessory bone Gray's Anatomy Media related to Sesamoid bone at Wikimedia Commons
Gray's Anatomy is an English language textbook of human anatomy written by Henry Gray and illustrated by Henry Vandyke Carter. Earlier editions were called Anatomy: Descriptive and Surgical, Anatomy of the Human Body and Gray's Anatomy: Descriptive and Applied, but the book's name is shortened to, editions are titled, Gray's Anatomy; the book is regarded as an influential work on the subject, has continued to be revised and republished from its initial publication in 1858 to the present day. The latest edition of the book, the 41st, was published in September 2015; the English anatomist Henry Gray was born in 1827. He studied the development of the endocrine glands and spleen and in 1853 was appointed Lecturer on Anatomy at St George's Hospital Medical School in London. In 1855, he approached his colleague Henry Vandyke Carter with his idea to produce an inexpensive and accessible anatomy textbook for medical students. Dissecting unclaimed bodies from workhouse and hospital mortuaries through the Anatomy Act of 1832, the two worked for 18 months on what would form the basis of the book.
Their work was first published in 1858 by John William Parker in London. It was dedicated by Gray to 1st Baronet. An imprint of this English first edition was published in the United States in 1859, with slight alterations. Gray prepared a second, revised edition, published in the United Kingdom in 1860 by J. W. Parker. However, Gray died the following year, at the age of 34, having contracted smallpox while treating his nephew, his death had come just three years after the initial publication of his Anatomy Descriptive and Surgical. So, the work on his much-praised book was continued by others. Longman's publication began in 1863, after their acquisition of the J. W. Parker publishing business; this coincided with the publication date of the third British edition of Gray's Anatomy. Successive British editions of Gray's Anatomy continued to be published under the Longman, more Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier imprints, reflecting further changes in ownership of the publishing companies over the years.
The full American rights were purchased by Blanchard and Lea, who published the first of twenty-five distinct American editions of Gray's Anatomy in 1862, whose company became Lea & Febiger in 1908. Lea & Febiger continued publishing the American editions until the company was sold in 1990; the first American publication was edited by Richard James Dunglison, whose father Robley Dunglison was physician to Thomas Jefferson. Dunglison edited the next four editions; these were: the Second American Edition. W. W. Keen edited the next two editions, namely: the New American from the Eleventh English Edition. In September 1896, reference to the English edition was dropped and it was published as the Fourteenth Edition, edited by Bern B. Gallaudet, F. J. Brockway, J. P. McMurrich, who edited the Fifteenth Edition. There is an edition dated 1896 which does still reference the English edition stating it is "A New Edition, Thoroughly Revised by American Authorities, from the thirteenth English Edition" and edited by T. Pickering Pick, F.
R. C. S. and published by Lea Brothers & Co. Philadelphia and New York; the Sixteenth Edition was edited by J. C. DaCosta, the Seventeenth by DaCosta and E. A. Spitzka. Spitzka edited the Eighteenth and Nineteenth editions, in October 1913, R. Howden edited the New American from the Eighteenth English Edition; the "American" editions continued with consecutive numbering from the Twentieth onwards, with W. H. Lewis editing the 20th, 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 24th. C. M. Gross edited the 25th, 26th, 27th, 28th, 29th. Carmine D. Clemente extensively revised the 30th edition. With the sale of Lea & Febiger in 1990, the 30th edition was the last American Edition. Sometimes separate editing efforts with mismatches between British and American edition numbering led to the existence, for many years, of two main "flavours" or "branches" of Gray's Anatomy: the U. S. and the British one. This can cause misunderstandings and confusion when quoting from or trying to purchase a certain edition. For example, a comparison of publishing histories shows that the American numbering kept apace with the British up until the 16th editions in 1905, with the American editions either acknowledging the English edition, or matching the numbering in the 14th, 15th and 16th editions.
