The flight-deck cruiser was a proposed type of aircraft cruiser, warships combining features of aircraft carriers and light cruisers designed by the United States Navy during the period between World War I and World War II. Several designs were proposed for the type; the final design was developed just before World War II, the entry of the United States into the war saw the project come to an end. In the 1920s, following the signing of the Washington Naval Treaty, the United States Navy converted two incomplete battlecruisers into aircraft carriers, USS Lexington and USS Saratoga; these conversions proved to be expensive, designs were sought that would provide aircraft carrying capability for the fleet at a more reasonable cost. USS Ranger, America's first purpose-built aircraft carrier, was of a smaller, more economical design than the battlecruiser conversions, however the ship sacrificed the big-gun scouting capability of the earlier ships. In an attempt to develop a ship capable of both carrying aircraft and engaging the enemy in the scouting role, the "flight-deck cruiser" concept was developed, following a series of studies proposing the conversion of cruisers under construction into carriers, all of which were rejected.
In addition to providing an economical method of providing additional aircraft for the fleet, the "flight-deck cruiser" was seen to have an additional advantage. Several designs were proposed for a ship carrying both aircraft and a gun armament equivalent to a light cruiser's. One design, from 1930, was described as "a Brooklyn-class light cruiser forwards one half of a Wasp-class aircraft carrier aft", utilized an early version of the angled deck that would in the 1950s be adopted for use by fleet carriers; the vessel, 650 feet in length, had a 350-foot flight deck and hangar aft for twenty-four aircraft, while forwards three triple 6-inch gun turrets were mounted, the standard armament for a light cruiser of the time. A secondary dual purpose armament of eight 5-inch guns was projected to be carried for defense against enemy torpedo-boats and aircraft. In 1934, another design for a flight-deck cruiser was proposed, featuring twelve 6 in guns, mounted forwards and aft with a 200-foot flight deck in between.
In December 1939, a design for a much larger flight-deck cruiser, displacing 12,000 tons, was proposed, fitted with two catapults, a triple turret for 8-inch guns, a 420-foot flight deck. Despite the continued designs and interest in the idea, no funding was appropriated for the construction of a flight-deck cruiser. In 1940, the design was formally shelved, although provision was made for reconsideration of the concept at a future date; the entry of the United States into World War II following the bombing of Pearl Harbor, removed the primary justifications for the concept of a hybrid warship, as naval limitations treaties were now moot and adequate funding was now available for the construction of more conventional ships. As a result, the flight deck cruiser concept was never revisited. Although no flight-deck cruisers were built by the U. S. Navy, the Soviet Union's Kiev-class aircraft carrier, developed in the 1970s, is remarkably similar to that of the original flight-deck cruiser design, featuring an angled flight deck aft with anti-ship missile launchers forwards.
In addition, during the early 1980s, plans were proposed for the reactivation of the U. S. Navy's Iowa-class battleships that entailed the removal of each ship's aft turret and the installation of a flight deck for operating V/STOL aircraft. Moskva-class helicopter carrier Invincible-class aircraft carrier Vittorio Veneto-class helicopter carrier Notes Bibliography Further reading The Saga of Tarrantry, a fictional World War II story featuring a flight-deck cruiser-like vessel
Stafford was an East Indiaman launched in 1769 that made two complete voyages to India and China for the British East India Company. During her third voyage she was wrecked in 1779 at Calcutta. Captain Thomas Lyell sailed from The Downs on 6 February 1770, bound for China. On 11 March Stafford was at France, she reached Johanna on 29 July, arrived at Madras on 31 August. She continued her voyage, reaching Malacca on 8 November and Trengganu on 17 May 1791 before arriving at Whampoa on 12 July. Homeward bound, she was at the 27 Dec Bocca Tigris on 27 December, reached St Helena on 6 April 1772, arrived at The Downs on 27 June. Captain Thomas Lyell sailed from Torbay on 27 Apr 1774, bound for China. Stafford reached Johanna on 1 September, arrived at Bombay on 4 January 1775, she sailed back and forth from Bombay, visiting numerous ports in India before setting out for China. On 19 December Stafford was at Bassein, returning to Bombay on 4 January 1775. On 17 January she was at Surat, she returned to Bombay on 31 January.
