A flight attendant is a member of an aircrew employed by airlines aboard commercial flights to ensure the safety and comfort of passengers. Collectively called the cabin crew, flight attendants are deployed in the cabins of all commercial flights and additionally may be present on some private or business jets and government or military aircraft; the role of a flight attendant derives from that of similar positions on passenger ships or passenger trains, but it has more direct involvement with passengers because of the confined quarters on aircraft. Additionally, the job of a flight attendant revolves around safety to a much greater extent than those of similar staff on other forms of transportation. Flight attendants on board a flight collectively form a cabin crew, as distinguished from pilots and engineers in the cockpit; the German Heinrich Kubis was the world's first flight attendant, in 1912. Kubis first attended the passengers on board the DELAG Zeppelin LZ 10 Schwaben, he attended to the famous LZ 129 Hindenburg and was on board when it burst into flames.
He survived by jumping out a window. Origins of the word "steward" in transportation are reflected in the term "chief steward" as used in maritime transport terminology; the term purser and chief steward are used interchangeably describing personnel with similar duties among seafaring occupations. This lingual derivation results from the international British maritime tradition dating back to the 14th century and the civilian United States Merchant Marine on which US aviation is somewhat modelled. Due to international conventions and agreements, in which all ships' personnel who sail internationally are documented by their respective countries, the U. S. Merchant Marine assigns such duties to the chief steward in the overall rank and command structure of which pursers are not positionally represented or rostered. Imperial Airways of the United Kingdom had "cabin boys" or "stewards". In the US, Stout Airways was the first to employ stewards in 1926, working on Ford Trimotor planes between Detroit and Grand Rapids, Michigan.
Western Airlines and Pan American World Airways were the first US carriers to employ stewards to serve food. Ten-passenger Fokker aircraft used in the Caribbean had stewards in the era of gambling trips to Havana, Cuba from Key West, Florida. Lead flight attendants would in many instances perform the role of purser, steward, or chief steward in modern aviation terminology; the first female flight attendant was a 25-year-old registered nurse named Ellen Church. Hired by United Airlines in 1930, she first envisioned nurses on aircraft. Other airlines followed suit, hiring nurses to serve as flight attendants called "stewardesses" or "air hostesses", on most of their flights. In the United States, the job was one of only a few in the 1930s to permit women, coupled with the Great Depression, led to large numbers of applicants for the few positions available. Two thousand women applied for just 43 positions offered by Transcontinental and Western Airlines in December 1935. Female flight attendants replaced male ones, by 1936, they had all but taken over the role.
They were selected not only for their knowledge but for their characteristics. A 1936 New York Times article described the requirements: The girls who qualify for hostesses must be petite. Add to that the rigid physical examination each must undergo four times every year, you are assured of the bloom that goes with perfect health. Three decades a 1966 New York Times classified ad for stewardesses at Eastern Airlines listed these requirements: A high school graduate, single, 20 years of age. 5'2" but no more than 5'9", weight 105 to 135 in proportion to height and have at least 20/40 vision without glasses. Appearance was considered as one of the most important factors to become a stewardess. At that time, airlines believed that the exploitation of female sexuality would increase their profits. In the United States, they were fired if they decided to wed.. The requirement to be a registered nurse on an American airline was relaxed as more women were hired, disappeared entirely during World War II as many nurses joined military nurse corps.
Ruth Carol Taylor was the first African-American flight attendant in the United States. Hired in December 1957, on February 11, 1958, Taylor was the flight attendant on a Mohawk Airlines flight from Ithaca to New York, the first time such a position had been held by an African American, she was let go within six months as a result of Mohawk's then-common marriage ban. The U. S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's first complainants were female flight attendants complaining of age discrimination, weight requirements, bans on marriage. In 1968, the EEOC declared age restrictions on flight attendants’ employment to be illegal sex discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. In 1968, the EEOC ruled that sex was not a bona fide occupational requirement to be a flight attendant; the restriction of hiring only women was lifted at all airlines in 1971 due to the decisive court case of Diaz vs. Pan Am; the no-marriage rule w
Edith Carter was an English stage actor and playwright, active in the 1920s-30s. She was the sister of the novelist John L. Carter, the aunt of the mystery and detective novel author Emery Bonett and the sister-in-law of author and playwright Winifred Carter. Plays Treasures in Heaven 1912 Lass o’ Laughter 1922 – Queen’s Theatre Educating a Husband 1923 – Southend Rep Theatre Certified Imam 1924 – Theatre Royal, Castleford Uncle Hiram Here 1925 – "Q" Theatre The Lovely Liar 1927 The Two Mrs. Camerons. A Play in Three Acts – Q Theatre and Townley Street Sunday School by the CS Players, January 1945. A Play in Three Acts – Q Theatre, London, he adapted at least one of her plays into a novel. Known works Peggy the Aeronaut 1910 – as J. L. J. Carter Nymphet – 1915 as Compton Irving Carter Come Day, Go Day 1922 – as John L. Carter Educating a Husband: From the Play of that Name by Edith Carter 1926 – as Compton Irving Carter White Sheikh. A Novel 1935 – as Compton Irving His Lady Secretary. A Comedy in Three Acts 1938 – as Compton Irving Daughter of Egypt 1937 – as Compton Irving Wings to the Peacock 1939 – as Compton Irving Carter Plays by Edith Carter on the Great War Theatre website
The CMLL Torneo Nacional de Parejas Increíbles or the National Incredible Pairs Tournament was a tag team Lucha Libre tournament held by the Mexican wrestling promotion Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre. The tournament is based on the Lucha Libre Parejas Increíbles match concept, which pairs two wrestlers of opposite allegiance, one portraying a villain, referred to as a "rudo" in Lucha Libre wrestling terminology, one portraying a fan favorites, or "técnico"; the 2019 version of the tournament was the tenth year in a row that CMLL held the tournament since the first tournament in 2010. The winners are presented with a trophy but not given any other tangible reward for the victory; the team of Titán and Bárbaro Cavernario defeated Volador Jr. and Último Guerrero in the finals of the tournament, after Volador Jr. hit Guerrero by accident, only for Último Guerrero to retaliate against Volador Jr. allowing the unified opponents to win the match. The Mexican professional wrestling promotion Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre held their first Torneo Nacional de Parejas Increíbles in 2010, from January 22 through February 5, marking the beginning of what became an annual tournament.