The American numbering crept ahead, with the 17th American edition published in 1908, while the 17th British edition was published in 1909. This increased to a three-year gap for the 18th and 19th editions, leading to the 1913 publication of the New American from the Eighteenth English, which brought the numbering back into line. Both 20th editions were published in the same year. Thereafter, it was the British numbering that pushed ahead, with the 21st British edition in 1920, the 21st American edition in 1924; this discrepancy continued to increase, so that the 30th British edition was published in 1949, while the 30th and last American edition was published in 1984. The newest, 41st edition of Gray's Anatomy was published on 25 September 2015 by Elsevier in both print and online versions, and
In human anatomy, the infraspinatus muscle is a thick triangular muscle, which occupies the chief part of the infraspinatous fossa. As one of the four muscles of the rotator cuff, the main function of the infraspinatus is to externally rotate the humerus and stabilize the shoulder joint, it attaches medially to the infraspinous fossa of the scapula and laterally to the middle facet of the greater tubercle of the humerus. The muscle arises by fleshy fibers from the medial two-thirds of the infraspinatous fossa, by tendinous fibers from the ridges on its surface; the fibers converge to a tendon, which glides over the lateral border of the spine of the scapula and passing across the posterior part of the capsule of the shoulder-joint, is inserted into the middle impression on the greater tubercle of the humerus. The trapezoidal insertion of the infraspinatus onto the humerus is much larger than the equivalent insertion of the supraspinatus, the reason why the infraspinatus is involved in rotator cuff tears about as as the supraspinatus.
The tendon of this muscle is sometimes separated from the capsule of the shoulder-joint by a bursa, which may communicate with the joint cavity. The suprascapular nerve innervates the infraspinatus muscles; these muscles function to abduct and laterally rotate the arm, respectively. The infraspinatus is fused with the teres minor; the infraspinatus is the main external rotator of the shoulder. When the arm is fixed, it abducts the inferior angle of the scapula, its synergists are teres minor and the deltoid. The infraspinatus and teres minor rotate the head of the humerus outward. Additionally, the infraspinatus reinforces the capsule of the shoulder joint. From an evolutionary prospective, the pectoral muscles – the pectoralis major and pectoralis minor – are thought to have evolved from a primitive muscle sheet that connected the coracoid to the humerus. In late reptilians and early mammals, this muscle structure was displaced dorsally; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 441 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Saladin, Kenneth.
Anatomy and Physiology: the Unity of Form and Function. 7th ed. McGraw Hill Education, 2014. Pp. 343, 346, 491, 543. Funk, Lennard. Rotator Cuff Biomechanics. Shoulderdoc.co.uk. TheFresh Healthcare Marketing, 11 Feb 2016. Web. Anatomy figure: 03:03-04 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center ExRx
Extensor pollicis brevis muscle
In human anatomy, the extensor pollicis brevis is a skeletal muscle on the dorsal side of the forearm. It lies on the medial side of, is connected with, the abductor pollicis longus; the extensor pollicis brevis arises from the ulna distal to the abductor pollicis longus, from the interosseous membrane, from the dorsal surface of the radius. Its direction is similar to that of the abductor pollicis longus, its tendon passing the same groove on the lateral side of the lower end of the radius, to be inserted into the base of the first phalanx of the thumb. Absence. In a close relationship to the abductor pollicis longus, the extensor pollicis brevis both extends and abducts the thumb at the carpometacarpal and metacarpophalangeal joints; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 455 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Platzer, Werner. Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Vol. 1: Locomotor System. Thieme. ISBN 3-13-533305-1. PTCentral
The supraspinatus is a small muscle of the upper back that runs from the supraspinatous fossa superior portion of the scapula to the greater tubercle of the humerus. It is one of the four rotator cuff muscles and abducts the arm at the shoulder; the spine of the scapula separates the supraspinatus muscle from the infraspinatus muscle, which originates below the spine. The supraspinatus muscle arises from the supraspinous fossa, a shallow depression in the body of the scapula above its spine; the supraspinatus muscle tendon passes laterally beneath the cover of the acromion. Research in 1996 showed; the supraspinatus tendon is inserted into the superior facet of the greater tubercle of the humerus. The distal attachments of the three rotator cuff muscles that insert into the greater tubercle of the humerus can be abbreviated as SIT when viewed from superior to inferior, or SITS when the subscapularis muscle, which attaches to the lesser tubercle of the humerus, is included; the suprascapular nerve innervates the supraspinatus muscle as well as the infraspinatus muscle.