She was at Surat again on 19 Bombay on 1 March. On 12 March Stafford was at Onore, on 18 March Tellicherry, on 25 March Anjengo, on 7 April Cochin, on 17 April Tellicherry again, on 5 May Mangalore, on 9 May Onore again, she returned to Bombay on 27 May. Stafford set out for China, returning to India several times first. On 4 October she was at Malacca, she returned to Malacca on 26 October. She visited Cochin again on Surat on 12 February, she was at Malacca again on 18 June, arrived at Whampoa on 4 August. Homeward bound, Stafford crossed the Second Bar on 7 January 1777, reached St Helena on 29 May, arrived at The Downs on 1 October. Captain George Hutchinson sailed from Portsmouth on 27 May 1778, bound for Bengal, she had to delay her departure to allow Lieutenant-General Sir Eyre Coote to board with his wife and suite. Coote was sailing to take up the position of Commander in Chief of the EIC's forces in India. Stafford left on 18 June. On 8 September she anchored at Table Bay, she left the Cape of Good Hope on 1 October, together with two other Indiamen and under escort by the 64-gun HMS Asia.
On 20 November the convoy encountered a Dutch vessel from Batavia that informed them that hostilities had broken out on the Coromandel Coast and Bengal. Stafford parted from the convoy. Stafford anchored in Madras Roads on 28 December. On 19 March 1799 Stafford and Coote sailed for Bengal. On 22 or 23 March she anchored at Kedgeree. Stafford was wrecked on a sandbank in the Hooghly River on 29 August 1779, became a total loss. All her crew were saved and were transferred to Britannia to bring Britannia back to England. Citations References Hackman, Rowan. Ships of the East India Company. Gravesend, Kent: World Ship Society. ISBN 0-905617-96-7
Rea Brändle was a Swiss journalist and writer. Brändle grew up in upper Toggenburg. After she completed her German studies, she became a cultural editor and journalist for Tages-Anzeiger. In 1984, she contributed to the publication of the booklet Die Sprache ist kein Mann, Madame of the women's group of the Swiss Journalists Union, she became an independent author. In 2012, she edited a biography of writer Alfred Huggenberger with historian Mario König on behalf of the government of Thurgau. For several years, she wrote for WOZ Die Wochenzeitung in Zurich. In 2006, she contributed to WOZ as a cultural editor. BooksJohannes Seluner, Findling. Eine Recherche. Zurich: Limmat, 1990, ISBN 3-85791-162-X. Wildfremd, hautnah. Völkerschauen und Schauplätze Zürich 1880–1960. Zurich: Rotpunkt, 1995, ISBN 3-85869-120-8. 2nd edition and enlarged: Zurich, Rotpunkt, 2013, ISBN 978-3-85869-561-1 with Felix Kauf and Ernst Scagnet: Die Regierung & Partner. Total verrückte Geschichte einer ganz normalen Entwicklung. Wattwil, Toggenburger, 2004, ISBN 3-908166-19-5.
200 Jahre Theater St. Gallen. Basel, Theaterkulturverlag, 2005, ISBN 3-908145-50-3. Über Giuseppe Reichmuth. Was macht einer mit so viel Talent. Zurich, Offizin, 2006, ISBN 3-907496-43-4. Nayo Bruce. Geschichte einer afrikanischen Familie in Europa. Zurich, Chronos, 2007, ISBN 978-3-0340-0868-6. Ammanns Vermächtnis. Aus dem Leben des Toggenburger Instrumentenmachers Ulrich Ammann, 1766–1842. Wattwil, Toggenburger, 2010, ISBN 978-3-908166-47-4. With Mario König: Huggenberger. Die Karriere eines Schriftstellers. Frauenfeld: Verlag des Historischen Vereins des Kantons Thurgau, 2012, ISBN 978-3-9522896-8-6. Theatre worksAmmanns Vermächtnis. UA: Alt St. Johann, 2002 Herr Stauss malt an einem Bild und unser Haus ist auch drauf. UA: Lichtensteig, 2009Film, TVEmil Zbinden Johannes Seluner, Fernsehen DRS, 1994 Literature by and about Rea Brändle in the German National Library catalogue "Brändle Rea". Schweizer Schriftstellerinnen und Schriftsteller der Gegenwart. Autorinnen und Autoren der Schweiz
The 1999 season was Molde's 24th season in the top flight of Norwegian football. This season Molde competed in the Norwegian Cup and the UEFA Champions League. In Tippeligaen, Molde finished 6 points behind winners Rosenborg. Molde participated in the 2000 Norwegian Cup, they defeated Spjelkavik, Strindheim, Kjelsås on their way to the quarterfinal where they defeated Lillestrøm with 3–0 at home. On 3 October 2000, Molde lost the semifinal vs. Brann at home with the score 3–4 after extra time. In the UEFA Champions League, Molde was drawn against Russian team CSKA Moscow in the second qualifying round. Molde lost the first leg at away ground with the score 0–2. Molde advanced to the next round 4 -- 2 on aggregate. In the third and last qualifying round, Molde was drawn against Spanish team Mallorca; the teams played 0–0 in the first leg in Molde. In the second leg, Molde was one goal behind for more than one hour after Jovan Stanković' penalty goal in the 21st minute. In the 84th minute, Andreas Lund scored the equaliser from a penalty kick after Fernando Niño's handball.
Niño was sent off in the situation. The game ended with a 1–1 draw which sent Molde through to the Champions League group stage for the first time in the club's history; the second leg against Mallorca has since been referred to as Miracle on Mallorca. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality; as of end of season. The statistics include. Molde FK seasons nifs.no
The Next Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly election, will be held to elect members to the Legislative Assembly of Jammu and Kashmir. Following the previous assembly election held in December 2014, a coalition government was formed between the JKPDP and the BJP; this government collapsed in June 2018 resulting in the imposition of Governor's rule and the subsequent dissolution of the Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly in November 2018. In August 2019, the parliament of India passed the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganization Act, 2019, which contained provisions to reorganize erstwhile state of Jammu and Kashmir into two union territories and Kashmir and Ladakh, on 31 October 2019; the new union territory of Jammu and Kashmir will elect a Legislative Assembly following the implementation of new constituency boundaries. The new assembly will have between 107 to 114 members, with 24 seats being left vacant for representatives from areas administered by Pakistan, the actual number of members elected will be between 83 and 90.
In November 2019, Lieutenant Governor of Jammu and Kashmir G. C. Murmu stated that the process of electing a new assembly will begin soon and that the current situation of Lieutenant Governor's rule will not continue for much longer. Elections in Jammu and Kashmir Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly Website of the Election Commission of India
Rougham Airfield Royal Air Force Station Bury St Edmunds or more RAF Bury St Edmunds is a former Royal Air Force station located 3 miles east of Bury St Edmunds, England. It is not to be confused with the RAF grass strip on the western side of Bury St Edmunds known as RAF Westley, an area now part of the town itself; the airfield, now in private ownership and much reduced in size, is still active and is known as Rougham Airfield. The airfield was and is now again known as Rougham as it is located north of that village between the A14 and the main railway line between Bury St Edmunds and Ipswich, it was built during 1942 with three intersecting concrete runways. The main runway of 2,000 yards was aligned E–W, it saw extensive use during the Second World War. With the end of military control, Bury St Edmunds airfield's concreted areas were broken up with most of the site being returned to agriculture; the old technical site has been developed into the Rougham Industrial Estate. The T2 hangars are still for storage.
The control tower, used for many years as a private dwelling, has now been restored and is used as a museum. The airfield, once again known as Rougham, now has two grass runways available for civil use. Gliding and model aircraft flying are frequent and several open-air events are organised each year. Skyward Flight Training now operate from Rougham Airfield List of former Royal Air Force stations This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/. Freeman, R. Airfields of the Eighth - Now. After the Battle. London, UK: Battle of Britain International Ltd. 2001. ISBN 0-9009-13-09-6. Maurer, M. Air Force Combat Units Of World War II. USAF Historical Division. Washington D. C. USA: Zenger Publishing Co. Inc, 1980. ISBN 0-89201-092-4. Www.controltowers.co.uk Bury St Edmunds mighty8thaf.preller.us Bury St. Edmunds USAAS-USAAC-USAAF-USAF Aircraft Serial Numbers--1908 to present 94th Bomb Group website 322d Bomb Group website Rougham Tower Association Rougham Airfield Underground Battle HQ photos First person accounts of 4 crewman's bailout from 94BG, 333BS B-17 "Pride of the Yanks" photos