CMLL has previous held Parejas Increíbles tournaments on an irregular basis and promoted individual Parejas Increíbles and Relevos Increíbles. The Parejas Increíbles concept is a long-standing tradition in lucha libre and is at times referred to as a "strange bedfellows" match in English speaking countries, because a Pareja Increible consists of a face and a heel teamed up for a specific match, or in this case for a tournament; the 2018 tournament was the ninth annual Parejas Increíbles tournament, like its predecessors held as part of CMLL's regular Friday night CMLL Super Viernes shows. The tournament featured 15 professional wrestling matches with different wrestlers teaming up, some of whom were involved in pre-existing scripted feuds or storylines while others were paired up for the tournament. For the Torneo Nacional de Parejas Increíbles tournaments, CMLL teamed up a técnico and a rudo. who are involved in a pre-existing storyline feud at the time of the tournament so that the tournament itself can be used as a storytelling device to help tell the story of escalating confrontations between two feuding wrestlers.
The tournament format followed CMLL's traditional tournament formats, with two qualifying blocks of eight teams that competed during the first and second week of the tournament and a final match between the two block winners. The qualifying blocks were all one-fall matches while the tournament final was a best two-out-of-three-falls tag team match. Block AÁngel de Oro and La Bestia del Ring Blue Panther and Máscara Año 2000 Carístico and Mephisto Flyer and Forastero Guerrero Maya Jr. and Euforia Soberano Jr. and Sansón Titán and Bárbaro Cavernario Tritón and Rey Bucanero Block BAtlantis and Negro Casas Audaz and Templario Místico and El Cuatrero Niebla Roja and El Terrible Rush and Vangellys Stuka Jr. and Hechicero Valiente and Gran Guerrero Volador Jr. and Último Guerrero For the first block of the tournament, the eight tecnico participants started out by competing in a batle royal to determine the brackets for the matches that night. Carístico and Flyer were the first two to be eliminated, which meant that they would wrestle in the first actual tournament match.
The winners of the match were Soberano Jr. and Tritón, earning them the longest rest of any of the competitors. The team of Titán and Bárbaro Cavernario came to the ring wearing ring gear, a mix of both wrestlers' normal style, Cavernario wore one of Titán's masks while Titán wore a leopard print singlet to show their unity; the teams of Carístico and Mephisto, Guerrero Maya Jr. and Euforia, Titán and Bárbaro Cavernario and Soberano Jr. and Sansón all qualified for the quarterfinals of the tournament. Carístico and Mephiston defeated Guerrero Maya Jr. and Euforia, while Titán and Bárbaro Cavernario defeated Soberano Jr. and Sansón to set up the semi-final match. The finals, the longest match on the show, saw Titán and Bárbaro Cavernario win the match to qualify for the finals; the other bracket of the tournament took place the following Friday night. For this block, it was the rudo competitors. Vangellys and Gran Guerrero won the battle royal in 3:14 to earn the longest rest before their tournament match.
In the first round Místico and El Cuatrero defeated Stuka Jr. and Hechicero and Negro Casas defeated Audaz and Templario, Último Guerrero and Volador Jr. defeated Niebla Roja and El Terrible, Rush and Vangellys defeated Gran Guerrero and Valiente. The second round saw the teams of Último Guerrero and Volador Jr. and Rush and Vangellys qualify for the semi-final match. While Último Guerrero and Volador Jr. had been on opposite sides over the years in CMLL, they worked together without any problems as they defeated Rush and Vangelly to earn the second spot in the finals the following week. The final was the main event of CMLL's 63. Aniversario de Arena México show held on April 26. For the finals, the two teams faced off under best-two-out-of-three falls rules. Guerrero and Volador Jr. took the first fall, while Titán and Bárbaro Cavernario tied it up by winning the second fall shortl