It comes from the upper trunk of the brachial plexus. This nerve can be damaged along its course in fractures of the overlying clavicle, which can reduce the person's ability to initiate the abduction; the supraspinatus muscle performs abduction of the arm, pulls the head of the humerus medially towards the glenoid cavity. It independently prevents the head of the humerus to slip inferiorly; the supraspinatus works in cooperation with the deltoid muscle to perform abduction, including when the arm is in adducted position. Beyond 15 degrees the deltoid muscle becomes more effective at abducting the arm and becomes the main propagator of this action. DiagnosisAntero-posterior projectional radiography of the shoulder may demonstrate a high-riding humeral head, with an acromiohumeral distance of less than 7 mm. RepairOne study has indicated that arthroscopic surgery for full-thickness supraspinatus tears is effective for improving shoulder functionality. A comparative effectiveness review of nonoperative and operative treatments for rotator cuff tears was performed at the University of Alberta Evidence-based Practice Center in 2010.
The review identified one study which reported that, "Patients receiving early surgery had superior function compared with the delayed surgical group". The review noted that the level of significance of the study was not reported, the review chose not to include it as one of their conclusions. Instead it concluded that "The paucity of evidence related to early versus delayed surgery is of particular concern, as patients and providers must decide whether to attempt initial nonoperative management or proceed with surgical repair". In terms of operative techniques, differences in neither cuff integrity nor shoulder function were reported in studies comparing single-row versus double-row suture anchor fixation and mattress locking versus absorbable sutures. Postoperatively, a slight advantage was evident in patients who performed continuous passive motion alongside physical therapy, as opposed to those who performed physical therapy. There is insufficient evidence to adequately compare the effects of operative against nonoperative interventions.
Complications were reported seldom, or were not determined to be clinically significant. A 2016 study evaluating the effectiveness of arthroscopic treatment of rotator cuff calcification supported surgical intervention. Calcification of the supraspinatus tendon is a major contributor to shoulder pain in the general population and is worsened following a supraspinatus tear; the results of the study included the return to sports and original functionality of 95.8% of the patients after a mean of 5.3 post-operative months. A significant decrease in pain was observed over time following removal of the calcification; the study showed the overall effectiveness of arthroscopic procedures on shoulder repair, the lack of risk experienced. Before surgery, supraspinatus tendonitis should be ruled out as the cause of pain. GoogleBody - Supraspinatus muscle
Recurrent branch of the median nerve
The recurrent branch of the median nerve is the branch of the median nerve which supplies the thenar muscles. It is occasionally referred to as the thenar branch, or the thenar muscular branch, of the median nerve. In the thenar eminence it provides motor innervation to: opponens pollicis, abductor pollicis brevis, superficial part of flexor pollicis brevis. An earlier branch of the median nerve supplies the lumbricals 1 & 2. All other intrinsic muscles of the hand receive their motor innervation from branches of the ulnar nerve, it passes distal to the transverse carpal ligament. It ends in the opponens pollicis; this particular nerve is called "Million Dollar Nerve" because injury to this nerve during carpal tunnel surgery can lead to a million dollar lawsuit. Injury to this nerve can lead to loss of function of the thumb; such injury can happen. The possibility of injury to this nerve is greater when it runs through the ligament without any curling at the distal part of the ligament. Lesson5nervesofhand at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman